Tag:potable water

№11|2013

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.1.033:543.31

Bashketova N. S., NEFEDOVA E. D.

Current problems of delivering high quality drinking water
to the population of St. Petersburg

Summary

The results of studies carried out by the experts of SUE «Vodokanal of St. Petersburg» and Centre for hygiene and epidemiology within the frames of Work program of water quality process inspection for the purpose of public health monito­ring are presented. Monitoring the quality of drinking water delivered to the population of St. Petersburg and its surroun­dings is carried out for 86 parameters in 174 control points at every stage of water treatment with regularity from daily to monthly. Analytical drinking water quality control was carried out with the use of advanced methods and equipment. To evaluate the efficiency of the measures for delivering epidemiologically safe drinking water to the population an «infectious hepatitis» morbidity rate was introduced. The results of social-hygienic monitoring show sustainable long-term improvement of water quality parameters and the tendency for population morbidity decrease. The following measures for ensuring safe drinking water supply have been developed: introduction of UV drinking water disinfection; use of two-stage drinking water disinfection with the combination of physical and chemical methods; conversion to disinfection with sodium hypochlorite and ammonia sulphate; introduction of water source quality biomonitoring and sorbent dosing systems; construction of an advanced water treatment line. The comprehensive approach to drinking water quality monitoring allowed to develop the Concept of delivering physiologically adequate drinking water to the St. Petersburg population and give an objective estimate of the water supply services with account of the assessment of consumer’s risk and full-value of water.

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№2|2012

VODGEO SCIENTIFIC-PRODUCTION ASSOCIATION

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UDC 628.16:62-278

SHVETSOV V. N., MOROZOVA K. M., FESENKO L. N., Skryabin A. Yu., Teremyazeva O. V.

Biosorption membrane technology for prevention of chlororganic and bromorganic compound formation in the Don River water

Summary

Experimental pilot studies of biosorption membrane technology of the Don water treatment are presented. The development of the given technology is a perspective direction in preventing chlororganic and bromorganic compound formation in drinking water. The Don water pretreatment with the given technology provides for 40–50% reduction of toxic chlororganic and bromorganic compounds formed during subsequent chlorination by means of eliminating organics in a bioreactor. During the studies high efficiency of biosorption membrane technology used for natural water treatment even at low temperatures was proved.

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№1|2010

PROBLEMS, PERSPECTIVES

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UDC 621.65:62-531.3:628.1

Goryunov A. N.

Interaction of Pumping Plants of the First Lift and Water Treatment Facilities

Summary

To ensure the effective work of a water treatment station, the coordination of operating modes of a pump station of the first lift with maintenance of the predetermined level at treatment facilities or in pure water tanks, and maintenance of the predetermined discharge to treatment facilities as well depending on the city’s water consumption is necessary.

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№8|2011

POTABLE WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.162.53:66.081

Skryabin A. Yu., Pedashenko D. D., Bozhko L. N., Popovian G. V.

Influence of Coagulation Treatment of Water on Equilibrium of Carbonic Acid Forms

Summary

Results of the determination of stability indexes (a saturation index, emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere) of the Don water using the results of complete chemical analyses of water made by laboratories at water supply stations are presented. On the example of the Rostov water supply system the advantage of the use of coagulants polyDADMAC both independently and together with aluminium polyoxichloride AQUA-AURAT™10 which don’t increase (comparing with traditional treatment with aluminum sulphate) the corrosive activity of treated water and don’t favour the emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere is shown.

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№12|2010

POTABLE WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 579.556:628.161.1

Gorshenin A. P., Garasko E. V., Ponomarev A. P.

Influence of Nanobacteria on Potable Water Quality and Safety

Summary

Results of the microbiological monitoring of potable water quality in the cities of Ivanovo, Vladimir, Kostroma using bacteriophysical and electron-microscopic methods are presented. Nanostructures capable of reproduction were found in the samples of potable water. A phenomenon of nanotransformation accompanied by the formation of several morphological conformations of nanobacteria is revealed. Nanobacteria presenting in potable water prepared using the traditional ways influence on its quality and may pose a hazard to human health. Determination of the fact of unfavorable influence may require the development of innovative water treatment techniques for eradication of nanobacteria.

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№10|2014

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

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UDC 628.11:504.054

Karpushenko A. V., Polyanin V. O.

The impact of economic activities on the sanitary-ecological state
of the Moscow drinking water sources

Summary

Human economic activities and water use conditions in the basins of the Moskva, Vazuza and Upper Volga rivers are the key factors that determine the natural water quality. The water resources used for the Moscow water supply are formed from surface water vulnerable to the anthropogenic impact. The sanitary-ecological state of the water sources, the hydrologic river regime and water quality determine to a large extent the specific features of the public water supply at present and will have an impact on its development in future. Establishing an efficient monitoring system and coordinating the activities of supervising, regulating and operating organizations in the field of maintaining proper sanitary and ecological state of the rivers, water reservoirs and their catchment areas are the prerequisites of the reliable water supply of the metropolitan area and sustainable water use in the Moskva-Oka river basin. Among the problems that demand focused attention are: the storm and wastewater disposal regulations, large-scale villa development at the riverfront, violations of agricultural technologies of manure storage and utilization, low public environmental consciousness, the lack of a reliable mechanism of observing the sanitary and environmental regulations, the lack of appropriate practice of exploitation of rivers and water reservoirs. All that causes gradual degradation of small rivers, water reservoir eutrophication, decrease of self-purification capacities of water bodies, and creates additional difficulties in water treatment. Such scope of work requires the development of schemes of comprehensive use and protection of water and land resources that prescribe measures, schedules, implementation priorities, and sources of financing specifically for a given water utilization system or a river basin. Sustainable use of water resources as well as catchment areas is particularly important for the drinking water sources. Precisely this approach will provide for implementing the legislated in Russia priority of using water bodies for drinking and public water supply to the full extent.

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№8|2010

POTABLE WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.113:502.65

Shushkevich E. V.

Influence of Ecological Conditions of Water Sources on Water Supply of a Megalopolis

SUMMARY

In theory the improvement of conditions of surface sources of water supply is an effective method of enhancement of potable water quality. However, even if there are possibilities to realize nature-conservative measures they have long-term character. In practice the most realizable methods are correction of water quality at water treatment stations’ water intakes changing the hydrologic conditions and operative control over water treatment at water treatment stations. The application of classical technique of water treatment with coagulation and clarification in complex with ozone sorption and ultrafiltration makes it possible to ensure the necessary degree of water treatment and its compliance with the perspective normative requirements regardless of conditions of a water supply source.

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№2|2010

PROBLEMS, PERSPECTIVES

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UDC 628.162.8

KINEBAS A. K., JAKOVLEV V. Ju.

Introduction of Two-Stage Scheme of Water Disinfection at Waterworks of St. Petersburg

Summary

It is told about the modernization of systems of water disinfection at waterworks of St. Petersburg using sodium hypochlorite and ammonium sulphate. It has allowed to liquidate completely the threat of affecting the city’s territory and population with highly toxic substances (gaseous chlorine and ammonia) owing to possible failures at industrial sites of the State Unitary Enterprise Vodokanal Sankt-Peterburga and at transportation of liquefied chlorine and ammonia solutions, and also to exclude chlorine and ammonia influence on the environment in the case of equipment depressurization. Introduction of the technology of water disinfection with ultra-violet irradiation has favored the realization of the concept of multiple barriers at potable water disinfecting at the city’s waterworks.

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№3|2017

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.11(470.6)

Mikheeva I. V.

Water bodies and state of the water supply within the territory of the Southern Federal District

Summary

Drinking water has been an essential factor of the formation of public health and life quality. The problem of maintaining water qua­lity as a factor producing a significant effect not only on the infectious case rate but also on the sick rate of the population is one of the priority tasks of the activities of the state sanitary and epidemiological service. The data on the water supply sources and state of the public water supply within the territory of the Southern Federal District is presented. Virtually all the water sources, both surface and underground, in all the substituent territories of the Southern Federal District are subject to the anthropogenic and technogenic impact of different intensity. The causes of the water quality deterioration in the surface water bodies are considered. The main cause of the pollution is discharging big amounts of raw or partially treated wastewater, storm water, drainage water from the irrigation systems into the water bodies. Unsatisfactory performance of the wastewater treatment facilities alongside with the delayed construction of the wastewater collection systems, lack of the effluent disinfection result in the pollution of the underground waters and rivers as well as in flooding the communities with underground water. The suggestions on certain measures to be taken to improve the state of the water supply and wastewater disposal of the communities of the Southern Federal District and provide for the epidemiological welfare of the population are presented.

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№11|2018

WATER INDUSTRY

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UDC 628.11(470.6)

Mikheeva I. V.

Water projects, water supply and wastewater disposal conditions in the communities of the Southern Federal District

Summary

Drinking water quality maintenance has been one of the priority tasks of the national sanitary and epidemiologic service activities. The population practically in all the territorial entities of the Southern Federal District suffers from the scarcity of pathogen-free drinking water because of the undercapacity of the waterworks, unsatisfactory sanitary condition of the drinking water transportation systems, inefficient use of drinking water for watering garden plots in summer, lack of the good quality water supply sources. The root cause of water sources pollution is the discharge of poorly treated effluents and raw wastewater, storm water, drainage water from irrigation systems into the water bodies. The source of sea water pollution is raw wastewater and poorly treated effluents discharged by inefficient wastewater treatment facilities. Most wastewater treatment facilities, sewers of different projects and communities on the territory of the Southern Federal District need rehabilitation, capital repair and upgrade. Drinking water quality depends on the condition and quality of the water source, water treatment technology and condition of the distribution networks that predetermines the need of water use optimization. The proposals on improving the condition of water supply and wastewater disposal and ensuring the epidemiological welfare of the population of the communities of the Southern Federal District are presented.

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№5|2018

ABROAD

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UDC 628.19

Kofman V. Ya.

Water crisis in Flint, Michigan, USA (2014–2015)

Summary

The city of Flint (Michigan, USA) was supplied with drinking water under the contract from Detroit. In 2014 for reasons of economy it was decided to provide for the temporary drinking water supply by rehabilitating the old water treatment plant that abstracted water from the local Flint River. Laboratory studies of the Flint River water were carried out; however, the corrosiveness index either was not determined or ignored; as a result orthophosphate corrosion inhibitor was not dosed into the water. In the municipal water distribution system and many houses up to now lead pipes and lead-containing fittings have been used. Under the circumstances the concentration of lead in water increased sharply. The existing municipal water quality monitoring system and sampling practice were focused mainly on concealing the low water quality. Numerous complaints of the residents, manifestation of exanthematous disease after using hot water, elevated lead concentrations in children’s blood led to announcing the emergency situation in the city and taking measures to investigate on the federal level the true situation with water contamination with lead.

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№10|2010

POTABLE WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.16:556.115:582

Shushkevich E. V., Karpushenko A. V., Polyanin V. O., Stolyarova E. A.

Water Treatment and Water Quality Control under the Conditions of Phytoplankton Development on the Example of the Moskva Water Source

Summary

Water bloom can influence significantly on the reliability of water supply of Moscow. The phytoplankton development depends on a whole number of factors: warming up and illuminance of water masses as well as availability of nutrients, biogenic elements (nitrogen and phosphorous mainly), in sufficient quantity are basic of them. Morphometric peculiarities of reservoirs and their hydrological conditions are of great importance. Quantity of phytoplankton changes appreciably year in year out. High concentrations of algae at certain periods favour the deterioration of organoleptic characteristics of water quality which complicates the process of water treatment. In that case it is necessary to carry out a whole number of measures beginning from redistribution of outflows from reservoirs and completing by introduction of innovation technologies of water treatment.

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№2|2018

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.161:544.723

Gvozdev V. A., Portnova T. M., Iatsinevich N. V.

Regeneration of the sorption capacity of granulated activated carbon

Summary

The analysis of the Neva River water quality parameters shows the changes in the chemical, biological and physical composition of the water under the environmental impact. Microbial as well as organic chemical pollutants get into the water source. Among all the monitored drinking water quality indicators the customers recognize bad smell at once. Double-layer filter bed (sand and activated carbon) provides for the efficient removal of colloid compounds and finely dispersed particles with low hydraulic size. Herewith the granulated carbon layer traps various organic compounds and water soluble oil products. Owing to the process of chemical compound oxidation (destruction) by ozonation and subsequent treatment with sorbent the chemical substances that flavor water with taste and smell are removed; as well as the color and permanganate value are lowered. When using powdered activated carbon at the filtration facilities achieving the treatment efficiency and estimation of the costs are required because in case chlorine-containing chemical is added to the water immediately after activated carbon is introduced the consumption of disinfection chemicals significantly increases. Thus, it is very important to include a sorption unit with granulated activated carbon to improve the reliability of water treatment. The efficiency of water treatment with granulated activated carbon was tested in K-6 unit at the Southern Waterworks of Saint-Petersburg. The evaluation of the water quality parameters after carbon reactivation was made. Reactivation of Filtrasorb TL 830 activated carbon under the selected process conditions provides for the satisfactory regeneration of the material sorption capacity while preserving its mechanical properties.

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№7|2011

POTABLE WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.1:628.147.22:620.197.3

KINEBAS A. K., NEFEDOVA E. D., Melnik E. A., Karmazinov F. V., Bekrenev A. V.

Choice of Reagent Technology of Anticorrosion Water Treatment for Water-Distributing Network of St. Petersburg

Summary

The secondary pollution of city water in St. Petersburg with iron is caused by the highly corrosive aggressiveness of the Neva’s water, the source of the city water supply. The methods of reducing this water parameter are considered. The technology of neutralization of corrosive aggressiveness based on the injection of calcium chloride and sodium carbonate into water treated has been chosen. The technology of stabilizing water treatment has been introduced at the Sestroretsk and Petrodvorets water supply stations of St. Petersburg.

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№6|2011

POTABLE WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628162.1

Selyukov A. V., Chekmareva S. V.

Demanganization of River Water

Summary

One of the intractable problems of public utilities for treatment of water from surface sources, an impossibility of water demanganization using the classical scheme of water treatment, is considered. The results of studies of river water aftertreatment for manganese with the help of potassium permanganate at the water supply facilities of the city of Pugachev, Saratov Reg., are presented. In the course of selection of the method of reducing the manganese content the pH value and redox potential of the medium are taken into account. The studies conducted and the testing operation of the system of potassium permanganate dozing show that the treatment using this reagent ensures the residual content of manganese in potable water meeting the specified requirements.

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№3|2017

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.17.001.4

Alekseeva L. P., Alekseev S. E., Korsa-Vavilova E. V., Shmelev A. Ia.

The use of ozone in surface water purification for public water supply of small communities

Summary

Two options of using ozone in purification of water from surface water supply sources with excess concentrations of organics in block-modular plants of small capacity are considered. Ozone effecting the changes in the basic water quality parameters is shown. The use of ozone in surface water purification extends the potential of the technologic process control under frequent seasonal fluctuations of the raw water quality, improves the quality of water after purification which is most important in the operation of small capacity plants. Besides, ozonation provides for reducing significantly the dosages of chemicals (coagulant and flocculant), and in some cases (during certain seasons) eliminating completely their use. The process studies carried out in a block-modular plant manufactured by «Moskosvskie Ozonatory» Company showed that the ozonation of the Volga River water for public water supply can be carried out using two process schemes: ozonation and sorption in carbon filters; or coagulation, ozonation and sorption. The parameters and conditions of using the ozonation, coagulation and sorption methods were specified; their efficiency at the minimum required chemical dosages was determined. It was stated that the use of ozone in block-modular plants for surface water purification provided for improving significantly the quality of drinking water regardless of the seasonal fluctuations in raw water quality; improving the integrity of the water supply system by all the parameters including microbiological ones. The effect of certain structural and technological solutions at the facilities on the water purification efficiency was noted.

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№05|2015

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.321

Riabchikov B. E., Larionov S. Iu., Panteleev A. A., Shilov M. M.

The study of enhanced water coagulation with the use of microsand

Summary

The results of the analysis of the present day advanced water coagulation equipment are presented. The results of the study showed that using the systems with sludge recycling and microsand addition was the most efficient solution. Because of the lack of reliable data on the efficiency of the given equipment, operational mode and chemical consumption, experimental units were designed that provided for testing the required modes and significant improving the process. Using sand from a packed column equipped with airlift for wa­shing produced good results. Sand loss was less than 1%. In the process of the experimental studies it was shown that the effect of fast precipitation in the clarifier at high linear water flow rate was possible. However, the use of static chemical mixing systems does not provide for the sustainable unit operation with changing parameters – flow rate, stock solution concentration, and temperature. For that reason the unit was upgraded following Actiflo option with the use of mechanical mixers for mixing with chemicals and sand, however, with sand and sludge separation in the plate column equipped with a pulsation system to improve the wash efficiency. The designed flowsheet of sludge separation into microsand and sludge with the help of a packed column showed significant advantages compared to the system with hydrocyclones. On the basis of the obtained data terms of reference for designing a pilot unit were developed.

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№6|2012

LEGISLATION, STANDARDS, GUIDELINES

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UDC 628.161.1:504.064.3

Mazaev V. T., Shlepnina T. G., Khromchenko Ya. L., Didenko E. A., Maksimov A. I.

On routine revision of SanPiN (Sanitary Regulations and Norms) 2.1.4.1074-01 «Drinking water. Hygienic requirements to the water quality in public drinking water supply systems. Quality control»

Summary

The information on the routine revision of SanPiN (Sanitary Regulations and Norms) 2.1.4.1074-01 «Drinking water. Hygienic requirements to the water quality in public drinking water supply systems. Quality control» is presented. The role of the regulatory document in the health legislation is set out. The basic issues of the live document subject to revision are considered, alternative provisions are discussed, and their enactment or rejection is substantiated.

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№6|2016

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.1:614.777

Lapshin A. P., Ignat'eva L. P.

Qualitative composition of drinking water at the purification and transportation stages

Summary

Poor sanitary and technical state of water distribution networks is the main reason of water quality deterioration in public water supply systems. During transportation drinking water often takes the properties that exclude the possibility of using it. At that not only corrosion processes inside the pipelines but also microorganism life activities produce negative impact. Slowdown of water flow results in the dissolved oxygen deficiency and startup of reduction processes by iron and manganese-reducing bacteria in consequences of which
metal ions deposited on the pipe walls are released into the drinking water and cause water quality deterioration. Disrepair state of the distribution pipelines and formation of biological film on the inner surface of the pipes not only produce impact on the organoleptic water properties, iron and manganese concentrations but also enhance heavy metal releasing into the drinking water during transportation. The evaluation of the technical state of the distribution network and results of the laboratory studies of the drinking water in the process of transportation revealed the low level of sanitary reliability of the public water supply in Tumen. The results of hygienic evaluation of the water distribution network showed that the municipal water distribution system is not sufficiently reliable from sanitary point of view and cannot ensure good quality of drinking water during transportation. The main cause of this problem is the influence of the dynamic factors and, as a result, pipe biofouling.

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№8|2010

POTABLE WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.1.033:543.3

Sokolov D. M., Kashintsev I. V., Sokolov M. S., Kantor L. I., Melnitsky I. A., Trukhanova N. V.

Potable Water Quality and Innovation Methods of Control (a problem and analytic review)

SUMMARY

Chemical and microbiological criteria of potable water quality are considered. Innovation methods of the water quality control – highly sensitive, selective, reproduced and express, having high accuracy and reliability for evaluation of its harmlessness and safety are presented. The regular production control of potable water quality is exercised at accredited laboratories and analytic centers of regional and municipal organizations. The experience of the Center of water quality analytic control of the Municipal unitary enterprise Ufavodokanal in the use of innovation methods of quality rating of potable water and wastewater including metrological approved methods and up-to-date measuring instruments of control (analytic devices, express-tests and indicators, petrifilms, chromogenic and fluorogenic nutrient media) is discussed. Equipment of domestic accredited laboratories with up-to-date means of comprehensive control over the potable water quality increases efficiency and reliability of its analysis’s results.

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