Tag:water object

№2|2011

WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.1.033:504.064.3

Turbinsky V. V.

Global and Regional Control of Water Quality

Summary

There is a review of provisions of international agreements in the field of control of water objects: potable water supply sources, the existing system of the state control of water quality on the interstate (global) and state (regional) levels. The necessity of establishment of a legal order of regulation of water relations at the inter-regional level is noted. Performance of global and regional monitoring of conditions of the sources of potable water supply should bear an inter-agency character and should be realized within the bounds of basin agreements. These agreements should be mutually beneficial for all participating parties and based on the international principles of cooperation.

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№10|2017

WATER SOURCES QUALITY MONITORING

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UDC 556.551:504.5

Mediankina M. V., Sokolova S. A., Oganesova E. V., Trigub A. G., Dmitrieva E. S.

On the problem of establishing the standards of the water quality in fishery waters

Summary

Current problems of establishing pollution limits for fishery waters have been considered. The core objectives of regulating the quality of water bodies in the Russian Federation are highlighted. A detailed comparative description of sanitary-hygienic (MPCsan) and fishery waters (MPCfishery) water quality standards is presented; the similarities and differences in establishing the given standards are shown. In the process of developing fishery and sanitary-hygienic standards the following issues are considered: the threshold concentration (the lowest concentration that produces an adverse effect both on the quality of habitat of an organism and on the organism itself); the lowest no observed adverse effect concentration (the lowest concentration that does not affect the habitat and organism throughout the life). The experimental validation of MPCfishery is an overall system of comprehensive (toxicological, hydrochemical, organoleptic etc.) tests of the chemical agent using the representatives of all aquatic organisms groups (from bacteria to fish) including producers, consumers, decomposers and various life-forms of aquatic organisms (plankton, nekton, benthos). The MPC value of a pollutant is the lowest no observed adverse effect concentration for one of the trophic level links (plankton, nekton, benthos organisms, fish as well as hydrochemical and organoleptic water quality parameters can be limiting links). MPCssan ensure water quality safe for human life and activities, MPCsfishery are the only environmental requirements that ensure the conservation of ecosystems of fishery waters. The expediency, need and demand for establishing regional regulations in the light of the actual situation in certain water bodies has been considered separately.

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№1|2017

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

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UDC 574.58

Rublevskaya O. N., Pozdniakov Sh. R.

Tackling the problem of bacterial pollution of water bodies in St. Petersburg

Summary

The integrated waterway system «Lake Ladoga – the Neva River – the Gulf of Finland» has been the main water source, effluent receiving water body and the main recreation zone of St. Petersburg. SUE «Vodokanal of St. Petersburg» alongside with reducing nutrient load on the Baltic Sea has been tackling the problems of bacterial pollution of the Waterway system with the purpose of expanding the water use and recreation zones within the frames of Russia meeting the international commitments arising from the Helsinki Convention. Therefore the issues of sanitary and epidemiologic safety of the water bodies have been the most important for St. Petersburg. Beginning from 2011 Vodokanal has been carrying out annual control of the water quality in the Neva River from the headstream to the estuary. The purpose of this control is monitoring microbiological and chemical parameters as well as detecting the main pollution sources. The causes of bacterial pollution of the water bodies of St. Petersburg are considered. Implementing the programs of SUE «Vodokanal of St. Petersburg» by 2022 will provide for the complete elimination of discharging raw wastewater from the direct outfalls into the Neva River and in future stop discharging nondisinfected effluents of the wastewater treatment facilities into the Neva River, Neva Bay and eastern part of the Gulf of Finland.

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№12|2015

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

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ГВС 628.3:625.042

Strelkov A. K., Teplykh S. Yu., Gorshkalev P. A., Sargsyan A. M.

Calculating the charge for the negative environmental impact produced by rail transport facilities

Summary

Basing on the results of chemical analyses and regulatory requirements to the environmental protection activities the analysis of the impact of surface runoff from rail transport facilities on the environment was carried out. Different charges imposed on natural resource users for water body pollution are described. The efficiency aspects of investing in the development of wastewater treatment and polishing are addressed. The costs associated with treatment will depend on the wastewater flow that determines the capacity of the treatment facilities, as well as on the required concentration of pollutants in the effluent that determines the required level of treatment, i.e. the number of stages and treatment technology. Under the conditions of the capital investment tightness it would be reasonable to determine the efficient investment trends in each particular case. The maximum permissible discharge of any pollutant will depend on its permissible concentration in wastewater that is assumed as a basis for designing treatment facilities. The evaluation of the investment efficiency is carried out by specifying the discharge of pollutants into water bodies that will determinate the cumulative expenses. The minimum cumulative expenses including the annual construction and operation expenditures as well as the effluent charge could be determined for every pollutant. To substantiate the expediency of surface runoff collection, removal and treatment the calculation of charging for nonpoint discharge of the surface runoff from rail tracks was carried out.

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№10|2013

WATER SOURCES QUALITY MONITORING

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UDC 504.064.4:351.777

Tymchuk S. N., Larin V. E., Sokolov D. M.

Sanitary regulation and sanitary control – the basis of ensuring water body safety

Summary

Water safety is provided with two complementary processes: sanitary regulation and sanitary control of water bodies. The task of sanitary regulation is setting safety requirements to biological, chemical and physical indices. Sanitary representative microorganisms include representatives of obligatory microflora of human and homoiotherm organisms that allow estimating the degree of biogeneous pollution. These are Escherichia coli (collibacillus), fecal streptococcus (enterococcus), sulfite-reducing clostridia spores, Proteus, thermophilic microorganisms, coliphages (bacterial viruses) etc. Sanitary index is reflecting the presence and amount of one or another sanitary representative microorganism in a specified sample size taken from the water body under investigation. Qualitative sanitary index reflects and regulates the absence or presence of specified microorganisms in a specified sample size. Quantitative sanitary index is the concentration of specified (unknown) microorganisms in the specified sample size. Index figure reflects the degree of fecal contamination of the water body (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, coliphages). Indicator figure reflects the efficiency of disinfection processes and technologies and points at possible presence of pathogens with different tolerance (Clostridium perfringens, coliphages). World Health Organization recommends distinguishing between two types of microbiological monitoring: for estimating water treatment efficiency; for identifying fecal pollution and presence of pathogens.

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№2|2011

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

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UDC 628.3.504.05.69(083.75)

Pupyrev E. I., Bagaev Yu. G., Bivalkevich A. I.

Accelerated Movement to Technological Standardization

Summary

A list of the basic methods included in the Register of the best available technologies used in the systems of communal water disposal for wastewater treatment as well as the results achieved by using them are presented. It is proposed to speed up the edition of the integrated information-technical reference book and the development of the Regulations of introduction of the best available technologies endorsed by Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Protection of the Russian Federation. Technologies should be selected depending on concrete conditions of water use on the basis of analysis of the ecological state of a water object in the area of wastewater discharge. Principles of the selection of the best available technologies of urban wastewater depending on the ecological situation are summarized.

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№5|2013

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

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UDC 628.316:504.054

Koulakov A. A.

Environmental assessment of a «water body – effluent discharge» scheme

Summary

During the studies an approach to the environmental assessment of a «water body-effluent discharge scheme» was developed. Probability of meeting the design performance of biological treatment and environmental requirements at small-scale municipal wastewater treatment facilities was evaluated. Maximum permissible concentration exceeding factor both in effluents and river water before and after discharging by the example of the Vologda Region case study was determined. Relationships between hydraulic and chemical parameters of effluent receiving bodies and discharged effluents were defined.

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№7|2011

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 504.062.4:628.334

Orlov B. V., Boykova I. G., Pechnikov V. G.

Ecological Rehabilitation of the Moscow Municipal Wastewater Disposal System

Summary

The suggestions about modernization of the disposal and treatment system of surface runoff from the territory of Moscow with due regard for environmental requirements set for water objects-water receivers have been developed by specialists of MosvodokanalNIIproekt on the basis of investigations of many years. The prognosis of possible reduction in pollution level of the city’s water objects as a result of execution of complex of measures aimed at the reconstruction of the wastewater disposal system and enhancement of the level of improvement of the city’s territories has been made on the basis of the analysis of change of pollutants concentration in the surface runoff in the course of its movement along the different parts of the wastewater disposal system. The suggestions take into account interconnection and interaction of all city’s water-management systems and can be used for search of optimal solutions concerning organization of surface runoff disposal and treatment for certain water collecting basins as well as in the course of actualization of the General scheme of disposal and treatment of surface runoff from the territory of Moscow together with the Program of rehabilitation of the city’s water objects.

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mvkniipr ru 

Российская ассоциация водоснабжения и водоотведения

WST19 200x300

Конференция итог

VAK2