Tag:wastewater

№3|2018

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.312:54.01

Kofman V. Ya.

«Emerging contaminants» in water environment: international studies (review)

Summary

The scientific developments over a period of the late 1990-ies up to nowadays in the field of studies of the «emerging contaminants» presence in water environment are considered. Emerging contaminants include mainly pharmaceuticals, illegal drugs, ultraviolet filters, artificial sugar substitutes, biocides, their metabolites and transformation products as well as nanomaterials and micro(nano)-plastics. The progress in this field is now possible owing to the introduction of analytical methods based on liquid chromatography/mass-spectrometry into the laboratory practice. The method provides for identifying and determining polar contaminants in water environment, their metabolites and transformation products at the concentration level of ng/l. The applied mass-spectrometric detectors are characterized by the high sensitivity and selectivity. The improved techniques that provide for the higher efficiency of removing emerging contaminants from wastewater compared to the traditional processes are presented. Modern approaches to the evaluation of the toxicity of the contaminants under consideration in the situations when low concentrations of these substances in mixtures have a long-term impact on non-target organisms are discussed.

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№8|2018

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.35:661.5

Smirnov Aleksandr Vladimirovich, Bogatyrev M. M., Ivanova Iu. A.

Wastewater treatment facilities of Adler city

Summary

The wastewater treatment facilities in Adler (Greater Sochi Area), some of the most modern facilities in Russia were built as a part of the Olympic infrastructure. The Adler wastewater treatment facilities were designed on the basis of innovative solutions: for the first time 3-D engineering was applied; the best available techniques were taken into account; zero emission system was implemented – all the facilities are covered by airproof covers; the air from the facilities is supplied to the gas cleaning system; sludge handling includes dewatering and drying; consequently the amount of sludge is reduced and sludge is disinfected. The process scheme stipulated by the project includes primary mechanical treatment of wastewater, full biological treatment, tertiary treatment and effluent disinfection. The system of generated sludge utilization includes mechanical dewatering in centrifuges with subsequent additional drying. The design concept behind the project formulated more than 10 years ago (2008 project) determined the development path of the advanced treatment technologies and served as an example of the wastewater treatment facilities built according to the principle of the best avai­lable techniques.

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№5|2019

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.35:661.5

Kevbrina M. V., Dorofeev A. G., Agaryov A. M., KOZLOV M. N., Nikolaev Yu. A., Aseyeva V. G.

Anammox – an advanced technology of nitrogen removal from wastewater

Summary

The first in Russia Anammox-type technology has been developed in «Mosvodokanal» JSC in cooperation with «Fundamental Principles of Biotechnology» Federal Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The technology is designed for the treatment of filtrate of centrifuges for digested wastewater sludge dewatering. The technology is based on the microbiological process of ammonium oxidation with nitrite under anoxic conditions. Since this process does not require organics Anammox can be considered as the most economical technology for processing industrial effluents in which organic matter is absent or in deficiency, for example, effluents of nitrogen-fertilizer plants, livestock or poultry production farms  etc. Besides, studies are carried out and Anammox technologies are being developed for wastewater treatment at low temperatures (cold Anammox) as well as for using this process in common wastewater (not nitrogen-concentrated) treatment (Anammox in the main process line). Since anammox-bacteria are easily separated from liquid (being a part of immobilized biofilms or granules) and can be adapted to a wide range of operating conditions, Anammox technology without any doubt is a promising technology of removing nitrogen from different wastewater.

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№4|2010

PROBLEMS, PERSPECTIVES

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UDC 628.35:661.5

DANILOVICH D. A., KOZLOV M. N., Moyzhes O. V., Nikolaev Yu. A., KAZAKOVA E. A., GRACHEV V. A.

Anaerobic Oxidation of Ammonium for Removal of Nitrogen from High-Concentrated Wastewater

Summary

The first in Russia study of the technique of anaerobic oxidation of ammonium (ANAMMOX) applied for treatment of return flows from dewatering of digested sludge is described. The two-stage technique ANAMMOX with the use of two processes – partial nitrification and the process of anaerobic oxidation of ammonium itself – has been realized under laboratory conditions. Efficiency of nitrogen removal in a reactor was 90%, volumetric capacity of the reactor by nitrogen was 0,16 kg/m3 per day. Results obtained show that the process of autotroph removal of nitrogen is an attractive alternative technologically and economically to the traditional technique of nitri-denitrification.

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№5|2016

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.316.12

Rublevskaya O. N., PANKOVA G. A., Leonov L. V., Kolosov D. E.

Approbation of Glint artificial aluminosilicate sorbent for tertiary treatment of biologically treated domestic wastewater

Summary

The results of pilot tests of synthetic aluminosilicate sorbent under Glint trademark in comparison with AG-3 granulated activated carbon are presented. The study was carried out with effluent from the North Wastewater Treatment Plant of SUE «Vodokanal of St. Petersburg». The following parameters were determined in the effluent samples: рН, suspended solids concentration, phosphate as P, anionic surfactants, ions of iron, zinc, aluminium, nickel, copper and manganese. Glint sorbent is aluminosilicate granular material with effective surface and contains exchangeable ions of calcium and magnesium. Glint material proved itself in the treatment of industrial wastewater contaminated with heavy metal ions but not contaminated with organics and complexing compounds.

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№5|2014

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

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UDC 628.179.2

Aksenov V. I., GALKIN Yu. A.

Zero waste VIZ-Stal’ LLC recycling system of industrial water supply

Summary

The history of developing the first in metallurgy zero waste recycling system of industrial water supply of a transformer steel cold rolling plant at the Verkh-Isetsk steelworks (Ekaterinburg) is described. Since building the plant was planned in the centre of the city with the population of 1.5 million people on the bank of the Verkh-Isetsk pond near the drin­king water intake it was required to design a system of industrial water supply with complete elimination of the wastewater and industrial wastes discharge into the environment. The first step of developing the system was retrofitting a vitriol unit for the removal of environmentally hazardous wastes – spent concentrated pickling plant liquor. Hereafter the flotation technology of oil emulsion wastewater treatment was developed. In the course of experimental studies the efficiency of using clarifiers with suspended sediment in the process of removing palm oil from recycled water of the cold rolling mill was investigated. Most attention was paid to the technical solutions of processing the wastes generated in the process of industrial wastewater treatment. The unit for oil waste incineration was designed. Wastewater sludge was initially dewatered in the filter-presses, and then dried. Designing an evaporation plant for thermal desalination of blowdown water of the closed-loop cycles of the transformer steel cold rolling plant and wastewater from the chemical treatment of the thermal power plant effluent provided for the zero discharge of the entire industrial water supply system. The experience of the Verkh-Isetsk steelworks, particularly in relation to processing solid wastes and wastewater desalination, was used in designing efficient water supply systems for various industries including the upgrade of the Novolipetsk steelworks water supply system.

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№11|2016

SLUDGE HANDLING

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UDC 628.17.001.4

Butusov M. M.

Zero waste processing of wastewater sludge – production of biocoke

Summary

Municipal wastewater sludge has been dominant anthropogenic waste. The problem of its utilization is typical for any city operating a modern system of wastewater treatment. The tasks of optimal sludge utilization have not been solved on the global scale so far. In European practice different, often non-optimal technical solutions depending on the severity of the national environmental standards are applied. In a number of European countries expensive sludge incinerators have been built that provide for thermal utilization of the bulk sludge volume. The generated energy is used in the central heating systems. This technology is considered the most advanced though up to now it has not been supplemented with a cost-efficient and environmentally substantiated technology of processing generated ash. In Russia the bulk of sludge is landfilled; however, the need of developing efficient and environmentally acceptable technology of sludge utilization has become imminent. Pyrolysis is a possible solution of low waste sludge processing with conversion into a useful product – biocoke. The technologies of pyrolysis organic waste processing have a number of advantages over incineration.

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№8|2017

SEWAGE SLUDGE TREATMENT

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UDC 628.336.3

Butusov M. M., Komarov A. Iu., Pisarenko S. S., Кудерна Mаксимилиан, Pollak Michael

Zero waste processing of wastewater sludge – production of biocoke

Summary

An optimal method of wastewater sludge utilization has not been found so far. An advantageous method of wastewater sludge utilization (both economically and ecologically) can be production of biocoke – material that meets the following criteria: high concentration of pure carbon (more than 15–30%); low hydrogen concentration (H/C less than 0.2); the lack of organic toxicants; high porosity (about 40%); mechanical stability; good sorption properties. Method of production – pyrolysis at 400–900 °С temperature; raw material – organic wastes of different origin (wastewater sludge, agricultural wastes, milling wastes, poultry farm wastes). Biocoke can be used for soil conditioning, reclamation of solid waste landfills, reclamation of technogenic and abandoned territories for planting, mitigation of land erosion and desertization. Compared to other soil media biocoke has an advantage in the possibility of selecting material properties depending on the specific application. AktivIl Company has designed and commissioned a medium-scale multiple-hearth
pyrolysis reactor with a capacity of approximately 300 tons of biocoke annually; sludge from a wastewater treatment plant in one of the Moscow Area cities has been used as a raw material. Biocoke samples produced at different operating modes were analyzed and tested. The first results of the studies showed the possibility of reaching the required parameters of the product. The studies are going on within the frames of some national and international projects.

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№10|2011

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.355.2

Nikolaev Yu. A., KAZAKOVA E. A., GRACHEV V. A., Kevbrina M. V., Dorofeev A. G., Aseyeva V. G., Akmentina A. V.

Biological treatment of municipal wastewater and return flows with the use of granulated sludge

Summary

The experience of aerobic granulated activated sludge formation in the laboratory batch reactor by sedimentation selection with the use of flocculant is described. The sludge is used in the process of low concentrated municipal wastewater and sludge dewatering filtrate (centrate) treatment. The developed technologies of granulated sludge formation provide for the intensification of the wastewater treatment processes; and hence the reduction of the treatment facilities footprint is ensured alongside with the improvement of their operation, reliability and efficient performance.

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№8|2013

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.353.001.2

Shuvalov M. V., Strelkov A. K., Shouvalov R. M.

Biological wastewater treatment in disk biofilters

Summary

The analysis of the results of investigating geometrical, physical, chemical and biological parameters of biofilm in disk biofilters alongside with domestic wastewater treatment efficiency with the use of disk biofilters at the existing wastewater treatment facilities is presented. The data on the disk biofilter process conditions are required for calculating this type of equipment when designing wastewater treatment facilities.

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№12|2015

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.35

Stepanov S. V., Stepanov A. S., Gabidullina L. A., Dubov O. V.

Biological treatment of oil refinery wastewater  in a biosorption membrane reactor

Summary

The basic process and kinetic regularities of biomembrane and biosorption membrane treatment of fuel and lube refinery wastewater are presented. The enhancement of denitrification process is suggested by reducing the dissolved oxygen concentration in the circula­ting flow of activated sludge by vacuum treatment. Summarizing the results of operating a pilot vacuumizing unit the more efficient use of biosorption membrane technology compared to the biomembrane method is shown. Single dosing of 1 g of powdered activated carbon per 1 liter of mixed liquor provided for reducing the mean monthly concentration of pollutants in permeate: in COD – from 68 to 49 mg/l; in BODfull – from 6 to 3.5 mg/l; in oil products – from 0.65 to 0.21 mg/l. The kinetic constants of the processes of eliminating the basic pollutants in membrane and biosorption membrane reactors were determined. It was stated that the specific oxidation rate in biosorption membrane reactors exceeded the similar indicators of membrane bioreactors only for easily sorbed substances – oil products and organic pollutants evaluated in BODfull. Vacuum treatment of circulating activated sludge during 5 minutes at minus 90 kPa pressure in a membrane bioreactor provided for 2-fold reduction of the dissolved oxygen concentration, improvement of the sedimentation properties of activated sludge (compared to the flow scheme without vacuum treatment) and the dissolved oxygen concentration less than 0.5 mg/l in the anoxic zone of the membrane bioreactor.

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№12|2016

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.31:661.5

MOROZOVA K. M., Stepanov S. V., Stepanov A. S., Sokolova T. V., Solkina O. S., Zhukova M. A.

Biological treatment of dairy industry wastewater in a membrane bioreactor (part 1)

Summary

The results of research study in the field of biological treatment of dairy wastewater are presented. The studies carried out under contact conditions showed that the kinetics of oxidation of dairy wastewater pollutants with activated sludge can be described by enzymatic reactions equation for substrate inhibition; at that, the obtained inhibition constants point at the increase of the wastewater toxicity after chemical flotation for biological treatment processes. The technology has been proved with simulative effluent in a pilot membrane bioreactor. The kinetic dependences of organics oxidation by BODfull, nitrification and denitrification were determined. The increase of oxidation capacity of the facilities by 1.46 at the sludge concentration increase from 4 to 10 g/l is shown that allows reducing significantly the size of the biological treatment facilities when using MBR technology. In the course of experimental studies at MBR plant and kinetic experiments under contact conditions the coefficients of inhibition with activated sludge metabolism products were determined for the simulative solution of wastewater by BODfull, for nitrification and denitrification. The temperature constant value for aerobic heterotrophic conversion, for nitrification and denitrification processes has been found.

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№2|2017

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.31:661.5

MOROZOVA K. M., Stepanov S. V., Stepanov A. S., Sokolova T. V., Solkina O. S., Zhukova M. A.

Biological treatment of dairy industry wastewater in a membrane bioreactor
(part 2)

Summary

The technology of biological treatment of dairy wastewater is described that provides for meeting the standard maximum permissible concentrations for fishery water bodies. The results of the experimental studies in a pilot membrane bioreactor with real wastewater of «Pestravskii» butter factory are presented. The main process and kinetic parameters of the biological wastewater treatment processes have been obtained that are needed for designing a membrane bioreactor with nitrification-denitrification that provides for meeting the standard maximum permissible concentrations for fishery water bodies or requirements to the effluents discharged into a public sewer. The maximum specific rate of diary wastewater pollutants oxidation Vmax at 7 g/l activated sludge concentration and 20 °С temperature is 40 mg/(g·h), Michaelis constant Km – 15 mg/l, inhibition coefficient of metabolism products  – 0.54 l/g, temperature constant X for aerobic heterotrophic conversion – 0.079 deg–1. Compared to the traditional treatment facilities the use of biomembrane techno­logy at the wastewater biological treatment stage provides for 1.4–1.5 reducing the treatment time, reactor volume and footprint owing to the increase of the oxidation capacity of the aeration units by increasing the activated sludge concentration to 10 g/l; and ensuring almost complete removal of suspended solids by eliminating the tertiary treatment stage. Possible elimination of chemical flotation stage before biological treatment is shown that provides for reducing the expenditures for expensive chemicals and streamlining the process flow scheme.

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№8|2013

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.35:661.5

Zoubov M. G., Boyarenev S. F., Zoubov G. M., Koulikov N. I., Shramov Yu. M., Litty Yu. V., Nekrasova V. K., Nozhevnikova A. N.

Wastewater treatment biotechnology with activated sludge immobilization and nitrogen removal

Summary

The data on the development and introduction of advanced wastewater treatment biotechnology with activated sludge immobilization and nitrogen removal with the use of Anammox bacteria are presented. On the basis of laboratory studies and pilot tests full-scale wastewater treatment facilities have been designed. Their operation provides for the high economic, environmental and social effect.

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№1|2010

PROBLEMS, PERSPECTIVES

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UDC 628.541:676

Miskevich I. V., Brovko O. S., Lichutina T. F.

Influence of Small Water Streams on Water Disposal Processes on the Example of OAO Solombalsky TSBK

Summary

Influence of streams and small rivers on pollution of a zone of mixing of runoffs of the Solombalsky pulp-and-paper plant and the ostiary water of the river of Northern Dvina by organic substances identified according to the parameter of chemical oxygen demand (COD) is considered. Presence of very high values of COD (100–403 mg/l) in water of streams with strongly boggy watersheds is revealed. Obvious domination of natural organics over its volumes in the enterprise’s runoffs is shown. When controlling the discharge of wastewater of pulp-and-papers plants into water objects it is recommended to take into account polluting substances of natural origin coming to the site of their dilution through small waterways (small rivers, streams and drainage ditches).

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№10|2014

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.31.085

KOZLOV M. N., Isakov V. G., Kevbrina M. V., Gavrilin A. M., Shashkina P. S.

The effect of ultraviolet disinfection of the Kur’ianovskie Wastewater Treatment Facilities’ effluent on the Moskva River biocenosis

Summary

Ultraviolet irradiation of urban wastewater is nowadays one of the safest and cost effective disinfection technologies. Ult­raviolet disinfection is a most efficient from the environmental point of view: no toxic by-products are formed in contrast to the traditional chlorination. Currently the biggest UV disinfection facilities have been operated in «Mosvodokanal» JSC: in September 2006 UV disinfection facilities with a capacity of 1 million m3/day were put into operation at the Liuberetskie Wastewater Treatment Facilities, and in December 2012 UV disinfection facilities with a capacity of 3 millions m3/day were put into operation at the Kur’ianovskie Wastewater Treatment Facilities. The results of analyzing phytoplankton, zooplankton and bacteriological communities in the receiving waters of the Kur’ianovskie Wastewater Treatment Facilities – the Moskva River before and after putting into operation the facilities for secondary effluent disinfection are presented in the paper. The comparison of biological characteristics of the water body with the river headwaters was carried out. Putting into operation the UV irradiation facilities provided for reducing bacteriological and virological water contamination. No changes in the plankton community structure were found. The river biocenosis keeps functioning inalterably. The use of UV disinfection technology ensures the epidemiological safety of the urban and rural population downstream the Moskva River.

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№12|2017

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

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UDC 504.064:628.356

Rublevskaya O. N., Probirsky M. D., Leonov L. V.

Implementation of the technologic solutions focused on the prevention of water body eutrophication (best practices of SUE «Vodokanal of St. Petersburg»)

Summary

SUE «Vodokanal of St. Petersburg» has been the biggest water user in the Baltic Sea coastal zone; therefore the enterprise is obliged to meet the regulations of effluent discharge into the water bodies. The qualitative composition of the discharged effluents is regulated not only by the Russian standards but also by the international recommendations including the Helsinki Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea. Russia endorsed the Convention in 1998. Since that moment Saint-Petersburg and Vodokanal have been aiming at reducing raw wastewater discharges into the Baltic Sea and meeting the regulations of the effluent quality. The best practices of SUE «Vodokanal of St. Petersburg» implementing the technology of nutrients removal with the purpose of preventing water body eutrophication are presented. The international experience was studied; the laboratory and full-scale tests of different technologies of enhanced phosphorus and nitrogen removal were conducted. Kreal technology and its limitations revealed in the process of operation are described alongside with the process schemes designed by the University of Cape Town (UCT-Process) and Johannesburg University (JHB-Process) and implemented with the purpose of improving the efficiency of wastewater treatment. In order to provide for the stable phosphorus concentration in the effluent according to the regulations chemical removal of phosphorus was introduced. Starting from 2011 Saint-Petersburg has been fully meeting the HELCOM recommendations.

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№11|2016

ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES AND EQUIPMENT

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UDC 628.166.085

Kostyuchenko S. V., SMIRNOV A. D., Pokhil Yu. N., Bagaev Yu. G.

Introduction of UV-disinfection at the Novosibirsk wastewater treatment facilities

Summary

Water recycling in the modern municipal services is a comprehensive task. On one hand the city inhabitants should be supplied with high-quality drinking water meeting all the sanitary and hygienic requirements; on the other hand the discharged municipal effluents shall not produce any adverse effect on the environment. To fulfil these tasks the most advanced disinfection technologies that ensured meeting all the microbiological requirements to the drinking water and effluents were introduced at the Novosibirsk water and wastewater treatment facilities. The use of ultraviolet irradiation provided for the efficient multi-barrier protection in drinking water purification and environmentally safe disinfection of wastewater.

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№7|2019

ABROAD

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UDC 628.1/.2(98)

Kofman V. Ya.

Water supply and wastewater disposal in the Arctic Region:
advanced technical soltions (a review)

Summary

In Canada wastewater treatment technology has been developed for small isolated arctic communities based on the effective biodegradation of organic carbon using a combination of anaerobic methanogenic and microbial bioelectrochemical processes that provide for biomethane generation. Microbial electrochemical degradation is executed in a membrane-free flow-type reactor with a bioanode and a biocathode operating at a voltage below the threshold of water electrolysis. In laboratory-based experiments in a wide range of mesophilic and psychrophilic temperatures (5–23 °C) a high efficiency of reducing BOD5 (90–97%) was achieved with a residual content of less than 7 mg/l. Energy consumption is 0.6 kWh/kg COD. Low energy consumption along with the production of biomethane ensures the operation of the reactor in the mode of power generation. For the conditions of Greenland a scheme of wastewater disinfection involving chemical coagulation and addition of peracetic acid, and/or ultraviolet irradiation was developed. Complete inactivation of Escherichia coli is achieved with the combined use of ultraviolet radiation (2.1 kWh/m3) and peracetic acid. Preliminary coagulation is an essential prerequisite for the effective inactivation of microorganisms. In the United States a closed water treatment scheme based on the peroxone process with reuse of water for drinking purposes has been proposed for the city of Fairbanks (Alaska). The big advantage of the closed-loop scheme is 85% conservation of the water in the system while preserving the thermal energy obtained from different water heaters. As a result the purified warm water is returned to the consumer; while less energy is required for its additional heating. In addition, the mineralization of organic substances in the oxidation process ensures the achievement of 0.7 mg/l residual COD.

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№9|2014

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.166.085

Vasiliak L. M., SMIRNOV A. D.

Potential use of ultrasound in water disinfection

Summary

Ultrasound has been used long enough in engineering and medicine for diagnostics, visualization of underwater objects, surface cleaning and other systems. Using ultrasonic disinfection as a main or additional technology is impractical because of the long exposure time, high energy consumption and lack of regulatory documents. To improve the efficiency of disinfection equipment the manufacturers suggest additional ultrasonic water treatment in combination with oxidi­zers and UV irradiation. The data on possible use of ultrasonics both as an additional disinfection method and method of improving the efficiency of traditional technology from the point of view of the concept of establishing numerous barriers during disinfection is presented. Different types of ultrasonic effect for using in water disinfection systems are considered. Ultrasound provides for the extremely low disinfection efficiency compared to other traditional technologies, therefore it is not used as an independent method. Ultrasonic water treatment improves the efficiency of oxidation technologies. Combined action of ultrasonics and UV irradiation does not have any synergistic effect. For natural water and effluent after treatment according to the operating standards the standard UV dosages are sufficient to ensure meeting the mic­robiological standards. Additional ultrasonic treatment is advisable under special conditions. Quartz sleeves can be well cleaned with mechanical systems and chemical wash which is used by all the world leading manufacturers. Due to the particular hazard of ultrasonic contact impact on humans the process of ultrasonic treatment shall completely eliminate such potential effect.

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