Tag:ground water

№9-1|2011

POTABLE WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.112.23:628.147.22

Karmalov A. I., Filimonova S. V.

Analysis of Сauses of Colmatage and Corrosion of Water-Intake Well Equipment under Conditions of Increased Anthropogenic Load

Summary

In the course of operation of water intakes from underground sources the problems associated with the processes of fouling and corrosion of the metal equipment of artesian wells inevitably increase. The intensity of deposit formation and corrosion development on the well equipment depends on the well output, the chemical composition of ground water, the presence of methane-producing and other bacteria generating an extremely active corrosion medium. Monitoring of the chemical composition and microbiological analysis of ground water make it possible to identify the causes of colmatage and corrosion of metal-containing elements of the wells under the conditions of the increased anthropogenic load, which further facilitates the selection of methods of struggle against these phenomena.

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№1|2013

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.35:62-278

SHVETSOV V. N., ALEKSEEV V. S., MOROZOVA K. M., Smirnova I. I., Semenov M. Yu.

Biosorption membrane technology of restoring the quality of ground waters polluted with oil products

Summary

The experimental results of investigating the efficiency of oil products removal from ground waters in a biosorption membrane reactor are presented. By the example of kerosene it is shown that biosorption membrane technology provides for the complex removal of oil products, chlororganics, organophosphates as well as naturally occurring organics from ground waters at low capital and operational costs to meet the drinking water quality regulatory requirements. This fact allows specifying the biosorption membrane method as a perspective technology of restoring the quality of ground waters polluted with oil products. The procedure of designing biosorption membrane reactors is presented.

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№7|2012

POTABLE WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.112.13

Steblevsky V. I., Koulakov V. V.

Starting the exploitation of an alternative underground water source in Khabarovsk

Summary

A technical and economic comparison of the ground water treatment technologies applied in the Tungus aquifer with traditional technologies of deironing and demanganization used at the overground facilities is presented. The advantages of the geotechnologic intraformational purification method that is twice as efficient as traditional technologies are specified. The experimental-industrial operation of the pilot plant provided for the potable water quality meeting the standards without using any chemicals or constructing expensive overground treatment structures.

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№7|2012

INNOVATIONS IN WATER SECTOR

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UDC 628.112.3.001.57

TESLA V. G., Rastorguev I. A., Grishek T., Kherlitsius J., Arns J.

Interaction between intraformational treatment and bank filtration in the process of water treatment at the Tungus water intake facilities

Summary

In the process of choosing the best available technology of ground water treatment of the Tungus water deposit the preference was given to intraformational treatment at the artificial geochemical barriers. The hydrodynamic calculations show that after the design capacity is reached the main part of the water intake inflow will come with the surface runoff in the form of bank filtrate; thereby the evaluation of the interaction between intraformational treatment and bank filtrate is an urgent task. Various aspects of interaction and mutual effect of the two underground water treatment technologies are considered. Examples of the combined use of the two methods in Russia and abroad are presented. The assessment of the bank filtrate effect on the process parameters of the intraformational treatment is presented. For this purpose the hydraulic and hydrodynamic aspects and changes in the qualitative composition of the mixed water are analyzed.

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№11|2018

WATER INDUSTRY

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UDC 628.11(470.6)

Mikheeva I. V.

Water projects, water supply and wastewater disposal conditions in the communities of the Southern Federal District

Summary

Drinking water quality maintenance has been one of the priority tasks of the national sanitary and epidemiologic service activities. The population practically in all the territorial entities of the Southern Federal District suffers from the scarcity of pathogen-free drinking water because of the undercapacity of the waterworks, unsatisfactory sanitary condition of the drinking water transportation systems, inefficient use of drinking water for watering garden plots in summer, lack of the good quality water supply sources. The root cause of water sources pollution is the discharge of poorly treated effluents and raw wastewater, storm water, drainage water from irrigation systems into the water bodies. The source of sea water pollution is raw wastewater and poorly treated effluents discharged by inefficient wastewater treatment facilities. Most wastewater treatment facilities, sewers of different projects and communities on the territory of the Southern Federal District need rehabilitation, capital repair and upgrade. Drinking water quality depends on the condition and quality of the water source, water treatment technology and condition of the distribution networks that predetermines the need of water use optimization. The proposals on improving the condition of water supply and wastewater disposal and ensuring the epidemiological welfare of the population of the communities of the Southern Federal District are presented.

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№4|2012

«TECHNOVOD–2012»

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UDC 628.161.2

KURANOV N. P., KUZMIN V. V., Boldyrev K. A., Bilek F.

Geochemical simulation of intraformational deironing and demanganation of ground water

Summary

A model of intraformational elimination of iron and manganese from ground water based on PhreeqC 2 software package was developed. The model takes into account the chemical parameters of the proceeding processes. The model application results show the high efficiency of intraformational deironing in the area of the Mostovoy water intake (Komsomolsk-on-Amur city). The effect of manganese concentration increase in pumped water during the initial operating period of the Tungus ground water intake is explained. The developed technique of hydrogeochemical simulation provides for designing a model of intraformational process of iron and manganese elimination while taking into account the analysis of the rock water-retaining capacity and intrastratal water.

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№9|2012

POTABLE WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.161.2:546.72/.711

GERASIMOV M. M., SMIRNOV A. D., Davlyaterova R. A., Domnin K. V., Arkhipova Е. Е., Metelitsa E. K., Smagin V. A., Belyak А. А.

Demanganization of decarbonized ground water of the Tungus basin with the use of catalytic media

Summary

A summarized analysis of the ground water demanganization methods is presented. The efficiency of manganese removal by «black sand» filtering is determined; the process parameters for purification of decarbonized ground water of the Tungus basin are specified. The efficiency of air assisted wash for the regeneration of the filter media upon the end of the filter run is evaluated. It was determined that the «black sand» filter media shall be activated with potassium permanganate. The complete process layout of the water demanganization facilities at the Tungus intake of the Khabarovsk city including sludge and filter washings treatment is developed.

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№12|2013

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.1.033

Demin A. P.

Changes in the Russian domestic water supply in XXI century

Summary

The data on the provision of the public water services to the housing facilities of the constituent territories of the Russian Federation, on the share of leakages and unaccounted-for-losses in the total water amount supplied to the distribution networks (2001–2011) is presented. Regions with low access of the population to the public water supply and high levels of leakages are identified, e. g. the South and North Caucasian federal districts (around 35%). It is shown that depreciation of the water distribution network (50–70%) results in the increase of water leakages. It was found that underground water use decreased in all the Russian federal districts and now amounts in average to 45% of the total water supply; whereas the share of underground water in the domestic water supply balance stands approximately at the same level. The data on the dynamics of the water pass through pretreatment facilities is presented. The reasons of the significant reduction of specific domestic water consumption throughout the federal districts and regions of Russia for 11 years of the XXI century are stated. The improvement of the domestic water supply sources in most federal regions is noted. The information on the number of polluted underground water areas is presented. The fundamental RF laws and regulations in the field of water and wastewater management passed lately are cited. High priority measures to supply good quality drinking water to the Russian population are suggested, i. e.: developing standardization in the field of water conservation; ensuring the balance between affordability of high quality public services for customers and adequate financing.

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№09|2015

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

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UDC 504.064

KURANOV P. N.

Applying the Best Available Technologies concept in the substantiation  of the system of engineering protection of natural water from pollution

Summary

The contemporary science-methodical and regulatory base supposes the wide application of the Best Available Technologies principle including the implementation of environmental protection activities. As a result of studies and model simulations three basic causes of underground and surface water pollution on the considered territory of the Sosnovsk oil deposit in the Samara Area were identified: fracking that includes discharging produced and waste water into the stratum; industrial waste leakages from cushion holes and service wells; leakages from distribution pipelines and tanks with the subsequent filtration through the aeration zone into underground and surface waters. A mathematical model of underground water filtration with establishing a specialized information system was developed. Simulating filtration in operating strata where industrial wastewater is pumped provides for evaluating the pressure of the stratum and, consequently, the so-called adverse effect level that is determined by the ratio of the pressure in the stratum to the fracking pressure. The calculations of underground water filtration were carried out both under stationary and non-stationary conditions with the use of MODFLOW Model. The basic conceptual framework of the Best Available Technologies principle as applied to the problem of desi­gning the systems of engineering protection of underground and surface water from pollution is presented. The example of implemen­ting the presented conceptual framework in the location of landfills for produced and waste water discharges in the Samara Area is given. It was determined that the best option shall be chosen on the basis of the business and economic calculations.

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№2|2010

PROBLEMS, PERSPECTIVES

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UDC 628.11.004.6

NEFEDOVA E. D., BOROVICKAJA Je. Ju.

The Use of Ground Water for Reserve Water Supply of St. Petersburg at Emergency Situations

Summary

It is told about the realization of The Target Program of Organization of Reserve Water Supply of St. Petersburg at Emergency Situations in Peacetime and for a Special Period at the Cost of Operation Reserves of Ground Water. The use of underground sources available on the city’s territory will make it possible for the State Unitary Enterprise Vodokanal Sankt-Peterburga to guarantee the water supply of the megalopolis population at emergency situations.

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№6|2014

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 543.632.495

Medvedeva T. M., Kolokolova N. N., Skriabin M. E.

Investigating iron bacteria in catalytic biofilm in underground waters at the Velizhany water treatment facilities of Tumen

Summary

Underground water used for drinking water supply of Tumen is characterized by high concentrations of iron and manganese that 1.3–10.59 times exceed the maximum permissible level. Iron and manganese can be efficiently removed from natural water with the help of microbiological oxidation and sorption processes. The studies aimed at analyzing the underground source for the presence of iron bacteria group and determining the rate of catalytical biofilm formation. Water analysis for the presence of iron bacteria was carried out in sand filters of the Velizhany water treatment facilities by microscopic method with the use of iron cytochrome coloring with potassium ferrocyanide on exposed specimen slides. The slides were placed on styrofoam floats installed in the filters of the water treatment facilities. The results of the studies showed that the water from the underground source contained iron bacteria – they were found in catalytic biofilm. It was stated that the rate of biofilm generation with the participation of iron bacteria in sand filters of the Velizhany water treatment facilities at the media level was in average twice as high compared to the level of surface of the water being treated. Mass growth of iron bacteria on sand media proceeded for 8–12 hours; in the water being treated – for 22–24 hours. It might be caused by biological oxidation of iron and manganese at the media level. The studies carried out confirm the possible use of iron bacteria of catalytic biofilm in biological removal of iron and manganese from underground water at the Velizhany water treatment facilities.

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№9|2014

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.161.2:546.72/.711

Govorov O. B., Govorova Zh. M., Kvartenko A. N.

Studies and experience of introducing innovative technologies of ground water conditioning

Summary

Ground water is often characterized by the presence of dissolved gases, iron and manganese compounds, fluorine in certain cases, nutrients, organics of natural and anthropogenic origin etc. Therefore, at the initial stage of ground water purification preliminary removal of dissolved gases and saturation of water with oxygen from air is required to provide for oxidizing protoxidic forms of the ingredients subject to removal. Testing ground water conditioning technologies was carried out under the conditions of the operating water treatment plant at the pilot facilities. The technologies involve the use of bioreactors with jet vacuum ejection at the initial stage and subsequent water filtration in filters with floating media. The role and advantages of bioreactors and technologies involving their use are shown in comparison with other aeration facilities and devices. Based on the research findings the process parameters of the main facilities operation have been specified that ensure the sustainable regulatory water treatment level. It was stated that after «charging» the bioreactor and filter media alongside with aeration and dissolved gas removal the efficiency of deironing at the first stage was 78.6–88.9%; at the second stage – up to до 97% at 25 and 8 m/h filtration rate, relatively. The results of experimental studies and commercial tests at the operating water intake are presented. The experience of operating commercial plants is generalized that confirms the efficiency of the developed energy-efficient technologies of ground water conditioning.

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№9|2016

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.161.2:546.72/.711

Govorova Zh. M., Govorov O. B.

Studies and experience of introducing the technology of ground water de-ironing and softening in the Moscow Area

Summary

The analysis of physical and chemical parameters of ground water quality from the wells of water intake facilities No. 4 and 5 in Zhukovskii town, Moscow Area, was carried out. Based on the results the priority pollutants – iron compounds, hardness salts, dissolved gases (carbon dioxide and hydrogen suphide) were identified. The technology of ground water conditioning with the use of bioreactors with jet vacuum ejection, subsequent filtration in moving bed filters and chemical water softening in a vortex reactor was substantiated. Under the conditions of an operating water intake field trials were carried out in a plant that comprised the models of bioreactor, degasifier, moving bed filter and vortex reactor. The process parameters of the main facilities operation that ensured the sustainable standard quality of the water after purification were specified. It was found that after bioreactor and filter charging water de-ironing alongside with the removal of dissolved gases was taking place. The efficiency of purification at the first stage is 88.9%, after filtration the concentration of iron in water does not exceed 0.3 mg/l. The required dosage (3.4 mg-eq/l) and concentration of sodium hydroxide solution (4%) that ensured the required level of preliminary de-ironed water softening were determined. The data on the implementation of the efficient technology of ground water conditioning at design stage and at the stage of reconstruction and upgrade of water pumping station No. 5 in Zhukovskii town are set.

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№1|2018

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.16.8

Kichigin V. I., Strelkov A. K.

Study of underground water treatment technologies in the northern regions of Russia

Summary

The results of studies of possible use of the underground water treatment process scheme of one of the northern regions of Russia are presented. The versatile container plant includes: ozonators, electrical flotocoagulators, contacts clarifiers and rapid filters, sorption filters with various activated carbon media, membrane filter, UV-irradiation unit for water processing, chemical plant for feeding Aqua-Aurat™30 coagulant and Praestol flocculant to water. Raw water was described as low-turbid, colored, medium mine­ralized (mainly chloride-sulphatic-bicarbonate). The quality indicators of water surpassed the requirements of SanPiN in terms of color (72 degree platinum cobalt color scheme), turbidity (11.2 mg/dm3), flourides (2.2 mg/dm3), total iron (4.54 mg/dm3, including Fe2+ – 4.51 mg/dm3), manganese (0.11 mg/dm3). It was shown that water purification according to the scheme «ozonation-chemical filtration-sorption filter-UV-irradiation-membrane unit» provided not only for color and turbidity reduction but also for nearly hundred percent removal of manganese, fluorine and iron. This process scheme can be recommended for introduction at the water treatment plants.

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№6|2013

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.161.2:546.711

Zhurba M. G., Govorova Zh. M., Kvartenko A. N.

On the substantiation of underground water demanganation (to be discussed)

Summary

The aspects of choosing demanganation technologies with account of the underground water composition specificity are considered, specified recommendations on the boundary conditions of using underground water demanganation process flow schemes at simultaneous presence of iron and manganese are presented.

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№11|2014

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.161.2:546.72/.711

Selyukov A. V., Baykova S. A.

Underground water conditioning for utility and drinking water supply of oil refinery producing area

Summary

The results of experimental studies of conditioning underground water containing high iron concentrations for utility and drinking water supply of oil refinery producing area are presented. At the first stage the exact values of underground water pH and redox potential of the medium were defined in order to evaluate the potential of using different deironing-demanganation processes. A specially designed flow-through temperature-controlled cell was used for measurements. The comprehensive technology of chemical treatment developed earlier for conditioning underground water at the Tumen North here again ensures the standard quality of drinking water. In the process of removing iron and manganese from water with simultaneous stabilization the chemicals having RF certificates for drinking water supply are used: hydrogen peroxide (GOST 177-88), potassium permanganate (ANSI/AWWA 603-88 standard) and caustic soda (GB 5175-2008 standard). The use of stabilization treatment provides for the elimination of secondary pollution with iron in the distribution network. Separation of insoluble reaction products was carried out by filtration through granular bed (quartz sand of 0.5–1.2 mm fraction). The obtained correlations between redox potential and chemical dosages allow to automatize the dosing process. In this case the technology provides for the residual concentration of iron and manganese less than 0.1 mg/l in drinking water. As an additional effect the technology ensures reducing the concentration of pollutants of technogenic origin– anionic surfactants (75%) and oil products (90%). Thereby the residual concentration meets the standard for bottled water. On the basis of the carried out tests the Process regulations for designing facilities for underground water conditioning of 4800 m3/day capacity were developed.

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№7|2013

POTABLE WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.161.2:546.72/.711

Selyukov A. V., Baykova S. A., Solovyova O. V.

Conditioning underground water of the Amur water intake (the city of Komsomolsk-on-Amur)

Summary

The results of investigating conditioning underground water of the Amur water intake of Komsomolsk-on-Amur are given. At present the construction of in situ deironing-demanganation facilities is underway; however the test operation of the first stage showed that the water quality did not meet the normative standard. An alternative technology was suggested, i.e. chemical treatment that ensured water stabilization and elimination of iron and manganese. In-process tests take into account all possible scenarios of operating the integrated aquifer treatment facilities under construction.

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№12|2014

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.16:546.(72+711)

Askerniia A. A., Sorokina A. Iu., Dubinina G. A.

Microbiological aspects of natural underground water deironing and demanganation

Summary

The purpose of the presented work was studying the role of microorganisms that participated in the transformation of iron and manganese compounds in technogenic drinking water purification systems. The studies were carried out at the water treatment facilities of the Novourengoisk gas chemical complex and of Iuzhnyi settlement of Barnaul city. At different stages of water treatment process alongside with studying the composition of bacterial communities and number of different physiological and taxonomical groups of microorganisms performing bidirectional processes of Fe and Mn compounds oxidation and recovery the analysis of physical and chemical parameters of the studied water (concentrations of O2, CO2, CH4, NH3, soluble forms of Fe2+ and Mn2+, pH, temperature, oxidability) was carried out with an account of the observation seasonality. It is shown that during the operation of a single-stage water purification system the filters uploaded with inert filtering material are functioning as biofilters, and transformation of Fe and Mn compounds in technogenic water purification systems is provided by the microorganism activity. Precipitated forms of Fe and Mn sludge are represented by exclusively biogeneous (bacterial) structures of iron- and manganese-oxidizing bacteria. Depending on the physical and chemical conditions the latter are presented mostly either by Gallionella species (the Novourengoist water treatment facilities) or by filamentous ferrobacteria Crenothrix and Siderocapsa – Arthrobacter unicells. The efficiency of biological deironing and demanganation of underground water during single-stage purification process is determined by the physical, chemical and microbiological properties of the raw water and depends on the conditions required for microorganism evolution that are provided by the adequate choice of the process equipment and operation modes.

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№9|2010

POTABLE WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.16

KINEBAS A. K., Feofanov Yu. A.

Modernization of the Zelenogorsk Water Supply Station is a Stage of Realization of the Regional Program Pure Water

Summary

The following works have been done within the limits of modernization of the Zelenogorsk water supply station (St. Petersburg): reloading of high-rate filters with installation of the new drainage system TRITON improvement of water aeration system (enrichment with oxygen in a pan aerator), and automation of technological process. The technique of water treatment for manganese at the second stage of the process with the use of catalytic oxidation in pressure filters containing the three-layered quartz sand, pyrolusite, and anthracite media has been introduced. The quality of water treated at the Zelenogorsk water supply station after its modernization meets the requirements of the Russian and European standards at all points.

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№12|2012

NANOTECHNOLOGIES IN WATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.162:620.3

Kofman V. Ya.

Nanoparticles of metallic iron for ground water treatment (review of foreign publications)

Summary

The international experience in using the technology of ground water treatment with the help of nanoparticles of metallic iron is presented. The technology of injecting nanoparticles provides for their transfer through intake wells practically to any point at any depth of the ground water basin. Limitations are imposed exclusively by economic factors. The well number and placing are determined by geologic and geochemical characteristics of the polluted area subject to investigation. Prior to the implementation of a project studies shall be carried out to specify the required composition and concentration of iron particle suspension, injection equipment, well placing and depth, working pressure and consumption of the suspended matter, duration of treatment.

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