Tag:deferrization

№2|2017

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.16.081.3

SEREDKINA E. V., Kvachan E. P., Nezhura E. A.

Nonchemical underground water treatment
(Case study of the Amur water intake, the city of Komsomolsk-on-Amur)

Summary

Until the present no economically available and environmentally substantiated process scheme of a land-based underground water conditioning plant in the Far East has existed. High concentrations of iron and manganese at low Eh and pH values predetermined the use of chemical methods of treatment. The comparison of two process flow schemes – chemical and nonchemical (with the use of catalytic filtering media) is presented. It is shown that the use of the technology with three chemicals is not the only possible solution. The use of imported equipment and chemicals makes the operator of the municipal water treatment plant dependent on the pricing policy of the supplier. A process flow scheme of water treatment tested under the real-time conditions of a water intake and approved for the introduction with the use of catalytic filtering media and Russian-made equipment is presented. The main task in developing the process flow scheme of nonchemical water treatment was enhancement of the treatment processes with the aim of reducing capital and operational expenses.

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№4|2010

PROBLEMS, PERSPECTIVES

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UDC 628.162.1

BELEVCEV A. N., ZHAVORONKOVA V. I., POVOROV A. A., DUDKIN E. V.

Reagent-Free Deferrization Plants of the Hyxo Closed Company and Experience of Their Operation

Summary

There is a brief analysis of ground water deferrization techniques used for domestic and technical water supply. Reagent-free flow charts of artesian water deferrization with EUROWATER equipment realized at regional Vodokanals are presented.

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№7|2012

POTABLE WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.112.13

Steblevsky V. I., Koulakov V. V.

Starting the exploitation of an alternative underground water source in Khabarovsk

Summary

A technical and economic comparison of the ground water treatment technologies applied in the Tungus aquifer with traditional technologies of deironing and demanganization used at the overground facilities is presented. The advantages of the geotechnologic intraformational purification method that is twice as efficient as traditional technologies are specified. The experimental-industrial operation of the pilot plant provided for the potable water quality meeting the standards without using any chemicals or constructing expensive overground treatment structures.

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№9|2018

WATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.161

Govorova Zh. M., Govorov O. B.

Water treatment facilities, units and technologies with floating polymer bed (design and introduction experience)

Summary

The principal stages of designing water treatment facilities and units with granules of expanded crushed and uncrushed polysterene with the density less than the water density used as filtering bed are presented. The theoretical concepts and distinguishing features of water clarification process in a styrofoam layer are considered. The history of water clarification process in styrofoam layers at the specific structure of the granulated layer depends primarily on the quality of incoming water, filtration rate and surface properties of the bed. The dominant parameters of the surface water quality in this case are as follows: dispersiveness and suspended matter concentration, kinetic stability of its colloid particles. During filtration of effluents after biochemical treatment in addition to the above-mentioned parameters the microbial life-sustaining activities play an important role. The process parameters of various filters with floating bed (FPZ-1, …, FPZ-6, AFPZ-4М) and bioreactors with jet vacuum ejection are quoted. The positive experience of the introduction and operation of these facilities as part of water intake and purification complexes, natural water treatment plants, underground water conditioning plants and domestic, industrial and storm wastewater tertiary treatment plants is considered. Lately the increase of anthropogenic impact on the water sources have raised the demand for carrying out process experimental studies with real water of different water purification processes including filtration in filters with floating polymer bed at large-scale pilot plants. Based on the obtained results of the studies of water purification processes the recommendations for designing a water intake and purification complex were developed and implemented during its construction.

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№4|2012

«TECHNOVOD–2012»

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UDC 628.161.2

KURANOV N. P., KUZMIN V. V., Boldyrev K. A., Bilek F.

Geochemical simulation of intraformational deironing and demanganation of ground water

Summary

A model of intraformational elimination of iron and manganese from ground water based on PhreeqC 2 software package was developed. The model takes into account the chemical parameters of the proceeding processes. The model application results show the high efficiency of intraformational deironing in the area of the Mostovoy water intake (Komsomolsk-on-Amur city). The effect of manganese concentration increase in pumped water during the initial operating period of the Tungus ground water intake is explained. The developed technique of hydrogeochemical simulation provides for designing a model of intraformational process of iron and manganese elimination while taking into account the analysis of the rock water-retaining capacity and intrastratal water.

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№9|2014

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.161.2:546.72/.711

Govorov O. B., Govorova Zh. M., Kvartenko A. N.

Studies and experience of introducing innovative technologies of ground water conditioning

Summary

Ground water is often characterized by the presence of dissolved gases, iron and manganese compounds, fluorine in certain cases, nutrients, organics of natural and anthropogenic origin etc. Therefore, at the initial stage of ground water purification preliminary removal of dissolved gases and saturation of water with oxygen from air is required to provide for oxidizing protoxidic forms of the ingredients subject to removal. Testing ground water conditioning technologies was carried out under the conditions of the operating water treatment plant at the pilot facilities. The technologies involve the use of bioreactors with jet vacuum ejection at the initial stage and subsequent water filtration in filters with floating media. The role and advantages of bioreactors and technologies involving their use are shown in comparison with other aeration facilities and devices. Based on the research findings the process parameters of the main facilities operation have been specified that ensure the sustainable regulatory water treatment level. It was stated that after «charging» the bioreactor and filter media alongside with aeration and dissolved gas removal the efficiency of deironing at the first stage was 78.6–88.9%; at the second stage – up to до 97% at 25 and 8 m/h filtration rate, relatively. The results of experimental studies and commercial tests at the operating water intake are presented. The experience of operating commercial plants is generalized that confirms the efficiency of the developed energy-efficient technologies of ground water conditioning.

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№9|2016

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.161.2:546.72/.711

Govorova Zh. M., Govorov O. B.

Studies and experience of introducing the technology of ground water de-ironing and softening in the Moscow Area

Summary

The analysis of physical and chemical parameters of ground water quality from the wells of water intake facilities No. 4 and 5 in Zhukovskii town, Moscow Area, was carried out. Based on the results the priority pollutants – iron compounds, hardness salts, dissolved gases (carbon dioxide and hydrogen suphide) were identified. The technology of ground water conditioning with the use of bioreactors with jet vacuum ejection, subsequent filtration in moving bed filters and chemical water softening in a vortex reactor was substantiated. Under the conditions of an operating water intake field trials were carried out in a plant that comprised the models of bioreactor, degasifier, moving bed filter and vortex reactor. The process parameters of the main facilities operation that ensured the sustainable standard quality of the water after purification were specified. It was found that after bioreactor and filter charging water de-ironing alongside with the removal of dissolved gases was taking place. The efficiency of purification at the first stage is 88.9%, after filtration the concentration of iron in water does not exceed 0.3 mg/l. The required dosage (3.4 mg-eq/l) and concentration of sodium hydroxide solution (4%) that ensured the required level of preliminary de-ironed water softening were determined. The data on the implementation of the efficient technology of ground water conditioning at design stage and at the stage of reconstruction and upgrade of water pumping station No. 5 in Zhukovskii town are set.

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№11|2014

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.161.2:546.72/.711

Selyukov A. V., Baykova S. A.

Underground water conditioning for utility and drinking water supply of oil refinery producing area

Summary

The results of experimental studies of conditioning underground water containing high iron concentrations for utility and drinking water supply of oil refinery producing area are presented. At the first stage the exact values of underground water pH and redox potential of the medium were defined in order to evaluate the potential of using different deironing-demanganation processes. A specially designed flow-through temperature-controlled cell was used for measurements. The comprehensive technology of chemical treatment developed earlier for conditioning underground water at the Tumen North here again ensures the standard quality of drinking water. In the process of removing iron and manganese from water with simultaneous stabilization the chemicals having RF certificates for drinking water supply are used: hydrogen peroxide (GOST 177-88), potassium permanganate (ANSI/AWWA 603-88 standard) and caustic soda (GB 5175-2008 standard). The use of stabilization treatment provides for the elimination of secondary pollution with iron in the distribution network. Separation of insoluble reaction products was carried out by filtration through granular bed (quartz sand of 0.5–1.2 mm fraction). The obtained correlations between redox potential and chemical dosages allow to automatize the dosing process. In this case the technology provides for the residual concentration of iron and manganese less than 0.1 mg/l in drinking water. As an additional effect the technology ensures reducing the concentration of pollutants of technogenic origin– anionic surfactants (75%) and oil products (90%). Thereby the residual concentration meets the standard for bottled water. On the basis of the carried out tests the Process regulations for designing facilities for underground water conditioning of 4800 m3/day capacity were developed.

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№7|2013

POTABLE WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.161.2:546.72/.711

Selyukov A. V., Baykova S. A., Solovyova O. V.

Conditioning underground water of the Amur water intake (the city of Komsomolsk-on-Amur)

Summary

The results of investigating conditioning underground water of the Amur water intake of Komsomolsk-on-Amur are given. At present the construction of in situ deironing-demanganation facilities is underway; however the test operation of the first stage showed that the water quality did not meet the normative standard. An alternative technology was suggested, i.e. chemical treatment that ensured water stabilization and elimination of iron and manganese. In-process tests take into account all possible scenarios of operating the integrated aquifer treatment facilities under construction.

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№6|2016

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.16

Tsukanov N. A., Budykina T. A., Spitsyn E. N., Budykina K. Iu.

On the experience of applying DynaSand filters  for drinking water deironing in Kursk

Summary

Drinking water supply of Kursk and the Kursk Area has been provided exclusively from underground water artesian sources because of the lack of affluent rivers and water bodies on the territory of the region. The given underground water is characterized by excess levels of ions of iron, manganese and hardness salts as well as by -radioactivity because of the specific geographical location and availability of the iron-ore deposit (Kursk Magnetic Anomaly). The basic method of water purification before supplying to the distribution network is disinfection with chlorine. In 2013 a drinking water deironing plant was put into operation with a capacity of 75 thousand m3/day. Water is preliminary chlorinated with sodium hypochlorite, then the generated iron hydroxide (III) sludge is removed by filtration in self-cleaning DynaSand filters manufactured by Nordic Water (Sweden). There is no analogue of deironing plant of such capacity with the use of DynaSand filters in Russia. Owing to the introduced technology the city of Kursk has been supplied with water of standard quality in relation to iron, manganese concentrations, and total hardness.

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№3|2018

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.161.2:544.723.2

Gorelova E. I., Kotov V. V., Данилова Г. Н.

Iron removal from water by sorption on carbonic-silicate composite

Summary

In order to remove impurities from water a composite based on BAU-A activated carbon, silicon dioxide and kaolin with addition of silver nanoparticles was prepared. The composition of the obtained composite supposes the possibility of integrated water treatment with the removal of organic and inorganic impurities and microorganisms; while the presence of silicate- and alumosilicate-containing components in the composite supposes its cation-exchange properties. By scanning microscopy method the increase of the dispersion degree to nanoparticles of the composite fragments after processing with NaOH solution was found. The processes of Fe2+ ions sorption from aqueous solutions were studied. The physical and chemical properties of carbonic-silicate composite: saturate specific sorption and selectivity coefficient were determined. Sorption on 10 g of sorbent was carried out by the limited space method with the circulation 0.4 dm3 solution with the preset concentration. The mechanism of Fe2+ sorption was proposed that involved absorption process with redistribution of ions between equilibrium solution and pore volume at low Fe2+ concentrations; whereas at high Fe2+ concentrations - ion exchange sorption. The lowest iron concentrations were determined (25 mg/dm3) that provided for its complete removal as well as the upper limit of concentrations (35 mg/dm3) that provided for the standard values of sorption purification.

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№2|2012

VODGEO SCIENTIFIC-PRODUCTION ASSOCIATION

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UDC 628.16.081

Selyukov A. V., Baykova S. A.

Deironing-demanganation of ground waters at the Severny intake facilities of Khanty-Mansiysk

Summary

The results of investigating the process of deironing-demanganation of ground waters at the Severny intake facilities of Khanty-Mansiysk are presented. Ground water subject to treatment is characterized by low hardness, low alkalinity, low salt concentration and temperature values typical for the waters in the north of Tyumen. The water treatment technology applied at the intake facilities does not ensure meeting the water quality standards for iron and manganese. An alternative method of oxidation with potassium permanganate is suggested. As a result of the pilot tests at the Severny intake facilities the optimal dose of potassium permanganate that provided for decreasing iron and manganese concentration to the standard level was determined. It was shown that preliminary alkalization of the treated water to pH 7.5 and 8.5 allows 3–10 decrease of the dose.

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№09|2015

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.161

Vasil'ev A. N.

The experience of using «dry» filtration technology  in underground water conditioning

Summary

Iron, being one of the most abundant elements of the Earth crust, is present almost everywhere in the water of shallow aquifers in the form of soluble compounds, or sometimes in the form of compound organic matter. High concentrations of iron in water cause corrosion and blockages in pipes either directly by forming deposits or indirectly providing the conditions for specific bacterial growth. For this and some other reasons iron is removed from the water from the sources with elevated iron concentrations before supply to the consumers. The examples of the «dry» filtration technology used by the engineering and construction companies of Tver in the process of underground water conditioning are presented. The theoretical basis of the technology was formulated by G. Iu. Asse, expert of NII VODGEO. As a result of the longstanding cooperation with the designers from Tver the process flow scheme of underground water de-ironing was developed together with the process equipment – a set of aero-filters of various capacities. This provided for designing a number of de-ironing installations which surpass by a number of parameters the well-known de-ironing technical solutions implemented in typical and individual projects. Technical solutions developed and implemented in practice provide for placing aero-filters in one building with a booster pumping station, filter media regeneration pumps, a compressor station, UV-disinfection system, and auxiliary rooms.

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№7|2012

INNOVATIONS IN WATER SECTOR

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UDC 628.161.2:546.72/.711

TESLA V. G., Steblevsky V. I., Domnin K. V., Kherlitsius J., Koulakov V. V.

Experimental-industrial operation of a pilot plant for intraformational ground water purification at the Tungus intake facilities

Summary

The results of experimental-industrial tests of a pilot plant for intraformational water deironing and demanganization at the Tungus ground water intake in Khabarovsk are presented. The ground waters of the Tungus deposit are characterized by high content of iron, manganese, and dissolved carbon dioxide at low pH values. The pilot plant included three operating and 14 observation wells. The positive impact of artificial recharge of the aquifer in the operation area of the intraformational water purification at high pH and dissolved oxygen levels is shown. Based on the results of the water qualitative composition analyses of the observation wells located at various distances from the operating wells a schematic view of the sedimentation area around the operating wells is given. Based on the pilot plant operation results a working draft of the intake with the intraformational purification capacity of 106,000 m3/day was designed. At present the first section of the water intake with a capacity of 25,000 m3/day has been completed.

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№11|2018

WATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.165:66.081.63

Kurdiumov V. R., Timofeev K. L., Kraiukhin S. A.

Specific features of using reverse osmosis for mine water treatment

Summary

The possibility of using reverse osmosis for treatment of mine water from dead copper-nickel pits was studied. The composition of mine water was, mg/dm3: Mn 0,6–1; Fe 0,01–0,1; Ni 0,8–1,5; Cu 0,3–0,5; Zn 0,05–0,25; Co 0,02–0,07; Na 35–50; Ca 125–150;
Mg 35–45; SO4 100–200; Cl 65–75; Al 0,02–0,05; Si 9–11; Se 0,1–0,2; As < 0,005; Te < 0,005; Pb < 0,005; Hg < 0,00005; salt content 750–850; total hardness 9.5–11.5 °dGH; рН 7–7.5. The studies were carried out in a pilot plant with a capacity of 1 m3/h with original mine water. The plant included ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis modules. The permeate yield varied in the range of 50–75% of the original water volume. The method of chemical mine water demanganation and de-ironing at the primary treatment stage was tested. The quality of effluent (permeate) fully conforms to the drinking water requirements. The operating conditions of the pilot plant are described; the chemical unit consumption is presented. The specific features of using reverse osmosis technology for mine water treatment are described. The basic performance indicators of the reverse osmosis unit in terms of the equivalent amount of 1 m3/h at
the effluent output of 75% of the inflow are presented. The method of concentrate utilization is described providing its yield is reduced to 5% which makes it possible to extract valuable admixtures (non-ferrous metals).

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№10|2016

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.161.3:546.711

Alekseeva L. P., Kourova L. V., Alekseev S. E.

Specific features of using chemical treatment in removing manganese compounds from underground water

Summary

Many underground water sources in Russia used for drinking water supply are characterized by increased concentrations of iron and manganese. There are different chemical and nonchemical methods of underground water treatment. In some cases nonchemical methods of treatment cannot provide for the required drinking water quality. However, the use of chemicals for removing iron and manganese compounds makes the process more complicated and increases the cost of water treatment; therefore their use shall be substantiated and approved by technological studies. The aspects of removing manganese compounds from underground water with the use of chemicals in cases when it was stated that nonchemical methods were not efficient are considered. The results of studies on determining the efficiency of using oxidants, alkalizing and coagulating chemicals are presented. When using oxidants in removing manganese from water the range of optimal chemical dosages is relatively small. The efficiency of manganese removal with the help of oxidants increases with the increase of water pH. For more integrated removal of oxidized manganese compounds and other pollutants from water flocculants can be used in the process of water clarification.

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№1|2016

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.161.3

Alekseev S. E., Alekseeva L. P., Kourova L. V.

Evaluation of the efficiency of different chemicals in removing iron and organics from underground water

Summary

The composition and quality of underground waters in different regions of Russia substantially differ. Most underground waters contain elevated iron concentrations. Iron from underground water that contains oxygen and high concentrations of organic substances (humic and fulvic acids) that cause the water color is most difficult to remove. Besides, in oil producing regions underground waters occur that contain pollutants of anthropogenic origin: oil products, phenols, amines etc. In the process of such water purification integrated methods shall be used to provide for eliminating organic and non-organic pollution. The results of the studies of removing iron complex organic compounds from underground water in the Nefteyugansk region by different chemical methods: oxidation, alkalization and coagulation are considered. The impact of the conditions of using chemicals on the underground water purification efficiency was determined. It was shown that in removing complex iron compounds from water strong oxidizing agents and alkalizing chemicals could be used. To eliminate humic substances and organic compounds of anthropogenic origin coagulating chemicals must be used.

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№9-1|2011

POTABLE WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.162.15

Skolubovich Yu. L., Voytov E. L., Karmalov A. I., Skolubovich Yu. L.

Treatment and Utilization of Wash Water of High-Rate Filters of Deferrization Stations

Summary

Issues of the intensification of coagulation treatment processes of wash water of the deferrization station’s high-rate filters are considered. Shortcomings of the existing flow chart of treatment and the reuse of wash water of filtration stations are exposed. The scheme of the unit and results of experimental studies for selection of an efficient reagent, treatment and utilization of filters’ wash water are presented. A new technology of reagent clarification and multiple use of deferrization station’s wash water is offered.

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№9-2|2011

POTABLE WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.112.23:628.168.4

Tsabilev O. V., Strelkov A. K., Bykova P. G., Zanina Zh. V., Vasiliev V. V.

Treatment of Artesian Water for Domestic Water Supply

Summary

An example of solving the task of improvement of artesian water quality up to normative values with the help of baromembrane technologies is given. A flow chart of water treatment for household needs of a settlement optimal from the ecological and economical points of view is described. The comparative results of the technological calculation of various schemes of water demineralization and softening including the processes of ion exchange, nanofiltration and reverse osmosis are presented.

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№5|2012

WATER AND WASTEWATER COMPANIES (VODOKANALS) IN RUSSIA

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UDC 628.161

Moiseev A. V., Troshkova E. A.

Industrial-scale tests of an injection aeration system at the Velizhan water deironing plant in Tyumen

Summary

Tsurumi submersible jet injectors were suggested for the installation in the channels of the rapid filters of the first process line at the Velizhan water deironing plant operated by Tyumen Vodokanal JSC; for the second process line it was recommended to dismantle the polyethylene pipe aeration system in the deaerator-degasifier and to replace the air blower with advanced economically efficient submersible impeller aerators. The engineering solutions were proved by the industrial-scale tests carried out on-site. The results of the water quality analyses before and after retrofitting the advanced aeration system are presented. The approximate evaluation of the power efficiency and cost saving when using submersible impeller and jet aerators is given.

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