12-2013

Номер 12 / 2013

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Index of the Articles (doc, pdf), Published in the Water Supply and Sanitary Technique Magazine in 2013.


 

№12|2013

LAWS, STANDARDS, NORMATIVES

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UDC 626.81:34(470+571)(094.4).002.2

ALEKSEEV V. S.

Amendments to the Water Code of the Russian Federation

Summary

The analysis of the amendments to the Water Code of the Russian Federation made with FZ-282 Federal Law is presen­ted. The amendments were adopted with the purpose of overcoming the crisis of the water protection zones; the amendments allow economic activity as well as the existence of horticultural, gardening and holiday villages on the territories of the water protection zones provided treatment facilities are available. To prevent from the negative impact on the water bodies the Federal Law prohi­bits building new settlements and capital projects without special protection measures. In flooded and impounded zones the regime of water protection zones is reproduced. The situations are discussed that can arise in the process of implementing the mentioned amendments in case of horticultural, gardening and holiday villages on the territories of the water protection zones obtaining legal status. It is related to connecting buildings to the sewers and conveying wastewater to the public or local treatment facilities as well as to the impossibility of constructing raw wastewater storage tanks made of water-proof materials. The amendments to the RF Water Code do not specify the concept of territory impounding which makes this statutory provision uncertain. Broad interpretation of the term «wastewater» including infiltration water can result in unpredictable effects since more than half of the existing domestic water intakes used for potable water supply are referred to infiltration ones; most of them lack any treatment facilities.

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№12|2013

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.1.033

Demin A. P.

Changes in the Russian domestic water supply in XXI century

Summary

The data on the provision of the public water services to the housing facilities of the constituent territories of the Russian Federation, on the share of leakages and unaccounted-for-losses in the total water amount supplied to the distribution networks (2001–2011) is presented. Regions with low access of the population to the public water supply and high levels of leakages are identified, e. g. the South and North Caucasian federal districts (around 35%). It is shown that depreciation of the water distribution network (50–70%) results in the increase of water leakages. It was found that underground water use decreased in all the Russian federal districts and now amounts in average to 45% of the total water supply; whereas the share of underground water in the domestic water supply balance stands approximately at the same level. The data on the dynamics of the water pass through pretreatment facilities is presented. The reasons of the significant reduction of specific domestic water consumption throughout the federal districts and regions of Russia for 11 years of the XXI century are stated. The improvement of the domestic water supply sources in most federal regions is noted. The information on the number of polluted underground water areas is presented. The fundamental RF laws and regulations in the field of water and wastewater management passed lately are cited. High priority measures to supply good quality drinking water to the Russian population are suggested, i. e.: developing standardization in the field of water conservation; ensuring the balance between affordability of high quality public services for customers and adequate financing.

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№12|2013

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC628.1.033:543.926

Bushin N. IU., Rybentsova I. A., Margolina I. M.

Enhancement of the technical approach to defining water odor

Summary

The results of investigating the selection and evaluation of odor simulators to be used in «Mosvodokanal» OJSC laboratory practice of water odor determining by organoleptic method are presented. Demineralized water that did not pass activated carbon treatment was chosen as «odorless water». Odor simulators were selected from the results of literature review and on the basis of GOST R ISO 5496-2005 recommendations. The following substances were used: sodium hypochlorite (chlorine flavor), fish oil (fishy odor), AI gasoline (oil product odor), sodium sulfide (hydrosulfuric odor), 2-ehtyl fenehyl alcohol (earthy smell), scatol (manure odor). For the chosen simulators the concentrations of the stock solutions corresponding to 2–3 points odor strength at 20 and 60 °С were experimentally selected. Satisfactory results of the dilution method used in the international analytical practice were received. Dilution ratio and threshold strength of the chosen simulators were determined. The use of simulators for organoleptic analysis provides for getting comparable results and defining odor tonality in actual water samples to a high precision. Dilution method allows determining odor stability as well as masked and transformable odors of drinking water. Possible use of odor simulators both in direct and dilution methods during personnel training as well as in the process of testing organoleptic capabilities of individual researchers was proved. Organoleptic analysis is a topical, widely-spread and available method of odor determination. Further development of this trend is an important aspect of laboratory activities related to improving the validity of the test results.

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№12|2013

ВОДОКАНАЛЫ РОССИИ

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Реконструкция Курьяновских очистных сооружений в Москве

Аннотация

Во время рабочей поездки на Курьяновские очистные сооружения мэр Москвы С. С. Собянин ознакомился с ходом строительных работ, которые развернуты здесь в связи с масштабной реконструкцией.


 

№12|2013

ВОДОКАНАЛЫ РОССИИ

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УДК 628.17.001.4

Ввод в эксплуатацию блока ультрафиолетового обеззараживания сточных вод на Ростовской станции аэрации

Аннотация

Министр природных ресурсов и экологии Российской Федерации С. Е. Донской в рамках визита на объекты ОАО «ПО Водоканал» г. Ростова-на-Дону 22 ноября участвовал в пуске в эксплуатацию блока ультрафиолетового обеззараживания сточных вод на Ростовской станции аэрации


 

№12|2013

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.34:66.081

Maiboroda A. B., Katraeva I. V., Kolpakov M. V.

Effluent polishing with the use of ultrafiltration

Summary

The results of investigating the removal of phosphate ions and suspended solids that enhance eutrophication of water bodies from biologically treated domestic wastewater after secondary settling tank are presented. Experimental studies of effluent polishing with the use of ultrafiltration technology in combination with coagulation were carried in the laboratory of the Nizhny Novgorod State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering. The aluminium hydroxychloride dosage of 20 mg/l as Al2O3 was used as a coagulant. Hollow-fiber module manufactured by Fazerkraft Russian Company with polyvinylidenefluoride was used for tangential ultrafiltration in cycle mode. The membrane module is a device with a cylindrical shell with a bunch of hollow fibers inside with porous walls. The impact of transmembrane pressure on the filtration process was investigated. It was found that the specific flow rate of permeate increases with the increase of transmembrane pressure within the range of 0.05–0.2 bar. The tests showed that 20-fold increasing the concentration of the suspension subject to treatment does not result in any significant decrease of permeate production of the membrane module. Increasing recycling rate (of tangential flow) results in the increase of permeate flow; however, on account of technical and economic aspects, the range of low recycle flow values is of most interest. The results of the studies showed that the suggested ultrafiltration technology provided for almost complete elimination of suspended solids (more than 93% treatment efficiency), 97% reduction of phosphates in wastewater, and reduction to 0.04 mg/l aluminium concentration in permeate.

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№12|2013

WASTEWATER SLUDGE TREATMENT

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UDC 628.336.31.004.69

Karmazinov F. V., Grebenskaia T. M., PANKOVA G. A., Mikhailov D. M., Lominoga O. A., Il'in Iu. A., IGNATCHIK V. S., Ignatchik S. Iu.

Upgrade of the sludge treatment facilities of the Petrodvorets wastewater treatment plant

Summary

The results of upgrading the Petrodvorets wastewater treatment plant, and the sludge treatment facilities, in particular, are presented. The upgrade provided for the following effluent parameters, mg/l: suspended solids < 5.2; BOD5 3.7; total nitrogen 5.5; total phosphorus < 0.5. The process flow scheme includes separate sludge thickening, dewatering in centrifuges, and transportation by spiral conveyor to special storage hopper with unloading devices. The system of pum­ping sludge out of primary settling tanks was left unchanged with the use of NN-50/25 pumps. Separately thickened raw primary sludge and excess activated sludge from secondary settling tanks are conveyed to the mixing chamber. Separately thickened sludges enter the sludge tank of the sludge treatment system. From pilot experiments Flottweg Z4E-4/454 centrifuges were selected for sludge dewatering. Improving cake dryness is provided by special design of the Z4E-4/454 centrifuge bowl and by maintaining high torque generated by the scroll. Dewatered sludge is transported to the storage tank by spiral conveyors. An outfeed assembly includes two storage hoppers equipped with outfeed bottom plates that have outfeed openings with overlapping devices installed on them, and horizontal scrolls with drives for transporting dewatered sludge into the outfeed openings. It was found that the upgrade of the sludge treatment facilities provided
for 72.5–75.2% sludge moisture at 99.7% dry solids capture rate. High level of dewatering process automation allows minimizing manual labor, cake loading into trucks for transportation to wastewater sludge incineration facilities of St. Petersburg for utilization.

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№12|2013

ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES AND EQUIPMENT

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UDC 628.16.066.1

Balaev I. S., Kuchma G. G., Mel'nikov I. A., Repkin M. V., Khanlarov G. V.

The experience of introducing dynamic clarifiers in natural and wastewater treatment

Summary

The experience of introducing the technology of purifying natural and wastewater to the regulated quality parameters in dynamic clarifiers and dual-media mechanical filters is presented. The technology and related equipment have been developed by the experts of CJSC NPE «United Water Technologies» (Moscow). Dynamic clarifier is the result of upgrading
traditional filters with floating filter media and contact clarifiers. Upgrading included improving upper and bottom drai­nage distribution devices, and using granulated floating inert filter media (3–5 mm grain size, density 0.8–0.9 g/cm3) based on polymer materials (polyethylene, polypropylene etc) which was characterized by high mechanical strength and, respectively, by long lifetime. The process flow scheme of the Novokuznetsk aluminium smelter (RUSAL Company) wastewater treatment is considered. Industrial effluent of the plant is recycling and used in cooling the basic process equipment as well in manufacturing products and chemicals. In order to further promote the technology of dynamic clarification the dynamic clarification filter was patented. It is a dual-chamber apparatus consisting of an upper primary treatment chamber and a bottom fine treatment chamber. The principle of operation is in preliminary dosing coagulant and flocculant into incoming water and upward water flow filtering through the primary treatment chamber with INERT® floating inter filter media (3–5 mm grain size), and further filtering through the fine treatment chamber with coarse-grained hydro-anthracite (1.2–2.5 mm grain size) (upper layer) and fine grained (0.6–1.2 mm) quartz sand (bottom layer). The first results of introducing dynamic water clarification prove that it is more efficient and cost-effective compared to the traditional technologies of natural and wastewater treatment.

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№12|2013

ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES AND EQUIPMENT

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UDC 628.32.004.1

Boichenko A. A., Gokov I. N., Miasoedov A. IU., Syrnikov E. V.

Local treatment facilities of the Belgorod Abrasive Plant OJSC

Summary

In the process of developing local treatment facilities at the Belgorod Abrasive Plant the experts of EkoTON Company used integrated multi-factor approach with exploratory design and adjustment of the facilities to provide for assured efficient wastewater treatment. Carrying our exploratory experimental design was motivated by developing an optimal process flow scheme of the local treatment facilities with account of the set of interrelated factors that determine both process and economic efficiency of their operation. As a result of the survey a process flow scheme was suggested that ensured meeting the standard effluent quality for discharge into the public sewer. The process flow scheme of the Belgorog abrasive plant wastewater treatment is described in details; the expediency of using EKOTON advanced equipment – flotation unit and MDQ screw dehydrator is proved. On the basis of experimental data on raw wastewater and effluent quality the efficiency of treatment was calculated and the parameters required to choose the optimal operation mode of the local treatment facilities were determined. The measurement results showed that the wastewater treatment efficiency has been permanent for the entire period of observing the initial pollution concentrations. This fact gives evidence of the correct choice of the process flow scheme with account of the operating schedule of the plant, pollution form etc. The high efficiency (to 98.2%) of reducing the concentration of grease, oils and oil products proves the optimal chemical dosages and efficient wastewater treatment in the flotation unit. The flocculant consumption is less than 25 kg per month as dry matter at the wastewater flow rate to 6200 m3 per month.

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