Tag:water treatment

№3|2016

WATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.1/.2 (211-17)

Murashev S. V.

Systems of water and wastewater treatment for offshore  and coastal facilities under the conditions of Arctic climate

Summary

The aspects of designing water supply and wastewater treatment systems for offshore Arctic facilities – floating drilling units, platforms and terminals are considered. Owing to the special conditions of operating floating drilling units in Arctic marine during long ice seasons a number of additional requirements to the water treatment systems shall be taken into consideration. Among them is reduction on the use of tankers-water carriers and of the fresh water reserve at the offshore facilities inter alia by abandoning the discharge of grey wastewater after proper treatment into the sea. Designing floating facilities of special purpose with the use of advanced small-scale and efficient systems of water purification and wastewater treatment – life-support vessels that is a separate trend in shipbuilding has been suggested and justified. Life-support vessels can be used for water transportation and waste disposal or as seasonal water and wastewater treatment systems for different purposes including emergency conditions.

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№9|2014

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.166.085

Vasiliak L. M., SMIRNOV A. D.

Potential use of ultrasound in water disinfection

Summary

Ultrasound has been used long enough in engineering and medicine for diagnostics, visualization of underwater objects, surface cleaning and other systems. Using ultrasonic disinfection as a main or additional technology is impractical because of the long exposure time, high energy consumption and lack of regulatory documents. To improve the efficiency of disinfection equipment the manufacturers suggest additional ultrasonic water treatment in combination with oxidi­zers and UV irradiation. The data on possible use of ultrasonics both as an additional disinfection method and method of improving the efficiency of traditional technology from the point of view of the concept of establishing numerous barriers during disinfection is presented. Different types of ultrasonic effect for using in water disinfection systems are considered. Ultrasound provides for the extremely low disinfection efficiency compared to other traditional technologies, therefore it is not used as an independent method. Ultrasonic water treatment improves the efficiency of oxidation technologies. Combined action of ultrasonics and UV irradiation does not have any synergistic effect. For natural water and effluent after treatment according to the operating standards the standard UV dosages are sufficient to ensure meeting the mic­robiological standards. Additional ultrasonic treatment is advisable under special conditions. Quartz sleeves can be well cleaned with mechanical systems and chemical wash which is used by all the world leading manufacturers. Due to the particular hazard of ultrasonic contact impact on humans the process of ultrasonic treatment shall completely eliminate such potential effect.

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№2|2018

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.161:544.723

Gvozdev V. A., Portnova T. M., Iatsinevich N. V.

Regeneration of the sorption capacity of granulated activated carbon

Summary

The analysis of the Neva River water quality parameters shows the changes in the chemical, biological and physical composition of the water under the environmental impact. Microbial as well as organic chemical pollutants get into the water source. Among all the monitored drinking water quality indicators the customers recognize bad smell at once. Double-layer filter bed (sand and activated carbon) provides for the efficient removal of colloid compounds and finely dispersed particles with low hydraulic size. Herewith the granulated carbon layer traps various organic compounds and water soluble oil products. Owing to the process of chemical compound oxidation (destruction) by ozonation and subsequent treatment with sorbent the chemical substances that flavor water with taste and smell are removed; as well as the color and permanganate value are lowered. When using powdered activated carbon at the filtration facilities achieving the treatment efficiency and estimation of the costs are required because in case chlorine-containing chemical is added to the water immediately after activated carbon is introduced the consumption of disinfection chemicals significantly increases. Thus, it is very important to include a sorption unit with granulated activated carbon to improve the reliability of water treatment. The efficiency of water treatment with granulated activated carbon was tested in K-6 unit at the Southern Waterworks of Saint-Petersburg. The evaluation of the water quality parameters after carbon reactivation was made. Reactivation of Filtrasorb TL 830 activated carbon under the selected process conditions provides for the satisfactory regeneration of the material sorption capacity while preserving its mechanical properties.

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№9|2016

WATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.162:62-278

Andrianov A. P., Pervov A. G., Efremov R. V., Spitsov D. V.

Selection of efficient inhibitors for process flow schemes of the Black Sea water desalination

Summary

Sea water desalination by reverse osmosis has been widely used in drinking and domestic water supply. However, one of the major problems that complicate the operation of desalination facilities is the deposition of low solubility salts in membrane apparatus. In order to control the formation of crystal sediments on membranes different methods are used. Inhibitor dosing to raw water is the most efficient method. A variety of efficient inhibiting agents has been developed. Lately one of the main directions of studies in this field has been new types of phosphorus free and easily biodegradable inhibitors. Tests of six new phosphorus free inhibitors were carried out; the comparison with traditionally used Aminat-K inhibitor is given. The experimental dependencies that allow determining the rate of calcium carbonate scale formation in membrane apparatus are presented. Basing on the obtained results the optimal operational expenditures for sea water desalination were calculated. The study was aiming mainly at comparing the efficiency of newly developed and traditional inhibitors in the process of their use in sea water desalination schemes (by the example of the Black Sea water simulant). The conclusion of the efficiency of the inhibitors used is made on the basis of the minimum operational expenditures for desalination.

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№6|2011

POTABLE WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628162.1

Selyukov A. V., Chekmareva S. V.

Demanganization of River Water

Summary

One of the intractable problems of public utilities for treatment of water from surface sources, an impossibility of water demanganization using the classical scheme of water treatment, is considered. The results of studies of river water aftertreatment for manganese with the help of potassium permanganate at the water supply facilities of the city of Pugachev, Saratov Reg., are presented. In the course of selection of the method of reducing the manganese content the pH value and redox potential of the medium are taken into account. The studies conducted and the testing operation of the system of potassium permanganate dozing show that the treatment using this reagent ensures the residual content of manganese in potable water meeting the specified requirements.

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№09|2015

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.166

Zhuravkova I. V.

Import substitution in full play

Summary

According to the resolution of the Government of the Russian Federation the economic model of the country development shall be restructured to provide for the import substitution of the technologies applied in strategically significant branches using internal sources. «Nevskii Crystal» Research and Production Company has developed and manufactured a wide assortment of electrolyzers for produ­cing and dosing low concentrated electrolytic sodium hypochlorite. The units conform fully to the international standards.

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№10|2011

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.169.7:614.77

Khrenov K. E., KOZLOV M. N., GRACHEV V. A., Shchegolkova N. M., Vanyushina A. Ya.

Investigation of properties of new soils produced from water sludge

Summary

The properties of soil produced from the sludge generated at the water treatment plants have been investigated. A new method of soil production has been developed. Biotesting with the use of two biotests (Ceriodaphniaand Infusoria) revealed some admissible soil toxicity while water stability was assessed as excellent. The comprehensive physical analysis showed that the addition of water sludge into loam soil enhances active processes of structure formation. The soil is well structured, resistant to unfavorable mechanical, physical and chemical impacts including acid-based solutions. The presented soil is recommended for grassplot formation as well as for biofuel crop cultivation. The grassplots formed with the new type of soil showed rather high resistance to drying up during the extremely hot summer of 2010.

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№08|2015

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 504.06

Skryabin A. Yu., Popovian G. V., Tron' I. A.

Microalgae as a factor affecting the organoleptic properties of the Don River water

Summary

Stringent hygienic requirements are set to the drinking water quality: epidemiologic, radiation and chemical safety, favorable organoleptic properties. The applicable regulatory documents control a number of parameters; however, other factors exist that affect the water safety and potability. In particular, among these are the amount and species composition of microalgae in water. Massive microphyte growth in surface water sources during water bloom raises serious difficulties in the process of water treatment and severely affects such regulated parameters as color and taste. The laboratory workers at «Rostovvodokanal» JSC have made observations of the microphyte growth in the Don water for 34 years. During this period the evolution of the species composition of microalgae in the Don River has been investigated. It was proved that certain cyanobacteria species affect the organoleptic properties of water. The efficiency of different water treatment methods of odor strength reduction is considered. For the operating water treatment plants the method of water odor strength reduction with the use of rapid gravity filter by natural aeration is suggested.

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№5|2013

POTABLE WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.16.069

Kofman V. Ya.

Dissolved-air flotation in water treatment (a review of foreign literature)

Summary

A review of foreign literature on one of the perspective water treatment technologies, i. e. dissolved-air flotation, is presented. The process of dissolved-air flotation provides for decreasing water turbidity, eliminating algae, Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts; whereby, the treatment efficiency is higher compared to sedimentation. The technology ensures efficient removal of low turbidity levels. Overseas, beyond controversy, the tendency of using dissolved-air flotation units for purification of water and wastewater of different origin is increasing.

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№10|2013

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.161.2:546.72/.711

TESLA V. G., ALEKSEEV V. S., Koulakov V. V.

On the criteria of choosing the best available water treatment technology as applied to the Amur water intake (Komsomolsk-on-Amur city)

Summary

While choosing the technology of underground water conditioning it is advisable to be geared to the recommendations in SP 31.13330.2012 «Water supply. Public utilities», «Classifier of natural water treatment technologies» (NII VODGEO, 2000) as well as to minimizing the environmental impact. It is shown that intraformational treatment of underground waters meets to the maximal extent the requirements to the best available technologies and domestic standards developed on the basis of ISO 14000 International Standard. By the example of the Amur water intake of Komsomolsk-on-Amur city the complete conformity of the designed technology of intraformational iron and manganese compounds removal to the above-mentioned criteria with account of the specific water composition is noted. In discussing the specific features of underground water chemical treatment the attention is drawn to the inadmissibility of large-scale use of precursor – potassium permanganate for water conditioning. It is suggested to evaluate additionally the water treatment technology with account of the economical efficiency.

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№5|2016

LAWS, STANDARDS, NORMATIVES

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UDC 628.1.033:351.777

Samburskii G. A., Plitman S. I., Pestov S. M., Tulakin A. V., Ampleeva G. P.

On some problems in water treatment related to the implementation  of «On water supply and wastewater disposal» Act

Summary

A number of problems of regulating the process of drinking water purification for public water supply systems related to the water quality meeting the established hygienic requirements and performance targets are considered. It is shown that water and wastewater providers using the methods of risk assessment can optimize the measures aimed at improving the quality of drinking water in the context of choosing the implementation dates and priorities. It is noted that measuring water quality parameters without any consi­deration for procedural and sampling errors may not reflect actual concentrations of pollutants in drinking water in public water supply systems; whereas five-fold exceeding maximum permissible concentrations is possible which cont­ravenes both drinking water hygienic standards and criteria of significant drinking water quality deterioration.

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№10|2016

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.161.3

Samburskii G. A., Pestov S. M., Plitman S. I., Tulakin A. V., Ampleeva G. P., Tsyplakova G. V., Koshenkov V. N.

On some problems in chemical treatment of drinking water

Summary

Stated requirements to the delivery of information on the technology and raw material used in the production of chemicals will provide for minimizing the threat of toxic substances transfer to the treated water. In the process of comparative evaluation of chemicals it is recommended to pay attention to the substantial part of the expert report related to the maximum permissible dosages (concentrations) substantiated with account of the criteria of acceptable health hazard. The requirements of Methodology Guidelines 2.1.4.1060-01 shall be applied to synthetic polyelectrolytes specified not only in the document but also in other hygienic regulations. It is related to the product and its monomers.

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№7|2011

POTABLE WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.16/.31.085

Rudnikova G. I., Zelenin A. M.

Water Disinfection Using the UV-Irradiation at Water Treatment Facilities of the City of Angarsk

Summary

For the purpose of improving the barrier function with respect to viruses, parasites and water bacteria at water treatment facilities of Angarsk the station of potable water UV-disinfection was put into operation in 2009. The station’s equipment is located in the building of main facilities block before the vertical mixers. From the first days of operation the high efficiency of the UV-disinfection method was established. The analyses results show the complete inactivation of all water microorganisms and dependence of intensity of lamps radiation on physicochemical properties of river water as well. For the purpose of eliminating this dependence the alternative scheme of water feed is offered: treated water after the filter is delivered to UV-disinfection plants instead of river water.

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№7|2011

POTABLE WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.16/.31.085

IVANOV A. S.

Determination of the Minimal Efficient Doze of UV-Irradiation

Summary

The process of study of water for optimal and valid choice of power of the ultraviolet irradiation system is described. The effectiveness of water treatment by ultraviolet irradiation depending on the content of suspended particles in water is shown. A diagram of the dependence of performance of ultraviolet disinfection on the water transmission coefficient is presented. The necessity of conduction of the preliminary model ultraviolet irradiation and drawing up of the conclusion before the delivery of equipment to the real object of the customer is substantiated.

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№12|2018

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.161.3

Egorova Yu. A., Bykova P. G., Nesterenko O. I., Strelkova T. A.

Optimization of chemical water treatment costs in the process
of abstraction from surface water sources

Summary

The operational experience of «Samarskie Kommunal’nye Sistemy» LLC in the optimization of chemical water treatment costs in the process of water abstraction from the surface water source is presented. The Saratovskoe water reservoir has been the only water supply source of Samara urban district. Seasonal variations of water quality in the water reservoir call for the upgrade of the chemical water treatment method with the purpose of improving the efficiency of the treatment processes. To determine the optimal dosage of chemicals the process of chemical water processing in Lovibond ЕТ-750 flocculator has been being simulated at the laboratory of the water treatment plant using the required set parameters: mixing time, sedimentation time, time of passing through the facilities; mixing rate. During test coagulation the features of the generated sludge and its sedimentation rate are monitored. The results of the test coagulation provide for regulating the chemical dosages and water processing modes. The optimal dosages of chemicals determined during the test water coagulation provided for the economical efficiency 33,48% in 2016; 31,3% in 2017. A combined water treatment flow scheme with the use of two coagulant types: polyaluminum chloride in winter and less expensive aluminium sulfate in summer is introduced. Routine test coagulation with the purpose of the optimal chemical dosage depending on the water source quality provides for optimizing and planning chemical costs to ensure the water quality meeting the requirements of Sanitary Regulations and Norms 2.1.4.1074-01 «Drinking water. Hygienic requirements to the water quality in public drinking water supply systems. Quality control».

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№4|2019

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.16.065.2-926:628.16.094.413.094.3

Pokhil Yu. N., Bagaev Yu. G., Mamaev V. V., Novoshintsev V. N., Valuyskikh I. V., Zhagin V. A., Boldyrev Viacheslav Viktorovich, Shokolov A. N., Belousova T. V., Smirnov V. P.

Optimization of flocculation and chlorammoniation processes at the water treatment facilities of the city of Novosibirsk

Summary

The results of long-term studies to improve the design and operating parameters of the pumping-filtration stations in Novosibirsk are presented. The schemes of the developed processes and technical means for the enhancement of disinfection and flocculation are given. The results of research on improving the processes of mixing and flocculation to provide for reducing the consumption of coagulant by more than 50% without water quality degradation achieving precipitation of the major sludge amount in the flotation chambers and at the entry of the sedimentation tanks, respectively, reducing the pollution load on filters and water consumption for their backwash. Based on the results of the research on the improvement of the technology of chlorammoniation a predictable and well-controlled process has been developed with a guaranteed decrease in the concentration of chlororganic compounds within the limits of the MPCs as well as the elimination of chloramines with the highest degree of oxidation and nitrification. The process ensures the reduction of secondary water pollution and bacteriological and hydrobiological pollution of the water treatment facilities.

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№6|2018

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.161:628.169

Alekseev S. E., Shelest S. N., Захаров В. Р., Moor N. V.

Experience of retrofitting the technology of wash water utilization at the Omsk water treatment facilities

Summary

The main phases of addressing holistically the problem water source pollution with wastewater generated at the Omsk water treatment plant are considered. The results of technologic pre-engineering that provided for determining the optimal flow scheme of the treatment process and filter wash water reuse as well for defining the process parameters of combined treatment of river and wash water are presented. It is shown that the chemicals mainly used for drinking water purification can be used for filter wash water treatment. The studies were carried out by test coagulation method, i. e. by adding various amounts of polluted wash water and chemicals used at the water treatment plant into raw river water. The efficiency of combined treatment of river water is improving with increasing the amount of added polluted wash water. The design concepts and process flow scheme of water treatment that provided for constructing and commissioning filter wash water reuse unit with minimum capital expenditures are presented. The operating experience affirmed the correctness of the adopted process and design solutions. As a result the abstraction of raw river water was reduced by 9–13% and wash water discharge into the Irtysh River- the water source was completely abandoned. Wash water treatment is carried out together with raw river water at the water treatment facilities. Herewith the drinking water quality fully meets the requirements of Sanitary Regulations and Norms 2.1.4.1074-01.

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№5|2010

PROBLEMS, PERSPECTIVES

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UDC 628.16.006.7

Volftrub L. I., Korabelnikov V. M., Gudoshnikova A. E.

Experience of Modernization of Settling Tanks and Clarifiers at Water Treatment Stations

Summary

Methods of the modernization of different designs of flocculators, settling tanks and clarifiers based on the use of thin-layer, recirculating flocculation and thin-layer deposition are presented. Advantages of the design of thin-layer cellular blocks developed by the authors and produced by the EcoholdingClosed Company are shown. Results of the long term (over 10 years) operation of modernized settling facilities in the systems of communal and industry water treatment at different compositions of natural water and various methods of their treatment are presented.

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№10|2019

WATER TREATMENT

DOI 10.35776/MNP.2019.10.02
UDC 628.166.085:524.3-74

Piskareva V. M., Kupin K. V.

The experience of using UV disinfection in the biggest European cities

Summary

The technology of drinking water disinfection by ultraviolet radiation has been widely used abroad. An example of the successful operation of UV-units is water treatment plants in Europe where various process flow schemes of UV disinfection have been implemented: as part of a multi-barrier scheme and as an independent method. The results of the introduction of UV technology at water treatment plants in Budapest (Hungary), Vienna (Austria), Berlin (Germany), Antwerp (Belgium) are presented. When preparing drinking water from surface sources it is recommended to use multi-barrier schemes including disinfection methods that ensure a prolonged effect. The effectiveness of UV disinfection in relation to viruses and protozoan cysts provides for reducing the dosage of chlorine-containing chemicals which inhibits the formation of chlororganic compounds. The decision to abandon chlorination while using UV-disinfection as an independent method should be substantiated considering the actual operating conditions of the water treatment facilities and water distribution networks.

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№5|2014

WATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.16.066.7

Volftrub L. I.

The experience of operating lamella settlers and clarifiers with built-in flocculation chambers

Summary

The results of upgrading primary water treatment facilities – flocculation chambers, sedimentation tanks and clarifiers based on the use of low-flow and low-pressure recirculators and lamella honeycomb modules made of polyethylene film 250–300 µm thick designed by ECOHOLDING Group experts are presented. The developed method of jointing film into a honeycomb construction with an inner rigid frame provides for the ruggedness and spacial stability of the honeycomb module and allows stretching it on the frames on perimeter only. Firm jointing of the film allows manufacturing a honeycomb construction of any size and angle of slope providing minimum loss of clarifying surface of the facilities of any configuration, both radial and rectangular. For long-term operated facilities honeycomb modules are tailormade after each of them has been measured. The possibility of ensuring the required recirculation rate at low head loss and minimum liquid flow rate to prevent the recycled suspension from destruction and facilitate efficient floc formation is an essential advantage of the developed methods of recirculator designing and constructing. The presented high-efficient methods of coagulation and sedimentation improvement form the basis of prefabricated «Struiia» and «Vlaga» modular water treatment units with 100–12000 m3/day capacities. The units are designed for natural water treatment: turbidity and color removal, softening, defluorination, de-ironing (composite forms, high concentrations of iron) and disinfection. They are used in water supply systems of settlements, towns, hospital care and health resorts, sport centers, fish farms, industrial enterprises or separate production facilities.

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