Tag:water supply

№1|2012

WATER DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS AND WASTEWATER COLLECTORS

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UDC 628.147.2:65.012.2

Khramenkov S. V., Orlov V. А., Primin O. G.

Computerized support of the Moscow water pipeline renovation scheduling strategy

Summary

Comprehensive evaluation of the expediency criteria of pipeline relaying or renovating involves a lot of calculations, large bulk of operating and diagnostic data processing. It becomes possible only if computer-aided programs are available that provide for a basis for a valid assessment of the pipeline renovation project and scope of work. Scheduling Pipe Renovation program has been designed by MosvodokanalNIIproject OJSC in cooperation with Mosvodokanal MPUE and used for Moscow water pipeline maintenance.

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№11|2016

ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES AND EQUIPMENT

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UDC 628.166.085

Kostyuchenko S. V., SMIRNOV A. D., Pokhil Yu. N., Bagaev Yu. G.

Introduction of UV-disinfection at the Novosibirsk wastewater treatment facilities

Summary

Water recycling in the modern municipal services is a comprehensive task. On one hand the city inhabitants should be supplied with high-quality drinking water meeting all the sanitary and hygienic requirements; on the other hand the discharged municipal effluents shall not produce any adverse effect on the environment. To fulfil these tasks the most advanced disinfection technologies that ensured meeting all the microbiological requirements to the drinking water and effluents were introduced at the Novosibirsk water and wastewater treatment facilities. The use of ultraviolet irradiation provided for the efficient multi-barrier protection in drinking water purification and environmentally safe disinfection of wastewater.

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№6|2018

PROBLEMS, PERSPECTIVES

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UDC 628.5:504.06

NEFEDOVA E. D., Hyamyalyainen M. M., Malikova E. V., Rusanova E. V.

External benchmarking at water and wastewater utilities

Summary

Benchmarking has been a world recognized tool for system improvement at an enterprise and finds ever wider application in Russia
including water and wastewater utilities. SUE «Vodokanal of St. Petersburg» has been carrying out external benchmarking at both national and international levels for more than a decade. The operating rate of a company is analyzed and compared with operating rates of other enterprises of the branch; herewith advanced technologies and efficient technical solutions are introduced. The experts of SUE «Vodokanal of St. Petersburg» have developed a benchmarking concept that takes into consideration the international experience of its use. The concept determines benchmarking types, its basic stages, ways of conducting, and information resource for data exchange within the enterprise. The approaches that provide for the overall estimation of the benchmarking object with the use of cause-consequences diagrams and operating rate complex are shaped. The long-term experience and system approach to the benchmarking execution allow SUE «Vodokanal of St. Petersburg» to carry out the comparison of the operating rates at the national and international levels. Participation in the annual international program of benchmarking of the water utilities «International benchmarking in the area of providing water and wastewater services» gives an opportunity to get an assessment of the independent experts in relation to the choice of directions of the operation improvement.

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№3|2017

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.11(470.6)

Mikheeva I. V.

Water bodies and state of the water supply within the territory of the Southern Federal District

Summary

Drinking water has been an essential factor of the formation of public health and life quality. The problem of maintaining water qua­lity as a factor producing a significant effect not only on the infectious case rate but also on the sick rate of the population is one of the priority tasks of the activities of the state sanitary and epidemiological service. The data on the water supply sources and state of the public water supply within the territory of the Southern Federal District is presented. Virtually all the water sources, both surface and underground, in all the substituent territories of the Southern Federal District are subject to the anthropogenic and technogenic impact of different intensity. The causes of the water quality deterioration in the surface water bodies are considered. The main cause of the pollution is discharging big amounts of raw or partially treated wastewater, storm water, drainage water from the irrigation systems into the water bodies. Unsatisfactory performance of the wastewater treatment facilities alongside with the delayed construction of the wastewater collection systems, lack of the effluent disinfection result in the pollution of the underground waters and rivers as well as in flooding the communities with underground water. The suggestions on certain measures to be taken to improve the state of the water supply and wastewater disposal of the communities of the Southern Federal District and provide for the epidemiological welfare of the population are presented.

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№11|2018

WATER INDUSTRY

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UDC 628.11(470.6)

Mikheeva I. V.

Water projects, water supply and wastewater disposal conditions in the communities of the Southern Federal District

Summary

Drinking water quality maintenance has been one of the priority tasks of the national sanitary and epidemiologic service activities. The population practically in all the territorial entities of the Southern Federal District suffers from the scarcity of pathogen-free drinking water because of the undercapacity of the waterworks, unsatisfactory sanitary condition of the drinking water transportation systems, inefficient use of drinking water for watering garden plots in summer, lack of the good quality water supply sources. The root cause of water sources pollution is the discharge of poorly treated effluents and raw wastewater, storm water, drainage water from irrigation systems into the water bodies. The source of sea water pollution is raw wastewater and poorly treated effluents discharged by inefficient wastewater treatment facilities. Most wastewater treatment facilities, sewers of different projects and communities on the territory of the Southern Federal District need rehabilitation, capital repair and upgrade. Drinking water quality depends on the condition and quality of the water source, water treatment technology and condition of the distribution networks that predetermines the need of water use optimization. The proposals on improving the condition of water supply and wastewater disposal and ensuring the epidemiological welfare of the population of the communities of the Southern Federal District are presented.

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№1|2010

HISTORY OF THE SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

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UDC 621.649

Sukiasyan M. S., Volshanik V. V., Salov F. V.

Water-Lifting Mechanisms of the Vodovzvodnaya Tower in Kolomenskoye

Summary

It is told about investigations conducted by specialists in the course of studying of the water-lifting mechanism of the Vodovzvodnaya Tower in Kolomenskoye.

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№6|2019

ABROAD

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UDC 628.1/.2 (98)

Kofman V. Ya.

Water supply and wastewater disposal in the Arctic region:
Greenland, Canada, USA (a review)

Summary

The specific features of the water supply and sanitation infrastructure in the Arctic Region are determined by the extreme dramatically changing climatic conditions, scattering throughout the vast territory of separate communities; the lack, with a few exceptions, of road communication between settlements; differences in the views of traditional and modern culture on the role of water supply and sanitation systems. The transport infrastructure involves the prevailing use of ships, aircraft and helicopters. In light of this almost all communities have autonomous systems of power supply, water supply and sanitation. Public water supply is provided only in some of the largest cities; in most cases, the water transported in tanks is stored by residents in tanks or independently delivered from water distribution points. Wastewater is either discharged untreated or passes passive purification under natural conditions organized in stabilization ponds and/or in marshy areas where self-purfication takes place due to sedimentation, biodegradation and inactivation of microorganisms under the impact of sunlight. After passive treatment the effluent is discharged into estuaries or the sea. In households of small settlements bio toilets with removable plastic bags are widely used. These bags are collected, transported and emptied at sea by municipal services, outsourcing companies or individual collectors. Recently local wastewater treatment and reuse systems have become common; monitoring of anthropogenic pollution of the natural aquatic environment is becoming regular.

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№9|2014

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.166.094.3(477.75)

Gutenev V. V., Denisov V. V., Skryabin A. Yu., FESENKO L. N.

Water supply of the Crimea: advanced water disinfection technologies based on the local resources

Summary

Supplying population with high quality drinking water and efficient industrial and domestic wastewater treatment have been global challenges aggravating against the growing scarcity of available fresh water. These problems together with the impact on the human health and economy have also been urgent for many territorial entities of the Russian Federation including the new one – Republic of Crimea. The main problems in water supply of the present-day Crimea have been caused by the deficiency of drinking water, low sanitary reliability of the water treatment systems, lack of sufficient amount of disinfecting units in the agricultural areas, unsatisfactory sanitary and engineering condition of the water distribution networks. All that is worsening the epidemiologic situation at the health resorts of the peninsula, particularly during the high season. The unsatisfactory and even critical condition of the Crimean municipal and communal water supply infrastructure makes it difficult to provide adequate quality water (and wastewater) services to the population. The options of applying water treatment technologies with the use of different concentrations of sodium hypochlorite with an account of the specific features of the South and Steppe Crimea are considered. The availability of sea water and brackish water sources on the peninsula plain, possible use of the «honeycomb» system of disinfectant distribution make introdu­cing the given technology on the large-scale environmentally safe and economically feasible.

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№1|2014

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

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UDC 628.5.504.06

Zacharias Berndt

Hamburg – St. Petersburg: cooperation in water sector

Summary

The information on the cooperation between municipal water utilities – Hamburg Wasser and State Unitary Enterprise «Vodokanal of St. Petersburg» is presented. St. Petersburg is an economic, research and cultural centre, major transport hub and big sea port of the North-Western region of Russia. The city produces a substantial impact on the environment and water quality of the Baltic Sea. Hamburg is the second big German city and one of the biggest European ports. Hamburg and St. Petersburg since long have been bound by trading relations that provided for establishing the first German-Russian commonwealth of twinned cities. At present this background forms the framework for the cooperation of Hamburg Wasser and Vodokanal of St. Petersburg, the companies that provide for drinking water supply, wastewater disposal and wastewater sludge utilization. In this respect mutual exchange of experience in the field of operation upgrade and optimization, improvement of operation and power efficiency of the public water supply and wastewater networks and facilities as well as in the field of improving the existing regulatory framework is of high value. The requirements to the protection of the water bodies are extremely high for both companies, therefore both in Hamburg and St. Petersburg large-scale wastewater collection systems are under construction. All the Hamburg Wasser water and wastewater treatment facilities are fully independent of external power supply. At present in Vodokanal of St. Petersburg energy optimization of the pumping stations and upgrade of the wastewater treatment facilities operation are carried out.

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№6|2010

PROBLEMS, PERSPECTIVES

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UDC 628.32:65.012.45

KASATKIN F. Yu., KOSTYLEV S. V.

Common Information Space of an Enterprise

Summary

The information infrastructure of the State Unitary Enterprise Vodokanal Sankt-Peterburga helping to ensure reliability, uninterrupted operation, high output, safety, and confidentiality is described.

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№9|2012

POTABLE WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.144:532.542

Yepifanov S. P., Zorkaltsev V. I.

The task of flow distribution with nonfixed junction points of consumption

Summary

A model of flow distribution in the water supply and distribution system with nonfixed junction points of consumption is considered. The model provides for more detailed characteristics of flow distribution both in normal conditions and emergency mode. The suggested junction point flow rate – water head ratios provide for the actual consumption amounts at the consumers’. The flow distribution algorithm in the form of nonlinear algebraic equation system is presented supported with the demonstration of differences in the results of calculating flow distribution with both fixed and nonfixed junction points of consumption.

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№5|2011

AT THE RUSSIAN ASSOCIATION OF WATER SUPPLY AND WASTEWATER DISPOSAL

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UDC 628.1/.2

Khramenkov S. V.

Problems of Development of the Water Industry for Providing the Population of Russia with Pure Water

Summary

The water industry is the most important factor in modernization of the economy and development of not only large but also small cities and settlements. The development of housing and communal complex, oriented on the provision of the guaranteed access of the population to potable water of high quality is considered as a task of national significance. The decision of problems of the water industry requires highly qualified staff. Investing in training them is the most important and well paid back part of investments. Russia can and should become one of the world leaders in the sphere of rational water use, application of innovative technologies in practice, the complete provision of the population with pure potable water. For this it is necessary to unite the efforts of the professional community, state and local authorities.

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№4|2017

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

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UDC 504.06

Skryabin A. Yu., Popovian G. V., Tron' I. A.

Study of the factors effecting the intensive growth of microalgae in the Don River

Summary

The factors enhancing the growth and evolution of the microalgae species composition in the Don River were studied. The effect of phosphorus on the phytoplankton growth rate was proved. The sources of nutrients incoming to the water bodies were analyzed. The factors of anthropogenic eutrophication of water bodies are presented: dyke construction facilitating the reduction of the river flow rate; decay of the vegetation on the lands immersed during the construction of water reservoirs and canals; intensive development of industrial production, agricultural activities, cattle breeding; increase of household and industrial use of synthetic detergents. The strategy of controlling water source bloom is proposed: bloom suppression during its development directly in the water body; the use of biological treatment methods (rehabilitation of the natural biocenosis by seeding certain microalgae species – different Chlorella strains and some species of herbivorous fish, e.g. silver carp; elimination of household and industrial use of phosphorus-containing detergents and their replacement with phosphate free detergents; strengthening of control of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer use in agriculture; construction and stepwise reconstruction or upgrade of wastewater treatment facilities that provide for enhanced removal of nitrogen and phosphorous compounds.

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№08|2015

AUTOMATED AND INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

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UDC 628.14.001.57

Butko A. V., Kur'ianov S. A., Shibaeva N. A.

The use of geographic information systems in the Rostov Vodokanal operations

Summary

The efficient operation of water supply systems in the cities is impossible without using advanced geographic information technologies. They provide for accumulating and organizing significant amounts of the daily incoming data that characterize the process and energy parameters of different equipment at the water and wastewater facilities – from water intakes to effluent outfalls. The information from 44 master control points, 80 water pumping stations of the first through fourth stages, potable and process water meters, meters of the effluent discharged into the surface water bodies is acquired in real-time mode. Processing this information, controlling and adjusting 45 pressure control valves and other work related to maintaining the set process flow pattern at the water and wastewater facilities located on the territory of more than 34,850 hectares require reliable assistants. These particular assistants, ZuluHydro and ZuluDrain home-made systems, are used by the engineers and technicians of «Rostovvodokanal» JSC in their routine work. The practical use of the processed information in the analytical and operational activities significantly reduces the time for making technologically correct decisions and provides for obtaining real benefits in the form of reduced energy costs and saving in material resources consumption.

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№6|2016

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.1:614.777

Lapshin A. P., Ignat'eva L. P.

Qualitative composition of drinking water at the purification and transportation stages

Summary

Poor sanitary and technical state of water distribution networks is the main reason of water quality deterioration in public water supply systems. During transportation drinking water often takes the properties that exclude the possibility of using it. At that not only corrosion processes inside the pipelines but also microorganism life activities produce negative impact. Slowdown of water flow results in the dissolved oxygen deficiency and startup of reduction processes by iron and manganese-reducing bacteria in consequences of which
metal ions deposited on the pipe walls are released into the drinking water and cause water quality deterioration. Disrepair state of the distribution pipelines and formation of biological film on the inner surface of the pipes not only produce impact on the organoleptic water properties, iron and manganese concentrations but also enhance heavy metal releasing into the drinking water during transportation. The evaluation of the technical state of the distribution network and results of the laboratory studies of the drinking water in the process of transportation revealed the low level of sanitary reliability of the public water supply in Tumen. The results of hygienic evaluation of the water distribution network showed that the municipal water distribution system is not sufficiently reliable from sanitary point of view and cannot ensure good quality of drinking water during transportation. The main cause of this problem is the influence of the dynamic factors and, as a result, pipe biofouling.

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№7|2013

WATER DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS

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UDC 628.144.23.001.23

Bezroukova M. R.

The technique of performing optimization calculations of the water supply and distribution system with two water sources

Summary

The strategy of managing the system of water supply and distribution with two water sources shall be selected on the basis of optimizing the daily water yield of the sources by periods of hourly irregularity of water consumption. The given approach will provide for the efficient use of the regulating tanks and increase the efficiency of pumping equipment. The technique of performing optimization calculations for the system of water supply and distribution with two sources developed on the basis of the results of investigations carried out earlier at NII VODGEO OJSC is presented.

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№08|2015

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 504.06

Skryabin A. Yu., Popovian G. V., Tron' I. A.

Microalgae as a factor affecting the organoleptic properties of the Don River water

Summary

Stringent hygienic requirements are set to the drinking water quality: epidemiologic, radiation and chemical safety, favorable organoleptic properties. The applicable regulatory documents control a number of parameters; however, other factors exist that affect the water safety and potability. In particular, among these are the amount and species composition of microalgae in water. Massive microphyte growth in surface water sources during water bloom raises serious difficulties in the process of water treatment and severely affects such regulated parameters as color and taste. The laboratory workers at «Rostovvodokanal» JSC have made observations of the microphyte growth in the Don water for 34 years. During this period the evolution of the species composition of microalgae in the Don River has been investigated. It was proved that certain cyanobacteria species affect the organoleptic properties of water. The efficiency of different water treatment methods of odor strength reduction is considered. For the operating water treatment plants the method of water odor strength reduction with the use of rapid gravity filter by natural aeration is suggested.

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№7|2014

anniversary

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UDC 628.1/.3.001.2

Pupyrev E. I.

The 75th anniversary of MosvodokanalNIIproject

Summary

The wide range of activities and many years’ experience of the «MosvodokanalNIIproject» OJSC team in the field of designing public utilities provide for the successful implementation of the tasks of creating the comfortable urban environment for the Moscow citizens and maximum improving the public services according to the plans of the megacity development and reconstruction. Upon the projects of the «MosvodokanalNIIproject» Institute all the Moscow water treatment plants and wastewater treatment facilities, water and wastewater pumping stations, as well as the main facilities for solid waste management have been built. Besides, upon the projects of the Institute the system of the facilities for mel­ting and disposal of snow removed from the city mains has been built. The specialists of the Institute are designing general schemes for water supply, wastewater disposal and sanitation facilities for many Russian and CIS regions. The main line of research is ensuring the integrity and environmental safety of the municipal engineering life support systems, inclu­ding water treatment improvement, development of regulatory and guidance documents, inspection of water bodies and urban areas. The information on the «MosvodokanalNIIproject» OJSC activities in the field of designing the engineering systems of the public utilities in recent times is presented.

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№05|2015

CORROSION PROTECTION

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UDC 628.147.23

Tchoukhin V. A., Andrianov A. P.

On the possible identification of biocorrosion in water supply systems

Summary

The results of the analysis of the literature data and in-house studies of steel cold and hot water pipelines subject to internal corrosion are presented. The common factor for all the studied samples was the occurrence of corrosion tubercles along the pipe inside perimeter. The study of tubercular deposits with the help of scanning electron microscopy allowed identifying four typical zones: base, core, hard coat and thin surface layer. These zones differ in structure and chemical composition. The mechanism of electrochemical and microbial induced corrosion of steel pipes is described. It is assumed that the zone under the tubercle consists of numerous corrosion electrochemical elements. On the outer edge of a tubercle corrosion occurs with oxygen depolarization, whereas inside – with hydrogen one; at that, the potentials arising during oxygen depolarization are producing a dominant effect on the formation of the outer dense layer. The hypothesis of the mechanism of tubercular deposits growth and their typical morphology is presented. On the basis of studying the properties of the deposit samples taken from the operating pipelines with the purpose of restoring the conditions of their formation the assumption on the dominant effect of microbial induced corrosion on the pipe material was made. Identification of the bacteria role in corrosion process, apart from the direct observations, can be made on the basis of determining crystalline ferric oxides formed on the surface of bacterial cell remains and their magnetosomes. The definite answer to the question on the decisive role of bacteria in corrosion of metal pipelines requires further studies.

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№04|2015

LAWS, STANDARDS, NORMATIVES

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УДК [628.1.033+628.3]:658.562

Gnipov A. V., Mazaev V. T., Khromchenko Ya. L.

On the control of drinking water quality and wastewater composition reflected in the RF new regulations

Summary

Some critical comments to 416-FZ Federal Law «On water supply and wastewater disposal» of December 7, 2011 are presented. It is noted that the statutory wording can be often liable to differing interpretations of the most important provisions whereas the regulations adopted in furtherance of the law are not associated with the holistic view of the problem. The control and supervision aspect of water supply and wastewater disposal is considered that has been regulated by the new RF enactments. «The rules of operational control of the drinking water, hot water quality and safety» approved by RF Government Decree No. 10 of January 6, 2015 are discussed. Some concerns are voiced that a common limited list of indicators for all the public water supply systems will be established which can result in formalistic development and approval of the programs of water quality and safety operational control; in the lack of proper quality surveillance. It will cause serious degradation of the situation with drinking water in Russia. In relation to the problem of the composition and properties of wastewater discharged into public sewers it is shown that all the customer categories irrespective of the discharged wastewater amount shall carry our routine operational control of the composition and properties of wastewater (independently and at their own expense), and submit the results to the water services company. The company, in its turn, will check the conformity of the submitted information with the actual data («The rules of using public water and wastewater systems in the Russian Federation», paragraph 65). 416-FZ Federal Law and the documents adopted on its basis compared to the previous acting statutory enactments will be a step backwards in relation to the procedure of operational control of drinking water quality, wastewater composition and properties as well as the safety of the mentioned water environment.

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