Tag:natural water

№4|2011

POTABLE WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.166

Zhurba M. G., Govorova Zh. M., Bakhir V. M., Ulyanov A. N.

On the Substantiation of Natural Water Disinfection Methods

Summary

Substantiation of the natural water disinfection method is necessary for assessment of great number of factors (qualitative composition of water, disinfectants properties and characteristics of technical disinfection means et al. and execution of preliminary technological tests for selection of a disinfectant meeting the following requirements: durable antimicrobial action, safety for human beings and animals, absence of generation of accompanying ballast salts, transformable organic substances, treehalogenmethane, economic advantage. Results of the comparative studies of efficiency of different disinfectants for reagent treatment of the Don and Tom rivers’ water at an experimental stands of 1–1,5 m3/hr capacity are presented.

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№12|2014

ABROAD

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UDC 628.16/.3:615.31

Kofman V. Ya.

Pharmaceuticals in natural, drinking and wastewater
(review)

Summary

The presence of pharmaceuticals in the natural water environment is becoming a subject of focused attention. For the moment more than 180 pharmaceuticals (pain relievers and anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics, beta-blockers, contrast agents, Lipid-lowering agents, psychiatric medicines, hormones and antiseptics) and their metabolites that keep bioacti­vity have been registered in the water environment in many countries. Most often detected among them are diclofenac, carbamazepin, clofibric acid, ibuprofen, bizafibrate, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, phenazone, ketoprofen, roxithromycin, triclozan, iopromide. The sources of pharmaceuticals ending up in municipal wastewater are residential sector, medical institutions, pharmaceutical factories, animal clinics and live stock breeding complexes. The concentration of separate pharmaceuticals can reach 40 µg/l. At the traditional wastewater treatment facilities pharmaceuticals can be removed in the process of biodegradation/biotransformation and activated sludge adsorption. However, the efficiency of removing many of them is typically low. The concentration of certain pharmaceuticals in surface waters can reach in average 10 µg/l, in underground waters – 1 µg/l. This results in bioaccumulation of most common medicines in the tissue of fish and other aquatic organisms. In the process of drinking water purification pharmaceuticals are removed in the processes of coagulation, filtration, activated carbon adsorption, chlorination and ozonation. Quite a number of medicines cannot be completely eliminated. As a result in many countries they are detected in drinking water in concentrations from several nanograms to 1 µg/l. For the moment there is a lack of reliable data on the toxicological effect of pharmaceuticals present in water environment; however this issue is extensively investigated.

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№02|2015

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.161.2.66.081.63

Askerniia A. A., Khamizov R. Kh., Migol' V. G.

Specific features of mass transfer of silicon compounds through reverse osmosis membranes

Summary

In the process of siliferous natural water treatment with different mineralization levels in two-stage reverse osmosis units the transfer of colloid (polymer) silica forms through permselective membranes at the second stage of water desiliconization takes place. Based on the results of the studies carried out in industrial-scale two-stage reverse osmosis units an attempt to analyze the results obtained in the model that took into account the efficiency of sediment formation on the active surface of a reverse osmosis membrane was made. The summary of the experimental results on siliferous natural water treatment with reverse osmosis is presented. A physico-chemical model of colloid silicon transfer through membranes is suggested that provides for precoat filtration effects and silicon depolymerization and polymerization processes during the solution passing through the corresponding filtering layers. In case of dynamic phase equilibrium availability precoat filtration results in the increase of dissolved silicon concentration fed on the effective membrane surface and subsequent (backward) recovery of the equilibrium composition in permeate. A proximate mathematical model for stable conditions of mass transfer is suggested.

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№7|2018

WATER TREATMENT

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УДК 628.16.094.3:66.074.371

FESENKO L. N., Tcherkesov A. Yu., Ignatenko S. I., Shchukin S. A.

Purification of hydrogen sulfide containing natural water
by iron-catalytic oxidation in a reactor with unltrafiltration separation

Summary

Currently purification of hydrogen sulfide containing water has been still a bottleneck in water treatment and demands advanced high-efficient technologies, equipment and plants providing for solving at the same time drinking and environmental aspects. The technology based on iron-catalytic oxidation of sulfides in the presence of atmospheric oxygen and combined with membrane treatment is proposed as an advanced technology of hydrogen sulfide removal from natural water. The data on practical testing the proposed technology in a laboratory unit is presented. Subsequent to the results of the experimental studies the area of the developed technolo­gy application in purification of hydrogen sulfide containing natural water is substantiated. The absence of accompanying hydrogen sulfide emission from the reactor in the process of water purification and environmental safety has been noted. Based on the obtained results the technology is considered for today as possible and essential. Herewith further study with investigations directed at determi­ning the optimal process parameters is needed.

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№9|2014

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.16

Gandurina L. V.

The use of VPK-402 coagulant for the removal of suspended solids of different origin and dispersiveness from water

Summary

The coagulation ability of VPK-402 organic coagulant in reducing water turbidity determined by fine mineral particles of different origin and dispersiveness is considered. Water coagulation was carried out under laboratory conditions following the pattern: mixing-flocculation-sedimentation. The concentration of suspended solids in water was determined from turbidity; dispersivenes – from particle hydraulic size U0. The studies were carried out with modeling water with turbidity less than 115 mg/l containing mainly fine-dispersed suspension of bentonite clays, kaolin, quartz, calcium carbonate and titanium dioxide with less than 0.2 mm/s hydraulic size. It was found that the hydraulic size of clay suspensions was determined by their swelling capacity in water; whereas for quartz, calcium carbonate and titanium dioxide suspension – by the particle size distribution of the original minerals. The optimal dosage of VPK-402 for clay mineral coagulation does not depend on their dispersive characteristics and equals to 0.5 mg/l, i. e. 5–10 times higher than the coagulant dosages for modeling waters with finely dispersed particles of quartz, titanium dioxide or calcium carbonate. The efficiency of water clarification lowers with the increase of the percentage of particles with less than 0.05 mm/s hydraulic size irrespective of their origin. The results of the Kuban River water purification validated the obtained regularities. The efficiency of using VPK-402 organic coagulant for reducing water turbidity depending on the origin and dispersiveness (hydraulic size) of suspended solids represented by bentonite clay, kaolin, quartz, calcium carbonate and titanium dioxide particles is considered. The obtained results can be used in practice for optimization of water coagulation to remove suspended solids.

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№7|2017

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.162

Gandurina L. V., Gavrilova N. N., Kuzin E. N., Raff P. A.

The use of the dynamic light scattering method for characterizing humic acids in natural water

Summary

The results of studying the impact of sodium, calcium and aluminium salts on the dispersive characteristics of humic acids in natural water with the use of Photocor Compact-Z analyzer are presented. The dispersiveness of humic acids by molecular mass determines to wide extent the efficiency of natural water decoloration with aluminium salts. It is shown that the method of dynamic light scattering can be an efficient and rapid method of studying the conformational changes of macromolecules in alkaline and acid solutions, and chemical interactions between humic acids and metal ions. The studies were carried out with natural and simulated water prepared by extracting humic acids from peat with distilled water and blending the obtained solutions to the required color. The ion composition of simulated water was changed by adding calcium chloride, aluminium sulfate, «Aqua-Aurat™30» polyaluminum oxychloride, sodium hydrogen carbonate and hydrochloric acid.

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№9-2|2011

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.166.085

Shuvalov M. V., Kirsanov A. A., Shuvalov S. V., Boldenkov V. S.

Designing and Construction of UV-Disinfection Stations at Objects of ME Samaravodokanal

Summary

Advantages of the UV-disinfection technology of natural and waste water in comparison with chlorination and ozonation are considered. According to the results of technological research and experimental-industrial tests it is established that the application of UV-irradiation at the stage of primary disinfection will make it possible to create conditions for the adjustment of the flow chart of chlorination with the decrease of the doses of chlorine used. Specialists of ME Samaravodokanal in cooperation with employees of the Water Supply and Wastewater Disposal Chair of the Samara State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering and Scientific-Production Company EKOS Ltd. have developed the project documentation for construction of UV-disinfection stations at two largest objects of water supply and wastewater disposal of Samara, pumping-filter stations.

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№8|2011

POTABLE WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.16.065.2

Getmantsev S. V.

System of Selection of Effective Technologies of Natural Water Treatment with the Use of Aluminium-Containing Coagulant

Summary

The accumulated experimental data on the use of aluminium-containing coagulants for natural water treatment found a reflection in numerous publications and monographs. The results of these studies make it possible to judge about the efficiency of application of aluminium sulphate and aluminium polyoxychloride for treatment of surface waters of various compositions as well as evaluate the influence of different water quality indicators on the efficiency of the use of coagulants. Data and results of own studies on the use of AQUA-AURAT™ coagulants which make it possible to reveal certain regularities are systematized and generalized. The algorithm of selection of AQUA-AURAT™ coagulants and technologies of their use depending on the quality indicators of natural water and characteristics of coagulants has been developed. The offered system realized in the form of a program module may serve as a practical instrument for selection of a reagent and determination of technological parameters of natural water treatment at existing or newly-designed treatment facilities.

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№7|2019

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.16

Gandurina L. V., Kvitka L. A., Shakhgaldian M. K.

Reducing color of natural water with the use of organic coagulants

Summary

The results of studies of the effectiveness of reducing color of low-turbid natural water by filtration with the use of organic coagulants of domestic trademarks: VPK-402, Kaustamin-15 and Biopag are presented. It is shown that the decrease in color of natural waters with organic coagulants occurs mainly due to coagulation processes at low alkalinity close to zero, and chemical interactions of the polyanion of humic acids with the coagulant polycation with alkalinity more than 1.2 mmol-eq/l. It was determined that the optimal doses of organic coagulants increase with a decrease in molecular weight in the series VPK-402 < Kaustamine-15 < Biopag and an increase in alkalinity of the treated water; whereas with an increase in hardness – decrease. In the alkalinity range of 1.2–2 mmol-eq/l the specific consumption of coagulants VPK-402 and Kaustamin-15 increases from 0.04–0.06 to 0.12 mg per degree of initial color while low-molecular Biopag coagulant practically does not change and is 0.09 mg/degree. The dispersion of the formed particles of the suspension increases with a decrease in the hardness of the treated water, an increase in alkalinity and the concentration of low molecular weight fractions of humic acids in water being purified which is accompanied by an increase in color of the purified filtered water. It is shown that the standard decrease in water color below 20 degrees is achieved by removing coagulated particles with a size of more than 0.3 microns in the process of filtration.

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№2|2014

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.161.3

Zhurba M. G., Govorova Zh. M., Petrov Iu. V., Govorov O. B.

The technology of water purification from the source in conditions of high anthropogenous impact (substantiation, design, introduction)

Summary

The concept of «efficient water purification» is suggested, the selection criteria are set out. Process flow diagram of water abstraction and purification facilities has been designed including: primary water purification with removal of suspended solids and phytoplankton in prefilters with floating media; chemical water treatment in the process of clarification in lamella plate clarifiers and filtration in two-stage filters with inert and heavy media with regular addition of fine-granulated sorbent between the stages; combined water disinfection with the use of weak sodium hypochlorite solution and uv-radiation. The results of pre-design testing the technology of the Don River (the Bol’shaia Kalancha river arm in conditions of high anthropogenous impact) water purification at the test bench are presented. Chemical free water filtration in prefilter media provides for reducing phytoplankton loading approximately by 26–38% and suspended solids loading by 10–35% at the basic facilities at less than 50 m/h filtration rate. Uniform and efficient mixing and floc formation are provided within 0.5–1.5 and 10–15 minutes, relatively, at the speed of the mixer blade rotation of 185 and 60 rpm and recommended coagulant dosage of 2.5 mg/l (10 mg/l in case of sharp deterioration of the water quality). The operation of a nanofiltration plant during the period of water quality deterioration ensured reducing hardness, total dissolved so­lids, sulfate and chloride concentrations. The basic process parameters of separate units of the process flow scheme that provide for reliable compliance with the standard water purification degree are defined. Based on the study results the recommendations on designing were developed and the water abstraction and purification facilities with a capacity of 150,000 m3/day were designed. At present the facilities are under construction.

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№04|2015

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.16.081:546.72/.711

Ryazantsev A. A., Glazkov D. V., Prosianikov E. D.

Removal of iron and manganese from natural water

Summary

The task of the study was investigating the impact of cavitation originating in low pressure devices of jet type on the kinetics of Fe2+ and Mn2+ ions oxidation as well as developing the method of chemical free removal of manganese and iron from natural water. The results of studies and the mechanisms of iron Fe2+ and manganese Mn2+ catalytic oxidation in water induced by cavitation are presented. The jet type device is equipped with a cartridge made in the form of a cone charged with crushed natural manganese mineral psilomelane or small steel chips. The particles of MnO2 and (or) FeOOH catalyst getting into water as a result of corrosion of the charge under the impact of cavitation become centers on which a Fe2+ and Mn2+ ions adsorption and oxidation take place. It was stated that under these conditions Fe2+ oxidation was not a limiting stage whereas complete oxidation of Mn2+ ions with the initial concentration of 2 mg/l occurs within 5 minutes. The fast manganese oxidation in the reactor charged with steel chips is caused by high Fe0 corrosion rate induced by cavitation and catalytic effect of structureless iron hydroxides that are formed during the charge corrosion. The obtained experimental data allowed designing a process flow scheme of manganese and iron removal from water that included a cavitation module and ceramic membrane filters operating in cross-filtration mode. The dimensions and size of a water treatment unit with a capacity of 60 m3/day have been calculated.

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№07|2015

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.16.052.2

Potapov V. V., Brovkin A. E.

Improving natural water purification with the use of new generation chemicals

Summary

The main aspects of natural water purification with coagulation are considered. The data on the composition of the surface public water supply sources in the area of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky are presented. The average molecular weight of humus substances present in natural waters is determined. The results of experimental studies of using new generation coagulants and flocculants in natural water purification at the water treatment facilities of MUE «Petropavlovsk Vodokanal» are presented. The action of coagulants: aluminium sulfate, aluminium hydroxychloride and aluminium oxychloride was studied. It was stated that the maximum efficiency of color removal from natural water in the Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky environment is provided by the use of aluminium sulfate and aluminium hydroxychloride; whereas the use of aluminium oxychloride was less efficient. The efficiency of turbidity removal when using all the three coagulants was high – 70–100%. Praestol 650 TR and Praestol 2515 TR flocculants at mutual dose testing improve the efficiency of color removal: Praestol 2515 TR – from 49–66 to 63–100%. The use of flocculants provided for improving the floc formation rate, floc size, floc sedimentation rate and sludge volume. To introduce the new advanced coagulant at the water treatment plant the coagulation process testing with the use of aluminium sulfate in combination with the flocculant is required. To eliminate possible formation of problem chlororganics before the coagulant takes effect and humus settles special attention shall be paid to the sodium hypochlorite injection point when coagulating high-colored water.

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№3|2016

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.168.4

Gandurina L. V., Getmantsev S. V., Raff P. A., Nikiforova A. Ju.

Chemical aspects of decoloration of low turbidity natural water with aluminium salts

Summary

The mechanism of decoloration of natural water with aluminium sulfate aluminium polyoxychloride is considered. The complexing reactions of humus acids with aluminium salts mainly contribute to the decoloration of natural water. The parallel proceeding reaction of aluminium sulfate and polyoxychloride hydrolysis facilitates the reduction of aluminium ion concentration in treated water but does not reduce color. Empirical dependences of coagulant dosages on color and alkalinity of raw water have been determined. Higher efficiency and lower dosages of aluminium polyoxychloride compared to aluminium sulfate used for decoloration are stipulated by the polymer origin of aluminium polyoxychloride. The use of coagulants in combination with cationic Praestol 650 flocculant provides for improving the efficiency of decoloration by 10–20% at the optimal coagulant: flocculant ratio of 50:1 for aluminium polyoxychloride and 20:1 for aluminium sulfate.

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vstmag engfree 200x100 2

mvkniipr ru

Российская ассоциация водоснабжения и водоотведения

Конференция итог

ecw20 200 300

VAK2