Tag:water treatment

№1|2019

WATER TREATMENT

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UDC 661.183.2

Mukhin V. M.

Activated carbon based on anthracite with high volumetric microporosity for water treatment

Summary

A new approach to the assessment of microporous structure and adsorption properties of activated carbon per unit volume has been substantiated. A few stage GAC technology for activated carbon production on the basis of anthracite has been developed. The qualitative characteristics of activated carbons made of anthracite from various regions of Russia have been studied and the affinity of their adsorption properties and strength characteristics is shown. The studies of adsorption properties of GAC (ground anthracite sorbent) activated carbon in drinking water treatment under static and dynamic conditions were carried out. The efficiency of activated carbon made of anthracite in removing heavy metal ions from wastewater from gold beneficiation plants is demonstrated. High adsorption capacity of GAC activated carbon both in relation to organic and inorganic pollutants in industrial water and wastewater treatment provides for its high efficiency in water supply and wastewater disposal systems. The study results showed that replacing sand or hydroanthracite media with active anthracite (eliminating the construction of a separate block with activated carbon) at the existing municipal water treatment facilities will provide for saving 150 billion rubles because the packed density of active anthracite is comparable to the packed density of quartz sand. Anthracite is not washed during filtration facilities backwash; with that both filtration of mechanical pollutants and sorption of molecular toxicants take place. As a result high quality drinking water is obtained without substantial expenditures.

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№10|2017

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.54

Sazonov D. V.

Influence of the pump type on the parameters of the pneumatic-hydraulic aeration system in flotation apparatus

Summary

Flotation has been one of the efficient water treatment technologies. Flotation treatment is based on small gas bubbles generated by different methods, pneumatic-hydraulic, in particular. A case is considered of air feeding before the pump and subsequent water-air mixture passing through the aerator, and air being broken to small bubbles. Possible operation in the presence of air determines the choice of self-priming pumps (centrifugal and vortex). Experiments were carried out on determining two of the most important aeration parameters: bubbling rate and average size of generated air bubbles that determine the efficiency of water flotation treatment. Based on the data obtained it is shown that in most cases centrifugal pumps have the advantages: considerable part of the air entering the pumps is dispersed at the outlet of the aerator to 30–100 μm bubbles; whereas in case a vortex pump is used air bubbles of more than 200 μm size are generated which is ineffective for water flotation. It is stated that for some wastewater types the use of vortex self-priming pumps can be more reasonable.

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№8|2014

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.161.3.001.891.53

Strelkov A. K., Egorova Yu. A., Bykova P. G.

Selection of most efficient chemicals for water treatment

Summary

The Saratovskoe water reservoir has been the main water source of the Samara public water supply. The municipal water treatment facilities have been built after typical projects and designed for clarification and disinfection of moderately polluted water. Lately sharp suspended solids reduction and organic pollution increase (mainly of natural origin) in the water source have been observed. During flood periods technogenic pollution (surfactants) is present, the concentration of manganese increases, phenol is found. At low water temperature, high color and permanganate value higher doses of chlorine and coagulant are required. Coagulation at low temperatures is inhibited which results in the concentration of residual aluminium and permanganate value exceeding the maximum permissible levels. Higher chlorine dosages cause higher concentrations of chloroorganics in water. Therefore a chemical for using during flood periods that will provide for the required quality of water shall be selected. The results of the laboratory studies of selecting the chemical type and optimum dosage for water purification from the Saratovskoe water reservoir during flood periods are presented. Eighteen coagulant trademarks manufactured by domestic and foreign producers were investigated. The optimum dosages of coagulant and flocculant were defined. From the coagulant samples presented two were selected that could provide for the maximum drinking water clarification at minimum levels of residual aluminium and permanganate value. The final choice can be made on the basis of the technical and economic calculations taking into account the chemical price, delivery cost and required water quality.

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№9|2012

POWER RESOURCES CONSERVATION

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UDC 628.196

Golovanchikov A. B., Yefremov M. Yu., Doulkina N. A.

Enhancing the removal of hardness and iron ions from water

Summary

The numerical calculation of the problem of determining the concentration of components in the flowing water and in the stationary solid state – ionite granules, is presented. For three cations, namely Ca+2, Mg+2 and Fe+2 subject to removal, the reduced concentrations in ionite and equilibrium concentrations in the treated water are calculated for each component. The calculations made show more than double increase of the surface coefficient of external mass transfer and of the volumetric coefficient of mass transport when the electric field intensity changes from 0 to 100 V/m. With that, the cycle operating time increases due to the increase of ionite exchange capacity use.

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№8|2011

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.345.1.001.2

Getmantsev S. V., Gandurina L. V., Sychev A. V.

Research in Coagulation Properties of AQUA-AURAT™18and Aluminium Sulphate at Independent and Combined Application

Summary

Results of the experimental studies on coagulation of pollutants of various types (suspended substances, dyes and humic substances) with coagulant AQUA-AURAT™18 and aluminium sulphate at combined application depending on their ratio and order of insertion in comparison with composite coagulant AQUA-AURAT™105 are presented. It is shown, that the combined use of aluminium sulphate and AQUA-AURAT™18 at consecutive insertion or in the form of composition intensifies the process of water treatment for suspended and dissolved acid substances (humates and acid dyes) comparing with the independent use of coagulants at a lesser or equal dose. The composite coagulant AQUA-AURAT™105 is more efficient for removal of suspended substances from wastewater than dissolved organic pollutants of acid type.

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№3-1|2013

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.345.1:544.77

Velyayev Yu. O., Mayorov D. V., Matveyev V. A.

Investigating the efficiency of using nepheline-based aluminosilicate coagulant

Summary

The results of investigating the efficiency of using aluminosilicate coagulant produced with the help of advanced technology of decomposing nepheline concentrate with 20–30% sulfuric acid are presented. The high efficiency of the produced chemical used for precipitating drill clay slicks, flotator discharge slurries and recycling water from apatite production; for removing copper, nickel, cobalt, fluorine, phosphorus and dissolved oil products from water is shown. The coagulant can be used for industrial and municipal wastewater treatment.

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№7|2017

WATER DISTRIBUTION NETWORK

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UDC 628.166.094.3

Grabovskii P. A., Gorobchenko A. I.

Adaptive control method in water disinfection

Summary

Pathogenic microorganisms present in natural water sources can be partially removed in the process of physical and chemical treatment (coagulation, contact clarification, filtration with presedimentation or flotation and other methods). Their final inactivation can be provided by oxidation with chlorine, chlorine dioxide, sodium hypochlorite and chloramines, ozone, as well as by UV-irradiation. The problems arising during chemical water disinfection are considered. The actuality of the problems is related to the decrease in water consumption, in big cities in particular. Owing to this the time of water retention in the distribution network increases, and in the far points the concentration of disinfectants in water is unacceptably low. The complexity of determining the chemical dosages conditioned by continuous fluctuations in the water consumption and water quality is shown. The operation of a network with the use of EPANET 2.0 software was simulated. The disinfectant concentration changes in water along the network length for «short» and «long» sections were studied. The dosing patterns for a network with two disinfectant injection points were developed. The practicability of adaptive control of the disinfection process is shown and its algorithm has been developed. The introduction of the proposed control scheme will provide for not only economic benefit by reducing chemical consumption but also for improving the reliability of water disinfection, improving the quality of the disinfected water, developing the data base for optimization and predictions, improving the customer service level.

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№10|2013

ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES AND EQUIPMENT

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UDC 628.16.094.3

Kofman V. Ya.

New advanced oxidation technologies of water and wastewater treatment (part 1)
(foreign publications review)

Summary

With the increase in population and industrial water consumption satisfying the demand for drinking water becomes a very pressing issue. This problem can be solved by using innovation process flow schemes of wastewater treatment. Advanced oxidation technologies are among them, i. e. homogenous and heterogenous photocatalytic processes, ozonation, Fenton’s process options, ultrasonic treatment, wet oxidation, electrochemical processes, oxidation in supercritical
water, plasma processes, ferrate and persulfate technologies, ionization radiation and microwave treatment. Hydroxyl radicals play key role in these processes. Photocatalytic processes proceed in the presence of catalysts with titanium dioxide (TiO2) being most efficient among them. The processes proceed in photocatalytic reactors in the presence of suspended catalyst and supported catalyst. In the process of water disinfection the synergistic effect is reached at combining advanced oxidation technologies and chlorination. Fenton’s process is based on the use of Fenton’s reagent, i. e. mixture of Fe2+ salt (catalyst) and hydrogen peroxide. Optimal рН value of 2.8–4 is the basic parameter of this process. Ozonation process proceeding in the presence of hydroxyl radicals originating from chemical transformation of ozone at 2.8 hydroxyl radical reduction potential is considered. Optimal formation of hydroxyl radicals is provided in ozonizers with hydrogen peroxide dosing device (Peroxone process). Ozonation in the process of UV-irradiation; ozonation in the process of UV-irradiation in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, ozonation in combination with ultrasound (Sonozone process) are considered. The use of advanced oxidation technologies in wastewater treatment produces positive results that provide for satisfying the water demand. (To be continued).

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№6|2013

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.33

Alekseyev E. V.

On using «specific flotosorption» index in flotator process design

Summary

An approach to describing the process of extracting pollutants by flotation based on the adsorption mechanism of the interaction of the participating phases is suggested. Basing on these perceptions possible determination of the flotation engineering parameters is shown. The analysis of the typical dynamics of the water treatment process in contact flotation cell models is presented. The recommendations on determining the parameters of the flotation process: flotation cell capacity and supplied gas (air) flow rate are given.

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№4|2012

«TECHNOVOD–2012»

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UDC 628.16.081:661(24+48+63)

Gandurina L. V., Potapova L. V.

Precipitating capacity of AQUA-AURAT™30 coagulant in water treatment in the presence of calcium hydroxide

Summary

The results of experimental studies of simultaneous elimination of sulphates, phosphates and fluorides from water with AQUA-AURAT™30 aluminium polyoxychloride in the presence of calcium hydroxide are presented. It was shown that the standard concentration of sulphates and phosphates is ensured with the chemical dosage ratio 4.5 (as active СаО/Аl2О3) and рН 11. Fluoride concentration under the circumstances is decreasing from 11 to 2 mg/l. The standard fluoride concentration in treated water is ensured at рН 7.

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№02|2015

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.161.2:614.777:546.47/.49

Larionov S. Iu., Panteleev A. A., Riabchikov B. E., Shilov M. M., Kasatochkin A. S.

Removal of natural radionuclides from underground water sources

Summary

Natural radionuclides are present in underground water sources of some Russian regions in the concentrations exceeding the maximum permissible level for drinking water. Natural water radioactivity is caused by the presence of uranium 238U and thorium 232Th isotope decay products including radium and radon. For the purification of radium containing water lime softening, sorption on special adsorbents (e. g. zeolites), ion exchange softening and active aluminium oxide or active alumina, manganese containing media are used. The given methods of treatment are described in a number of publications that state the possible use of reverse osmosis or nanofiltration, however, lack the information on their application. Membrane technologies in combination with the traditional methods allow designing the flow scheme of radionuclides removal from underground water. During the tests on producing water of the required quality for an open-cycle heat supply system no radionuclides accumulation was observed. For the operation period (1.5 month) of the ultrafiltration plant during the interval between backwash cycles the radiation background straight at the membrane increased insignificantly; whereas, after the backwash it returned to the initial level. Backwash number was more than 100 providing for the statistically valid data. The reverse osmosis plant was operating with ultrafiltration permeate. The total radionuclides in the parent solution was about 1.4 Bq/l, in reverse osmosis filtrate – 0.005 Bq/l, i. e. much lower than the maximum permissible level. In reverse osmosis concentrate this value does not exceed 1 Bq; therefore, it can be discharged into the open hydraulic networks in compliance with the established standards. No activity accumulation on the reverse osmosis membranes was observed.

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№1|2013

ОЧИСТКА СТОЧНЫХ ВОД

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UDC 628.35:62-278

Pervov A. G., Matveyev N. A., Karasyev P. L., Motovilova N. B.

Removing oil products and detergents from surface runoff with the use of reverse osmosis systems

Summary

The studies of developing advanced technologies of surface runoff treatment from oil products and detergents are presented. The technologies are based on the process of reverse osmosis with the use of membrane units of a new type with an «open channel». Eliminating the causes of deposit formation can provide for ten-fold increase of the incoming water concentration in the units. The amount of concentrate (aqueous solution containing concentrated pollutants) is reduced to less than 1% of the initial water amount. With such small amount the concentrate is removed together with sludge. The estimations of the economic benefit of the rational utilization of surface runoff for technical purposes are presented.

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№4|2012

«TECHNOVOD–2012»

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UDC 628.16.065.2

Getmantsev S. V., Gandurina L. V., Sychev A. V.

Comparison of aluminium-containing coagulant efficiency in turbid river water purification

Summary

The results of comparing the efficiency of inorganic aluminium-containing coagulants with different chemical composition and basic substance concentration when used for turbid river water purification: aluminium sulphate, AQUA-AURAT™ aluminium polyoxychlorides as well as composite aluminium-based coagulants are presented. It was shown that composite coagulants and coagulating-flocculating compounds are most efficient for turbid water treatment.

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mvkniipr ru 

Российская ассоциация водоснабжения и водоотведения

WST19 200x300

Конференция итог

VAK2