Tag:water disinfection

№7|2019

ABROAD

bbk 000000

UDC 628.1/.2(98)

Kofman V. Ya.

Water supply and wastewater disposal in the Arctic Region:
advanced technical soltions (a review)

Summary

In Canada wastewater treatment technology has been developed for small isolated arctic communities based on the effective biodegradation of organic carbon using a combination of anaerobic methanogenic and microbial bioelectrochemical processes that provide for biomethane generation. Microbial electrochemical degradation is executed in a membrane-free flow-type reactor with a bioanode and a biocathode operating at a voltage below the threshold of water electrolysis. In laboratory-based experiments in a wide range of mesophilic and psychrophilic temperatures (5–23 °C) a high efficiency of reducing BOD5 (90–97%) was achieved with a residual content of less than 7 mg/l. Energy consumption is 0.6 kWh/kg COD. Low energy consumption along with the production of biomethane ensures the operation of the reactor in the mode of power generation. For the conditions of Greenland a scheme of wastewater disinfection involving chemical coagulation and addition of peracetic acid, and/or ultraviolet irradiation was developed. Complete inactivation of Escherichia coli is achieved with the combined use of ultraviolet radiation (2.1 kWh/m3) and peracetic acid. Preliminary coagulation is an essential prerequisite for the effective inactivation of microorganisms. In the United States a closed water treatment scheme based on the peroxone process with reuse of water for drinking purposes has been proposed for the city of Fairbanks (Alaska). The big advantage of the closed-loop scheme is 85% conservation of the water in the system while preserving the thermal energy obtained from different water heaters. As a result the purified warm water is returned to the consumer; while less energy is required for its additional heating. In addition, the mineralization of organic substances in the oxidation process ensures the achievement of 0.7 mg/l residual COD.

Key words

, , , , , , , , , , ,

 

№9|2014

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

bbk 000000

UDC 628.166.094.3(477.75)

Gutenev V. V., Denisov V. V., Skryabin A. Yu., FESENKO L. N.

Water supply of the Crimea: advanced water disinfection technologies based on the local resources

Summary

Supplying population with high quality drinking water and efficient industrial and domestic wastewater treatment have been global challenges aggravating against the growing scarcity of available fresh water. These problems together with the impact on the human health and economy have also been urgent for many territorial entities of the Russian Federation including the new one – Republic of Crimea. The main problems in water supply of the present-day Crimea have been caused by the deficiency of drinking water, low sanitary reliability of the water treatment systems, lack of sufficient amount of disinfecting units in the agricultural areas, unsatisfactory sanitary and engineering condition of the water distribution networks. All that is worsening the epidemiologic situation at the health resorts of the peninsula, particularly during the high season. The unsatisfactory and even critical condition of the Crimean municipal and communal water supply infrastructure makes it difficult to provide adequate quality water (and wastewater) services to the population. The options of applying water treatment technologies with the use of different concentrations of sodium hypochlorite with an account of the specific features of the South and Steppe Crimea are considered. The availability of sea water and brackish water sources on the peninsula plain, possible use of the «honeycomb» system of disinfectant distribution make introdu­cing the given technology on the large-scale environmentally safe and economically feasible.

Key words

, , , , , ,

 

№09|2015

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

bbk 000000

UDC 628.166

Zhuravkova I. V.

Import substitution in full play

Summary

According to the resolution of the Government of the Russian Federation the economic model of the country development shall be restructured to provide for the import substitution of the technologies applied in strategically significant branches using internal sources. «Nevskii Crystal» Research and Production Company has developed and manufactured a wide assortment of electrolyzers for produ­cing and dosing low concentrated electrolytic sodium hypochlorite. The units conform fully to the international standards.

Key words

, , , ,

 

№4|2016

ПИТЬЕВОЕ ВОДОСНАБЖЕНИЕ

bbk 000000

УДК 628.166

Kofman V. Ya.

Новые подходы к обеззараживанию воды
(обзор)

Summary

In the process of using traditional methods of water disinfection with chlorine containing disinfectants or ozone byproducts of different toxic effect are formed. As alternative water chemical oxidants-free water disinfection methods and methods characterized by lower disinfection byproducts formation are developed. In this regard photocatalytic water disinfection process with ultraviolet irradiation or visible light impact; microorganism inactivation with the use of nanomaterials in the form of titanium dioxide, silver nanoparticles, fullerenes, graphene, carbon nanotubes, peptides and chitosan, as well as ferrate process are most intensively investigated. The given process flow schemes have certain advantages also in microcystine destruction. The mechanism of microorganism inactivation is considered. Technical problems that have to be solved to expand the practical use of alternative water disinfection methods are presented.

Key words

, , , , , , , , , , ,

 

№6|2018

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

bbk 000000

UDC 628.166.085

Bogun P. V.

On increasing the capacity of UV-units for liquid disinfection

Summary

The results of theoretical studies of the possible capacity improvement of units for disinfecting liquids including water by ultraviolet irradiation eliminating any increase in energy consumption are presented. Capacity improvement is possible at the fixed reactor geo­metry and source strength owing to the redistribution of liquid flows in the reactor. It is shown that the maximum possible efficient radiation dose is equal to the mean by reactor volume radiation intensity multiplied by the mean time of liquid residence in the reactor. The necessary and sufficient condition for obtaining this dose is the availability of liquid flow in every point of the reactor volume and equal radiation dose for every microvolume of liquid. By way of example the calculations of the maximum possible radiation dose for a spherical reactor with a point source of radiation and for a cylindrical reactor with a linear radiation source are presented. It is noted that widely manufactured at present UV water disinfection unit designs with a single source (a lamp) use only 30% of the source capa­city. The design with a cylindrical reactor and spiral downward liquid flow distributed along the reactor length provides for the maximum possible radiation dose and/or capacity of the installation.

Key words

, , , ,

 

№07|2015

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

bbk 000000

УДК 628.166

Platonov M. M., Kochelaeva G. A.

Optimization of drinking water chlorammoniation process

Summary

Water disinfection is the most important function of the public water supply. Chlorammoniation used for this purpose has a number of advantages compared to the traditional chlorination. However, it sets raised requirements to the analytical control instruments which limit the automation potential. Different control parameters are considered in relation to their possible application for the automation of the disinfection process. It is shown that the best parameter indicative of the optimal conditions of the process is the concentration of free ammonium. To choose a method of measuring free ammonium under the conditions of chlorammoniation at the existing water supply facilities tests on monitoring free ammonium by different methods were carried out. The limitations of some laboratory techniques are shown together with the advantages of the method using a gas-selective electrode, particularly in automatic analysis. The method of free ammonium monitoring with the use of an automatic analyzer with a gas-selective electrode has a number of advantages: a clear criterion of the optimal process conditions; the lowest absolute error of the measurements; possible use of the method for the automation of chlorine (ammonium) dosing. The operational tests showed the efficiency of the given method of the process control, reliable operation of the analyzer and good repeatability in relation to the laboratory data.

Key words

, , , ,

 

№11|2017

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

bbk 000000

UDC 628.166.085

Kostyuchenko S. V., SMIRNOV A. D., Tolstoi M. Iu.

Domestic technologies and equipment for chemical free treatment of water and wastewater of the Siberian cities and industries

Summary

The chemicals used in liquid and gaseous media treatment and purification either stay intact in the processed environment or disinteg­rate and react with the processed environment or admixtures in it and form numerous secondary and often toxic products. In this context chemical free methods of media purification aiming at their environmental safety are of most interest. Chemical free methods of treatment do not result in the formation of such a big amount of secondary products; whereas the efficiency of their use is often higher because they less depend on the type and structure of the targeted substance or admixture as well as on the conditions of use. Ultraviolet irradiation has been the most efficient and widely used method of chemical free disinfection of effluents both in Russia and abroad. The capital expenses for UV-disinfection are significantly reduced since there is no need in constructing contact tanks for chlorination and dechlorination; in addition the absence of chemical consumption eliminates the need in constructing a chemical plant and installing dosing systems. Using the example of the Siberian Region the advantages of using UV-irradiation in wastewater treatment is described.

Key words

, , , , , ,

 

№7|2019

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

bbk 000000

UDC 628.1.033:66.094.413

Zholdakova Z. I, Lebed’-Sharlevich Ia. I., Mamonov R. A., Sinitsyna O. O.

Enhancement of the requirements to monitoring the safety of drinking water during chlorination

Summary

Oxidative methods involving the use of chlorine and sodium hypochlorite are most widely used for water disinfection. At the same time the regulatory requirements included into the sanitary and epidemiological legislation do not fully reflect the requirements to monitoring their use. A comparative analysis of scientific, technical and methodological literature, as well as of the statutory documents regulating the parameters of the effectiveness and safety of drinking water disinfection with chlorine showed that in the process of developing the first SanPiN 2.1.4.559-96 an exact definition was neglected. It consisted in the fact that the quantitative indicators of these parameters shall not stipulate mandatory simultaneous presence of free and combined residual chlorine in water. The data on the in-process control of drinking water at the water treatment plant in the city of Perm showed no need to maintain the concentration of residual free chlorine at 0.3–0.5 mg/l granting residual combined chlorine in the range of 0.8–1.2 mg/l is available. In this regard it is advisable to introduce appropriate updated requirements for monitoring the concentrations of free and combined chlorine in drinking water in SanPiN 2.1.4.1074-01. When water is chlorinated with gaseous chlorine and sodium hypochlorite a large amount of hazardous halogen-containing volatile and semivolatile compounds including carcinogenic are formed. However, water quality control is carried out only for certain volatile substances. A differentiated approach to the selection of indicators for monitoring the concentration of halogen-containing compounds taking into account the characteristics of raw and disinfected drinking water is recommended.

Key words

, , , , , ,

 

№8|2011

POTABLE WATER SUPPLY

bbk 000000

UDC 628.16.065.2 (282.247.33)

Linevich S. N., Breus S. A.

Efficiency of Natural Water Disinfection in the Course of Coagulation Treatment

Summary

Results of experimental and theoretical studies of the coagulation treatment of the Don water and monitoring of the concomitant process of its disinfection are presented. The mechanism of separation of algae, bacteria and viruses from water due to their sorption on aluminium hydroxide generated in the course of coagulation is described. The best effect of water disinfection observed during electrocoagulation is 93,8%. The use of this method makes it possible to abandon the primary water disinfection with chlorine, exclude a large-size reagent services and improve the ecological situation in connection with reduction of the volume of the generated sludge (waste of coagulation process).

Key words

, , , , ,

 

vstmag engfree 200x100 2

mvkniipr ru

Российская ассоциация водоснабжения и водоотведения

Конференция итог

ecw20 200 300

VAK2