№11|2013

НОВЫЕ ТЕХНОЛОГИИ И ОБОРУДОВАНИЕ

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УДК 628.16.094.3

Кофман В. Я.

Новые окислительные технологии очистки воды и сточных вод (часть 2)1
(обзор зарубежных изданий)

Аннотация

Новые окислительные технологии применяются для очистки воды и сточных вод, содержащих вещества, токсичные для микроорганизмов и не поддающиеся биодеградации. Ультразвуковая обработка обеспечивает хорошие результаты, но требует дорогостоящего оборудования и высоких энергозатрат. Ее эффективность может быть повышена использованием катализаторов (диоксида титана) и химических добавок; применяется в качестве предварительного процесса перед биологической очисткой. Мокрое окисление рассматривается как перспективный метод переработки фосфорсодержащих осадков сточных вод. Процесс проводят с использованием кислорода при 160–220 °С и давлении 12–28 бар с добавлением серной кислоты (рН 1,5). Технология окисления в суперкритической воде основана на взаимодействии органических загрязняющих веществ с окислителями в гомогенной суперкритической среде. Процесс проводят при температуре 400–650 °С и давлении 220–350 бар. Проведены опыты по инактивации бактерий Escherichia coli в речной воде с использованием импульсного коронного разряда (степень инактивации 99,8%). Технология плазменной очистки воды пока прошла лишь лабораторные испытания. Перспективным методом очистки воды является использование ферратов (VI) щелочных металлов, позволяющих удалять взвешенные вещества, фосфаты, снижать ХПК и БПК. Электрохимические процессы характеризуются гибкостью применения, безопасностью, селективностью и более высокой рентабельностью, позволяют удалять из сточных вод аммоний и нитраты. В результате применения комбинированных схем могут быть значительно снижены эксплуатационные расходы при высокой эффективности очистки воды в сравнении с индивидуальным использованием новых окислительных технологий. Полагают, что по мере развития научно-исследовательских и конструкторских работ в данной области число промышленных установок, использующих комбинированные схемы очистки сточных вод, будет расти.

(1Часть 1 статьи см.: Водоснабжение и санитарная техника. 2013. № 10. С. 68–78.)

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