03-2017

Number 3 / 2017

To download all number in format PDF (in Russian)The further text is accessible on a paid subscription.
For authorisation enter the login/password.
Or subscribe

Number maintenance (pdf) (doc)

Number abstract (doc)

Literature lists to articles (doc)


 

№3|2017

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

bbk 000000

UDC 628.11(470.6)

Mikheeva I. V.

Water bodies and state of the water supply within the territory of the Southern Federal District

Summary

Drinking water has been an essential factor of the formation of public health and life quality. The problem of maintaining water qua­lity as a factor producing a significant effect not only on the infectious case rate but also on the sick rate of the population is one of the priority tasks of the activities of the state sanitary and epidemiological service. The data on the water supply sources and state of the public water supply within the territory of the Southern Federal District is presented. Virtually all the water sources, both surface and underground, in all the substituent territories of the Southern Federal District are subject to the anthropogenic and technogenic impact of different intensity. The causes of the water quality deterioration in the surface water bodies are considered. The main cause of the pollution is discharging big amounts of raw or partially treated wastewater, storm water, drainage water from the irrigation systems into the water bodies. Unsatisfactory performance of the wastewater treatment facilities alongside with the delayed construction of the wastewater collection systems, lack of the effluent disinfection result in the pollution of the underground waters and rivers as well as in flooding the communities with underground water. The suggestions on certain measures to be taken to improve the state of the water supply and wastewater disposal of the communities of the Southern Federal District and provide for the epidemiological welfare of the population are presented.

Key words

, , , , ,

 

№3|2017

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

bbk 000000

UDC 628.17.001.4

Alekseeva L. P., Alekseev S. E., Korsa-Vavilova E. V., Shmelev A. Ia.

The use of ozone in surface water purification for public water supply of small communities

Summary

Two options of using ozone in purification of water from surface water supply sources with excess concentrations of organics in block-modular plants of small capacity are considered. Ozone effecting the changes in the basic water quality parameters is shown. The use of ozone in surface water purification extends the potential of the technologic process control under frequent seasonal fluctuations of the raw water quality, improves the quality of water after purification which is most important in the operation of small capacity plants. Besides, ozonation provides for reducing significantly the dosages of chemicals (coagulant and flocculant), and in some cases (during certain seasons) eliminating completely their use. The process studies carried out in a block-modular plant manufactured by «Moskosvskie Ozonatory» Company showed that the ozonation of the Volga River water for public water supply can be carried out using two process schemes: ozonation and sorption in carbon filters; or coagulation, ozonation and sorption. The parameters and conditions of using the ozonation, coagulation and sorption methods were specified; their efficiency at the minimum required chemical dosages was determined. It was stated that the use of ozone in block-modular plants for surface water purification provided for improving significantly the quality of drinking water regardless of the seasonal fluctuations in raw water quality; improving the integrity of the water supply system by all the parameters including microbiological ones. The effect of certain structural and technological solutions at the facilities on the water purification efficiency was noted.

Key words

, , , , ,

 

№3|2017

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

bbk 000000

UDC 628.164/.167

FESENKO L. N., Ignatenko S. I., Pchel'nikov I. V., Fedotov R. V., Tcherkesov A. Yu.

Technological and design solutions of upgrading the Don River water treatment facilities (the case of water treatment facilities of Khapry farm,  Miasnikovskii district, Rostov Region)

Summary

The Don River water is used as a source of the public water supply of Rostov-on-Don, Taganrog, Novocherkassk and other cities. From January till April (during the winter freeze-up) the river water is characterized by increased total hardness (up to 10–12°) as well as by the presence of blue-green and diatom algae in concentrations reaching 100·106 c/l water in summer periods. Mechanical sieve filtration is an advanced technique of microalgae removal. Filters are installed as a rule at the very beginning of the technological process and are designed for removing coarse suspended particles, phyto- and zooplankton. Advanced microfilters are characterized by simple design, high output, compact size and low consumption of wash water; their ope­ration is automated. In view of the high cost of ion exchange and membrane technologies and accompanying generation of considerable amounts of secondary difficult to utilize highly mineralized waste solutions the technology of hardness reduction by caustic soda softening was suggested. The expediency and efficiency of applying this method were experimentally confirmed. In case of the water treatment facilities of Khapry farm in the Rostov Region with the water intake in the lower reach of the Don River the process flow scheme of upgrading the water treatment plant providing for the water quality meeting the Sanitary Rules and Regulations 2.1.4.1074-01 was substantiated and developed. The use of this technology eliminates ge­neration of liquid wastes subject to the discharge into the public sewer, natural water bodies or land disposal.

Key words

, , , , ,

 

№3|2017

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

bbk 000000

UDC 550.424:574

Boldyrev K. A., Utkin S. S., Kazakov S. V.

Specificities of predicting metal distribution between aqueous phase  and bottom sediments  (by the example of strontium and cesium radionuclides)

Summary

The basic provisions of the developed methodological approach to predicting the coefficient of Kd radionuclide distribution on the material of bottom sediments and suspended substances in water bodies are presented. As a tool for predicting Kd coefficient of me­tals under the conditions of the changing chemical composition of water the use of geochemical modelling was suggested. The basic approaches, models and results of predicting the values of Kd coefficient of metals in a reference water body (a surface water reservoir – radioactive waste storage) characterized by high pollution with 90Sr strontium and 137Cs radionuclides as well as by the intensive decrease of water mineralization are laid out. During the research the specific features of hydrochemical and hydrodynamic behavior of metals in the water body system as well as the methods of geochemical modeling were studied in detail. The geochemical thermodynamic model of metal sorption (by the example of 90Sr and 137Сs) by the suspended matter and bottom sediment layer in the model water reservoir was developed that could be considered as a basis for modeling different scenarios of the evolution of real polluted water reservoirs. The values of Kd coefficient for 90Sr and 137Сs at decreasing water mineralization were calculated. It was determined that Kd value is increasing while water mineralization is decreasing. The model can be used for predicting the rate of metal elimination from polluted water bodies in the process of self-purification.

Key words

, , , , ,

 

№3|2017

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

bbk 000000

UDC 628.35:316.12

Kofman V. Ya.

Extraction of nitrogen and phosphorus in the form of struvite  from wastewater with high nutrients concentration

Summary

The world reserves of phosphate ore total about 7000 mln tons among them 40 mln tons are used annually in fertilizer production. It is estimated that this resource will be depleted by 2090. In this connection exploring alternative renewable phosphorus sources is a critical task; therefore much attention is paid to developing economical and technically available methods of phosphorus extraction together with nitrogen from different wastewater types; one of the methods being nutrients precipitation  in the form of struvite (MgNH4PO4·6H2O). Studies of struvite production from wastewater and its use as a fertilizer have been carried out in many countries of the world. Process schemes of struvite extraction from municipal wastewater, steel making and tanning wastes, coking process effluents, solid waste landfill filtrate, livestock and dairy farm wastewater as well as from black wastewater in the process of its decentra­lized processing have been developed. Studying the use of struvite as a fertilizer has been carried out almost 20 years already. Generally the prospects of investing in the production of this product for the agricultural sector are not disputed. The practice of production and supply of struvite as a fertilizer has been fairly developed in Japan. The application of struvite does not result in the increase of heavy metal concentration in farm crops. Fast dissolving fertilizers are not efficient when used on pastures or in forests where fertilization is practiced every few years. In this context the use of slowly dissolving fertilizers including struvite is more reasonable.

Key words

, , , , ,

 

№3|2017

BEST AVAILABLE TECHNIQUES

bbk 000000

UDC 628.3:504.06

DANILOVICH D. A., Skobelev D. O., Shchelchkov K. A.

Determination of technological indicators of municipal wastewater treatment quality corresponding to the use of the best available techniques

Summary

In 2015 «Wastewater treatment in public wastewater disposal systems of communities, urban districts» information and technical gui­dance was compiled (ITG 10-2105). The document has been developed for the first time in Russia and has no parallels in European Union. One of the main problems in compiling ITG 10-2105 was developing the methodology of determining the technological indicators of the best available techniques. The analysis of this methodology was carried out in comparison with the existing in EC perspective approaches to the determination of the technological indicators including: projects selection and split up into groups; acquisition of data on the emissions into the atmosphere; selection of pollutants; analysis of the available information on discharges; differentiated determination of the emission level in relation to the best available techniques. The technological indicators of pollutants removed in the traditional biological treatment processes (suspended solids, BOD5, COD) were determined in the process of analyzing the data obtained by questioning the branch projects. Determination of the technological indicators for nitrogen and phosphorus compounds is based greatly on the expert assessment due to the small number of projects using BAT and due to the differences in the technologies applied. Generally the method for determining the technological indicators of BAT to the full extent corresponded to the practices currently used for this purpose in EC. In future during the preparation for ITG 10-2015 revision it is recommended to carry out monitoring and technological audit of BAT reference-projects as well as of the perspective technologies.

Key words

, , , ,

 

№3|2017

ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES AND EQUIPMENT

bbk 000000

UDC 543.6:628.316

Belov S. G., Naumchik G. O.

Development of an instrumental method of determining the color intensity of textile wastewater

Summary

A new instrumental method of determining the color intensity of textile wastewater with the use of a scanning spectrophotometer that accounts for the specificity of human vision has been developed. This ensures the conformability with the traditional method of determining color intensity by dilution rate (the determinations do not differ much). However, to carry out the analysis collecting spectral data on the colored sample and processing it with the help of specially developed «Coloration-monitoring» software will be enough. The detailed procedure of the analysis is presented. Compared to the traditional method the developed method provides for reducing significantly the analysis time; no bright lighting or special cylinders made of flint glass is required; the consumption of distilled water is also reduced. The key advantage of the method is the complete elimination of judgmental factor in determining this parameter. The method is characterized by high reproducibility that will improve the validity of the color intensity determinations. The method of determining color intensity based on the absorbance spectrum parameters can be used by the enterprises that monitor the given indicator (water and wastewater services providers, committees for natural resources and environmental protection, industrial enterprises, environmental organizations etc.).

Key words

, , , , ,

 

№3|2017

INVESTMENT PROJECTS

bbk 000000

UDC 628.1/.3:338.2

NEFEDOVA E. D., Hyamyalyainen M. M., Kovzharovskaia I. B.

The experience of evaluating the efficiency of the actions  of the investment program of a water supply  and wastewater disposal enterprise

Summary

The communal infrastructure of the water supply and wastewater disposal in Russia needs renovation. The need in reconstruction and upgrade of the public water supply and wastewater disposal systems increases year by year. In this context any enterprise in compiling targeted lists of development program actions faces the problems of substantiating and evaluating the efficiency of the actions, prioritizing their implementation. The approaches determined in the branch regulatory legal acts do not provide for evaluating adequately the efficiency of construction, renovation and upgrade of the public water and wastewater facilities and substantiating the need in them. Taking into account the specificity of the enterprise and the experience gained SUE «Vodokanal of St. Petersburg» developed an additional tool for evaluating the efficiency and substantiating the actions; prepared and put in force the guidance documents. The suggested tool includes the evaluation of the economic efficiency of an action, its contribution to the achievement of the planned re­liability, quality and energy efficiency as well as of the implementation risk. The tool has been approbated in the process of developing the investment program of SUE «Vodokanal of St. Petersburg».

Key words

, , , ,

 

vstmag engfree 200x100 2

mvkniipr ru

Российская ассоциация водоснабжения и водоотведения

Конференция итог

ecw20 200 300

VAK2