Tag:water leaks

№1|2012

WATER DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS AND WASTEWATER COLLECTORS

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UDC 628.147.2:65.012.2

Khramenkov S. V., Orlov V. А., Primin O. G.

Computerized support of the Moscow water pipeline renovation scheduling strategy

Summary

Comprehensive evaluation of the expediency criteria of pipeline relaying or renovating involves a lot of calculations, large bulk of operating and diagnostic data processing. It becomes possible only if computer-aided programs are available that provide for a basis for a valid assessment of the pipeline renovation project and scope of work. Scheduling Pipe Renovation program has been designed by MosvodokanalNIIproject OJSC in cooperation with Mosvodokanal MPUE and used for Moscow water pipeline maintenance.

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№12|2016

WATER DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS

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УДК 628.179

Strelkov A. K., Biriukov V. V., Egorova Yu. A., Zaiko V. A., Bykova P. G.

Analysis and assessment of water distribution network failures in Samara

Summary

The main task of the water distribution network maintenance and operation service is improving the quality and reliability of supplying water to the customers. The analysis of the water distribution network state in the urban district of Samara showed that the majority of the pipelines had been significantly depreciated. This is caused by fact that they were laid and put into operation during the period of large-scale housing construction (1960–1980-ies) without due account of the requirements to the durability of the materials applied and technical and organizational capacity of the operating companies. According to the statistics lately the rate of failures in the water distribution networks has been gradually but sustainably reducing. The assessment of the data on the operation and maintenance of the water distribution networks showed 22% reduction of the total number of failures in 2015 compared to 2013; accordingly water losses also decreased. Achieving these results was possible due to the timely repair and maintenance works in 2013–2015.

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№12|2014

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.171.001.24

Novitskaia O. S., Tkachuk A. A.

The impact of excessive water pressure on total domestic water consumption

Summary

The pattern of total domestic water consumption and water losses in residential buildings is presented. The main factors that influence the pattern formation are considered. It is taken into account that water consumption is formed not only as beneficial water use that reflects the actual water demand, but also as water losses including water wastage, nonproductive losses through valves and water leakages. It is shown that beneficial water consumption is associated with natural and physiological aspects; water wastage is determined by socio-economic conditions; nonproductive water losses are mostly formed under the impact of technical factors; whereas water leakages – under the impact of time factor. The relationships obtained during field tests between water flow rate and pressure are presented that take into account water consumption increase because of leakages and nonproductive use in residential sector. On the basis of the relationships the calculated nonproductive water rates and leakages in residential sector caused by excessive pressures at different water consumption patterns and diurnal average are cited as an example. It was stated that the highest nonproductive water use was observed at the maximum water consumption, the lowest nonproductive water use was observed at night (in percentage ratio); whereas in case with water losses – vice versa. The average daily water losses in a building calculated with account of water losses caused by excessive pressures at every floor were up to 40%. Considering the relationship between water flow rates in the distribution network and excessive pressures provides for approximating the estimated hydraulic pressure head in the distribution network to the actual values and improving the efficiency of the optimization measures.

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№9|2012

POTABLE WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.144:532.542

Yepifanov S. P., Zorkaltsev V. I.

The task of flow distribution with nonfixed junction points of consumption

Summary

A model of flow distribution in the water supply and distribution system with nonfixed junction points of consumption is considered. The model provides for more detailed characteristics of flow distribution both in normal conditions and emergency mode. The suggested junction point flow rate – water head ratios provide for the actual consumption amounts at the consumers’. The flow distribution algorithm in the form of nonlinear algebraic equation system is presented supported with the demonstration of differences in the results of calculating flow distribution with both fixed and nonfixed junction points of consumption.

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№10|2014

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.179.34

Babaev A. V., Stolyarova E. A., Koubenko V. V., Shashkova O. S., Salgalov A. A.

Identification of different water types in case of the municipal distribution network failures

Summary

Prompt localization of latent and apparent water losses has been an important task of the «Mosvodokanal» JSC activities. The time needed for eliminating failures in the municipal distribution network depends significantly on the efficient identification of the leakage source and owner of the service lines. The issues of sample identification under different emergency conditions are considered. It is shown that alongside with instrumental methods of water leak detection laboratory analytical methods can also be used. Underground water inflow is a most elementary case of water losses. Taking into account that surface water from the Moskva and Volga rivers serves as a water source of the public water supply the presence of fluorides, low mineral content and the absence of organic pollutants are reliable evidences of the underground origin of the water inflow. At the same time high mineral content, presence of phosphates, ammonia salts, high permanganate values evidence the inflow of polluted wastewater. A reliable proof of leakage water originating from the public water supply is the presence of water purification by-products, chloroorganic compounds in particular. The experimental results showed that the minimum significant chloroform value in real samples of leakage water in the Moscow public water supply was 3 µg/l. This chloroform concentration remains unchanged with time with the disinfection practice adopted at the Moscow water treatment plants: chlorammoniation during both primary and final chlorination. The statistically processed data arrays of special experiments and real samples for a few years indicate that the given concentration of chloroform detected in the sample is a proof of water originating from public water supply systems.

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№12|2013

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.1.033

Demin A. P.

Changes in the Russian domestic water supply in XXI century

Summary

The data on the provision of the public water services to the housing facilities of the constituent territories of the Russian Federation, on the share of leakages and unaccounted-for-losses in the total water amount supplied to the distribution networks (2001–2011) is presented. Regions with low access of the population to the public water supply and high levels of leakages are identified, e. g. the South and North Caucasian federal districts (around 35%). It is shown that depreciation of the water distribution network (50–70%) results in the increase of water leakages. It was found that underground water use decreased in all the Russian federal districts and now amounts in average to 45% of the total water supply; whereas the share of underground water in the domestic water supply balance stands approximately at the same level. The data on the dynamics of the water pass through pretreatment facilities is presented. The reasons of the significant reduction of specific domestic water consumption throughout the federal districts and regions of Russia for 11 years of the XXI century are stated. The improvement of the domestic water supply sources in most federal regions is noted. The information on the number of polluted underground water areas is presented. The fundamental RF laws and regulations in the field of water and wastewater management passed lately are cited. High priority measures to supply good quality drinking water to the Russian population are suggested, i. e.: developing standardization in the field of water conservation; ensuring the balance between affordability of high quality public services for customers and adequate financing.

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№5|2014

ЭКОНОМИЯ РЕСУРСОВ

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UDC 628.179.34

Lerner А. D., Inchagov А. D., Sliusarenko A. V.

Ways to reduce unaccounted-for-water in public water supply systems

Summary

In the process of improving the efficiency of water and wastewater services the reduction of unaccounted-for-water is of crucial importance. New approaches to the evaluation of these amounts with the selection of physical losses of the utilities resource are suggested. The world experience of taking measures on reducing these amounts by concluding contracts with private operators guided by the actual results of achieving the projected reduction of the specific physical leakages and water losses is considered. The comparative financial evaluation of the measures on constructing water intakes and reducing unaccounted-for-water is presented. Economic, social and political factors inhibiting the process of actual reducing unaccounted-for-water are considered. The main reason of public utilities being reluctant to take measures on the reduction of water leakages lies in the lack of financial incentives and organizational projects. It is concluded that the owners of the water supply systems, as a rule local authorities, shall be involved in solving the problem. It is worth kee­ping in mind that reducing unaccounted-for-water (including the use of performance-based service contracting) shall not be considered as a new formula for eliminating numerous shortcomings in the operation of water utilities, because these shortcomings result from the more fundamental problems. Successful public water supply management without introdu­cing new capacities, in its turn, can predetermine the structural reforms required to ensure the efficient operation of water and wastewater services and private business in satisfying the growing water demand of population and industries.

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Российская ассоциация водоснабжения и водоотведения

Конференция итог

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