Tag:nitrification

№4|2010

PROBLEMS, PERSPECTIVES

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UDC 628.35:661.5

DANILOVICH D. A., KOZLOV M. N., Moyzhes O. V., Nikolaev Yu. A., KAZAKOVA E. A., GRACHEV V. A.

Anaerobic Oxidation of Ammonium for Removal of Nitrogen from High-Concentrated Wastewater

Summary

The first in Russia study of the technique of anaerobic oxidation of ammonium (ANAMMOX) applied for treatment of return flows from dewatering of digested sludge is described. The two-stage technique ANAMMOX with the use of two processes – partial nitrification and the process of anaerobic oxidation of ammonium itself – has been realized under laboratory conditions. Efficiency of nitrogen removal in a reactor was 90%, volumetric capacity of the reactor by nitrogen was 0,16 kg/m3 per day. Results obtained show that the process of autotroph removal of nitrogen is an attractive alternative technologically and economically to the traditional technique of nitri-denitrification.

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№12|2015

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.35

Stepanov S. V., Stepanov A. S., Gabidullina L. A., Dubov O. V.

Biological treatment of oil refinery wastewater  in a biosorption membrane reactor

Summary

The basic process and kinetic regularities of biomembrane and biosorption membrane treatment of fuel and lube refinery wastewater are presented. The enhancement of denitrification process is suggested by reducing the dissolved oxygen concentration in the circula­ting flow of activated sludge by vacuum treatment. Summarizing the results of operating a pilot vacuumizing unit the more efficient use of biosorption membrane technology compared to the biomembrane method is shown. Single dosing of 1 g of powdered activated carbon per 1 liter of mixed liquor provided for reducing the mean monthly concentration of pollutants in permeate: in COD – from 68 to 49 mg/l; in BODfull – from 6 to 3.5 mg/l; in oil products – from 0.65 to 0.21 mg/l. The kinetic constants of the processes of eliminating the basic pollutants in membrane and biosorption membrane reactors were determined. It was stated that the specific oxidation rate in biosorption membrane reactors exceeded the similar indicators of membrane bioreactors only for easily sorbed substances – oil products and organic pollutants evaluated in BODfull. Vacuum treatment of circulating activated sludge during 5 minutes at minus 90 kPa pressure in a membrane bioreactor provided for 2-fold reduction of the dissolved oxygen concentration, improvement of the sedimentation properties of activated sludge (compared to the flow scheme without vacuum treatment) and the dissolved oxygen concentration less than 0.5 mg/l in the anoxic zone of the membrane bioreactor.

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№9|2016

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.353:661.5

Iantsen O. V.

Enhanced wastewater treatment with nitrogen compounds removal  in biofilters

Summary

Biofilters mainly built in Russia in 1960–1970-ies in most cases are a part of small-scale treatment facilities. At present most biofilters are in serviceable condition (owing to the specific design), however they provide for incomplete biological treatment. The results of the laboratory studies of the wastewater treatment technology in biofilters are presented. Several process flow schemes are considered, optimal modes of the facilities‘ operation are suggested. The properties of different filter media were studied. The advantages and drawbacks of the technologies and media studied are noted. Health-related and chemical parameters of the water treated are set. The diagrams that reflect running processes of nitrification-denitrification are presented. The use of a two-stage four-zone process flow scheme of biological wastewater treatment is substantiated. The suggested process flow scheme will provide for the wide use of biofilters both in upgrading the existing facilities and in designing new ones.

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№7|2018

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

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UDC 574.632/635

Chesnokova S. M., Savel'ev O. V.

Study of the antibiotics effect on self-purification processes
of hydroecosystems

Summary

Based on literature data the role of hydrobionts of various ecologic groups in self-purification processes of aquatic ecosystems is considered alongside with the possible effect of antibiotics getting into surface water on hydrobionts. The results of studies of antibiotics effect on small crustaceans-filterers Daphnia magna Sr. by biotesting method and on nitrobacteria by laboratory modeling method with the use of river water are given. It is stated that the toxicity and hazard of the studied antibiotics for small crustaceans-filterers depend on the origin of antibiotics, their concentration in water and capacity to accumulate in small crustaceans’ organisms. Out of the stu­died antibiotics cefazolin was most toxic for daphnia, whereas ampicillin and ceftriaxon were less toxic. However these antibiotics are characterized by obvious capacity to accumulate in daphnia’s organism and can further cause downsizing of the population of these hydrobionts, distortion of self-purification from suspended solids and trophic structure of hydrobiocoenosis. In order to study the effect of antibiotics on nitrification process cefazolin and cefotaxime antibiotics were used at the concentrations of 1·10–9–1·10–8 mg/dm3. It is stated that the effect of these antibiotics depends on the concentration and origin of antibiotics. Cefazolin at the studied concentrations inhibits nitrification process. Cefotaxime at the concentration of 1·10–8 mg/dm3 slightly inhibits and at the concentration of 1·10–9 mg/dm3 inhibits nitrification process. The highest inhibiting effect of the studied antibiotics is observed on the 15th day of exposure; nitrification process enhancement with cefotaxime at the concentration of 1·10–8 mg/dm3 was registered within the interval of 6–12 days of exposure.

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№10|2013

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.35:661.5

Strelkov A. K., Stepanov S. V., Blinkova L. A., MOROZOVA K. M., Belyakov A. V.

Investigating the processes of single-stage biological treatment
of oil refinery wastewater

Summary

The results of investigating the operation of the Novokuibyshevsk oil refinery waste biological treatment facilities are presented. It was found that denitrification process was not possible in two-stage process of wastewater treatment because of
high concentration of dissolved oxygen in the denitrification tank and low concentration of organics in raw wastewater. Full-scale experiment with single-stage mode of operation of the entire biological treatment facilities was carried out. After the first-stage aeration tanks de-commissioning the total activated sludge amount in the system increased almost 1.5-fold. Sludge concentration in the aeration tanks (of the second stage) increased from 0.5–1 to 2–2.5 mg/l; COD sludge load was reduced from 143 to 77 mg/(g·day). The improved nitrification efficiency and denitrification start were recorded. Kinetic constants were determined for the processes of organics and oil products oxidation, for nitrification and denitrification required for designing wastewater treatment facilities with nitrification-denitrification technology. Inhibition by substrate was found at the concentration of oil products in effluent higher than 4 mg/l. Nitrification inhibition was observed at ammonia nitrogen concentration in effluent higher than 1 mg/l. The full-scale experiment of conversion of the Novokuibyshevsk oil refinery waste biological treatment facilities to one-stage operation provided for testing on commercial scale the advanced nitrification-denitrification technology and recommending this process flow scheme for the introduction at other RF oil refineries.

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№5|2013

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.35:661.5

Stepanov S. V., SHVETSOV V. N., MOROZOVA K. M., Belyakov A. V., Blinkova L. A.

Investigating nitrification-denitrification technologies of oily wastewater treatment

Summary

The results of investigating biological treatment by nitrification-denitrification technology of oily wastes of the Novokuybyshevsky oil refinery are presented. Possible meeting the advanced requirements to the effluent quality in relation to nitrogen compounds, particularly, by industrial wastewater treatment without blending with municipal wastewater is shown. The kinetic constants of nitrification-denitrification processes and oxidation of oil products required for designing wastewater treatment facilities are determined.

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№06|2015

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628:339

Korziukov N. I., Zviagin G. K., Os'kin D. V.

WAMGROUP® Company – 10 years in Russia

Summary

WAMGROUP® Italian Company has been among world leaders in developing and manufacturing equipment for mechanical treatment of wastewater. The specialists of the company offer a number of innovative solutions that meet the specific demands of the companies designing water wastewater treatment facilities. The information on the implemented project of wastewater treatment facilities in Bokino village of the Tambov Region in the Tambov Area with the use of GCP mechanized screw screens is presented. The process line consists of several wastewater treatment stages including mechanical (removal of coarse litter and sand), biological (removal of organics and nutrients), and several stages of tertiary treatment, sedimentation and filtration. At the final stage of the process line the effluent is UV disinfected and discharged into the Tsna River. Commissioning the newly built wastewater treatment facilities provided for improving the living conditions for the residents, the ecological state of the Tsna River which is the main waterway in the Tambov Area, and the safety and quality of the beaches in the city of Tambov.

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№9|2016

POWER RESOURCES CONSERVATION

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UDC 628.355

Gogina Е. S., Gul’shin I. A.

Simulation of energy efficient biological wastewater treatment process in a circulation oxidation ditch

Summary

In the National Research Moscow State University of Civil Engineering comprehensive work is carried out in the field of simulating energy efficient wastewater treatment processes in circulation oxidation ditches. Notably, process flow schemes of removing nitrogen compounds from wastewater at low dissolved oxygen concentrations are considered. The study is aiming at the determination of optimal process modes of biomass activity under different conditions in the course of implementing experimental schemes. The summarized results of the second stage of the comprehensive study of energy efficient wastewater treatment in circulation oxidation ditches are presented: the efficiency dependency of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification at variable oxygen regimen has been determined, the mechanism of biomass adaptation and specific features of biomass bringing to the operating regime has been studied. The experimental plant model is described that provides for considering not only biochemical but also more detailed hydraulic specific features of the experimental process.

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№3-1|2013

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.35

Zalyotova N. A., Zalyotov S. V.

CONTUS® modular system for wastewater treatment

Summary

CONTUS® turnkey modular system for domestic wastewater treatment operating at an industrial enterprise is described. Shipping container 1CC is used as a module. Depending on the configuration MS CONTUS® units ensure the required quality of effluent up to the level corresponding to the maximum permissible concentrations for fishery water bodies. The technology includes biological treatment with suspended and fixed microflora and a «dry» biological polishing filter. Elements of different size made of synthetic floating material are used as a media for immobilized microflora. The treatment processes and structural assemblies of the unit are protected with a patent. The industrial-scale operation of CONTUS® modular system proves its high efficiency and reliability.

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№3|2011

NEW TECHNOLOGIES AND EQUIPMENT

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UDC 628.356:661.5

KOZLOV M. N., Nikolaev Yu. A., GRACHEV V. A., Kharkina O. V., Dorofeev A. G.

Nitrification in the Course of Tertiary Treatment of Treated Wastewater with Floating Media

Summary

For complete oxidation of ammonium nitrogen at a wastewater aftertreatment stage it is proposed to use a bioreactor with floating media containing nitrifying microorganisms. Tests of the technology have been conducted with treated wastewater at the Kurianovskiye treatment facilities using the laboratory bioreactor with floating plastic media (60% by volume). After achievement of stable conditions of the bioreactor’s operation the technology proposed has ensured the reduction of ammonium nitrogen concentration by 4,8 mg/l at the average. Reasons for the reduction of efficiency of the bioreactor’s operation and appearance of nitrite-ions in the treated water when changing the technological conditions are presented.

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№10|2017

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.35

SHVETSOV V. N.

On the criticism of the NII VODGEO method of designing
biological wastewater treatment facilities with nutrients removal

Summary

The analysis of the critical notes published in the article by Ph. D. (Engineering) D. A. Danilovich and Engineer A. N. Epov «Comparative analysis of the methods of designing biological wastewater treatment facilities with nitrogen removal» in which the opponents make the following statements: the NII VODGEO method is «manual» and simplified, cannot be considered as mathematical model; the specific nitrification rate parameter cannot be used in calculations; the effect of temperature and other factors are not taken into account; «simplified» equations of enzyme kinetics cannot be used for nitrification-denitrification processes because of the inadmissible distortions under the impact of factors that these equations do not take into account; sludge age is determined by the effluent quality regardless of the pollutant concentration in the incoming wastewater; in sludge growth calculations sludge age shall be used; the residual concentration of a substance (in effluent) does not depend on its initial concentration; aeration tank calculations shall be based on sludge age is presented. Based on the detailed analysis of the comments and statements of the opponents their inconsistency and lack of proof is shown. It is proved that not a single substantial fact damaging the NII VODGEO method has been mentioned in the article, and the conclusions made by the authors are unfounded and unsubstantiated. The conclusion is made that the availability of a reliable and approved national calculation method will provide for restricting the unsubstantiated use of inadequate, untested calculation methods; eliminating unjustified construction and upgrade overpricing, uncontrolled engaging of untested foreign inventions in the projects; reducing the level of corruption in this field; implementing correctly the developed best available technologies in domestic practice. It is noted that up to now the calculation method included in SNiP 2.04.03-85 has been the only opportunity for the experts to design and control the facilities for municipal and industrial wastewater biological treatment. Consequently, improving and updating a universal, scientifically grounded and field-proven domestic method of designing the facilities for municipal and industrial wastewater biological treatment with regard to the nutrients removal has been a crucial and pending task. The attention is called to the need of urgent restoration of the expert competency, the revival of the Russian scholarly traditions on the basis of the immense scientific and practical capacity established by our predecessors.

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№8|2013

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.3:665.5

Stepanov S. V., Strelkov A. K., Stashok Yu. E., Doubman I. S., Belyakov A. V.

The experience of designing oil refinery wastewater treatment facilities

Summary

The experience of developing design and working documentation of the new construction and reconstruction of wastewater treatment facilities for four oil refineries is presented. A structural scheme of biological wastewater treatment with nitrification-denitrification on the basis of a membrane bioreactor is suggested. Design solutions of regulating air supply to the aeration tanks that allow improving power efficiency are considered.

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№8|2014

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.35:004.69

Strelkov A. K., Stepanov S. V., Strelkov D. A., Doubman I. S.

The experience of upgrading wastewater treatment facilities of Zhigulevsk

Summary

The experience of designing, constructing and upgrading wastewater treatment facilities (16,200 m3/day) in Zhigulevsk, Samara Area is described. Prior to the reconstruction the technical condition of the facilities was satisfactory. However, the effluent quality parameters exceeded the maximum permissible levels for BOD, suspended solids, nitrogen compounds, phosphates and oil pro­ducts. The efficiency of primary settling related to BOD5 and suspended solids was about 50% resulting in BODfull: total mineral nitrogen: phosphorus of phosphates ratio changing from 100:12.5:1.7 to 100:21.8:3.16. Despite the deterioration of this primary effluent parameter in the process of nutrients removal it was decided to retain primary settling in the design layout because of the insufficient capacities of the existing aeration tanks. The techno­logy of nitrification-denitrification with anoxic and aerobic zones and chemical phosphorus removal is suggested. The bioreactor capacity was increased 1.5 times by establishing the third process line in addition to the existing ones; besides the construction started from the nitrification-denitrification aeration tank to provide for the sustai­nable effluent quality for the entire reconstruction period.
For tertiary treatment a filter-bioreactor with a brush head was used. Disinfection is carried out by UV-irradiation in a trough-type unit without changing the gra­vity effluent flow. The design documentation was approved by the state expertise of the construction pro­jects. By now a considerable part of the facilities has been constructed and put into operation. The successful experience of Zhigulevsk wastewater treatment facilities reconstruction carried out without interruption of wastewater inflow can be overspread among the similar projects in medium-scale cities of the central part of Russia.

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№11|2011

МГСУ - 90 лет

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UDC 628.35:661.5.001.42

Zalyotova N. A.

Experience of operating wastewater treatment facilities with two-stage nitrification-denitrification flow scheme

Summary

The results of field testing pilot treatment facilities with a capacity of 12,000 m3/day with two-stage nitrification-denitrification flow scheme are presented. The results of evaluating different methods of mixed liquor mixing within denitrification zones alongside with treatment facilities design procedure are given. It is shown that the use of mechanical mixers will provide for the required oxygenic mode in denitrification zones and improve the efficiency of total nitrogen and nitrite elimination.

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№3|2014

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.35:661.5

Stepanov S. V.

Specific features of designing oil refinery wastewater biological treatment facilities

Summary

Oil refinery wastewater is characterized by the presence of organics resistant to oxidation and practically total absence of phosphorus. The procedure of designing oil-containing wastewater biological treatment with nitrification-denitrification is used both for aeration tanks and membrane bioreactors. Designing is carried out with the use of kinetic relationships for all the regulated pollutants. During the experiments kinetic constants and coefficients of nitrification and denitrification processes, oxidation of organic substances (as BOD and COD), oil products, phenols and synthetic surfactants for waste­water of a number of oil refineries were obtained. Calculations algorithm includes the following stages: determining initial data – pollutant concentrations and wastewater flow rates; choosing the process flow scheme of the treatment facilities; calculating specific rate of biological treatment process on the basis of kinetic constants and coefficients; calculating activated sludge growth, nitrogen and phosphorus losses in the process of assimilation; estimating the retention time for oxidation of separate ingredients of pollutants and denitrification; determining the maximum aerobic process time in respect to the limiting component and treatment level in respect to other ingredients; calculating the required air consumption; checking the necessity of dosing phosphorus compounds for nutrient makeup. To improve the denitrification efficiency the configuration of the facilities was enlarged with a mixed liquor deaerator. The process design of a membrane bioreactor differs from the design of aeration tanks with nitrification-denitrification by correction of specific oxidation rate with account of the obtained kinetic constants and coefficient of inhibition with metabolism products at higher concentrations of activated sludge in the bioreactor. The experimental results allowed supplementing the procedure of designing wastewater biological treatment facilities with nitrification-denitrification developed by NII VODGEO.

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№3|2012

ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES AND EQUIPMENT

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UDC 628.35:62-278:725.42

Kharkina O. V., Strelkov A. K., Stepanov S. V., Stashok Yu. E., Sven Baumgarten, Josef Sheren

Treatment of Syzran oil refinery industrial wastewater in membrane bioreactor

Summary

The results of investigating biomembrane technology of Syzran oil refinery industrial wastewater treatment are presented. The kinetic parameters of nitrification-denitrification processes are determined. It was demonstrated that biomembrane technology provided for the intensification of these processes alongside with meeting the requirements set to the effluent quality in relation to nitrogen compounds whether with or without addition of biodegradable substrate. The experimental data proved the possibility of either using the effluent for industrial closed-loop water system makeup after partial desalination or (and) discharging it into surface water bodies after polishing with sorption.

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№12|2014

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.35:661.5

Streltsov S. A., Nikolaev Yu. A., GRACHEV V. A., Aseyeva V. G., Mikhailova Iu. V.

Improving the efficiency of wastewater treatment by the method
of activated sludge enrichment with nitrifying bacteria

Summary

Ammonium concentration in effluent is one of the most important indicators of biological wastewater treatment efficiency. Ammonium oxidation to nitrates (nitrification) is executed by nitrifying bacteria characterized by low growth rate and high sensitivity to some adverse technologic factors (e.g. low oxygen concentration, toxicants). To provide for stabilizing the number of nitrifying bacteria, increasing their activity in bioreactors with activated sludge and improving the efficiency of removing nitrogen compounds from wastewater different processing technologies are used. One of them is bioaugmentation (inoculation of essential microorganisms or arrangement of conditions for their evolution with the purpose of improving the specific activity of biosystem, e.g. activated sludge). The specialists of R&D Centre of «Mosvodokanal» JSC studied the efficiency of nitrification process in an installation working after the process flow scheme developed in the University of Cape Town in combination with an additional bioaugmented reactor. In the reactor activated sludge is being enriched with nitrifying bacteria. At increased ammonium load simulated by adding liquid phase of digested sludge the main process line did not provide for reducing ammonium to the maximum permissible concentration of pollutants in fishery water bodies. The use of bioaugmented reactor allowed reducing ammonium concentration (N–NH4) from 40–50 to 0.4 mg/l. With that the resistance of nitrifying bacteria of activated sludge to toxicants (thiourea) showed no increase. However with the availability of a bioaugmented reactor the inhibiting effect was somewhat abated.

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№9|2018

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.35

SHVETSOV V. N., MOROZOVA K. M., Stepanov S. V.

Designing facilities for municipal and industrial wastewater biological treatment in aeration tanks with nutrients removal

Summary

Biological treatment facilities are the basic facilities for the purification of domestic, municipal and industrial wastewater of most of the industries (chemical, petrochemical, oil refining, food, textile, consumer goods, coke-chemical industries, agriculture etc.). However until now there has been no scientifically-grounded method of designing wastewater biological treatment facilities with nitrogen and phosphorus removal in the Russian Federation. Many years of extensive research carried out by NII VODGEO and «Water Supply and Wastewater Disposal» chair of the Samara State Technical University at the laboratory and pilot plants, at the operating facilities with processing data bulks provided for developing an adequate method of designing aeration tanks with nutrients removal. The presented method is a supplement of the method of process design of biological treatment facilities stated in SNiP 2.04.03-85 with regard to designing aeration tanks with nitri-denitrification and biological phosphorus removal; and provides for the calculations of upgrade and new construction of the facilities for biological treatment of municipal, domestic and industrial wastewater. Behind the process design is the concept of the process description with enzyme kinetics equations. The method includes the following stages: substantiation of the relevant basic data on the flow rates and qualitative composition of wastewater; determination of the process flow scheme and burden balance calculation of all the critical pollution components; determination of the kinetic constants and coefficients of enzyme kinetics equations of the transformation of each basic pollution component (BOD, nitrogen compounds, phosphorus etc.) and activated sludge growth by the statistical analysis of the operation data and chemico-analytical analysis of wastewater samples of the operating treatment facilities, by experimental data or on the basis of the available analogies; calculation of the volume of all the elements of the facilities with determination of the limitative component and treatment level in relation to other pollutants; final correction of the vo­lumes and parameters of all the process zones with account of the requirements to the level of treatment in relation to all the dictating pollution components. An example of the calculation is set. It is noted that the computation algorithm and formulas included into the method provide for designing any complicated process flow schemes with nitrogen and phosphorus removal applied both to municipal and industrial wastewater. The method provides for calculating not only the rate of removing BOD and nitrogen compounds but also other certain pollution components (oil products, detergents, fats etc.) offering additional opportunities of the wastewater biological treatment method. The method is especially useful in designing industrial wastewater biological treatment facilities because most of the foreign methods are mainly focused on the purification of domestic and municipal wastewater to the concentrations adopted in those countries. The method is developed on the principle of essential sufficiency; however is contains 70 design parameters and 28 formulas and equations. Accordingly the calculations are performed in Microsoft Office Excel which makes it possible for users even with middle software skills. Herewith it is possible to perform calculations straight for several options interactively and/or upgrade the treatment facilities in the process of their operation.

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№11|2013

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.35:661.5

SHVETSOV V. N., MOROZOVA K. M.

Procedure of designing wastewater biological treatment facilities
with nutrients removal

Summary

The procedure of designing wastewater biological treatment facilities with nitrification-denitrification is presented. Biological treatment facilities shall be designed on the basis of experimentally determined kinetic constants, nitrification and denitrification process factors, and for every limiting value depending on the requirements to the quality of treatment. Kinetic constants and factors required for designing municipal wastewater treatment facilities are given. Design algorithm is set out including the following stages: substantiation of the initial data on flow rates and qualitative wastewater composition according to the required level of reliability (more than 85–90% probability); selection of the process flow scheme – number of steps and(or) stages, operation procedure and lay out; determination of kinetic constants of equations of enzyme kinetics of every basic pollution component transformation from experimental data or from the available data base; preliminary calculation of excess activated sludge volume and adjustment of nitrogen and phosphorus mass balance; determination of limiting pollution component that needs maximum time to be oxidized; calculation of the facility capacity by limiting component with determination of the treatment level for other pollution components. The results of the long-term experimental studies of nitrification-denitrification processes with different types of municipal and industrial wastewater provide for supplementing the method of aeration tank design specified in SNiP 2.04.03-85 with formulae and data for design and optimization of aeration tank operation with nitrogen and phosphorus removal.

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№7|2012

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.35:661.5/.63.001.2

SHVETSOV V. N., MOROZOVA K. M., Domnin K. V., Arkhipova Е. Е.

Designing nitrification-denitrification retrofit at the biological treatment facilities

Summary

The results of studies carried out at the Khabarovsk wastewater treatment facilities are presented. The developed process flow sheet of wastewater biological treatment included nitrification-denitrification processes to eliminate nitrogen compounds according to the set standards. The process flow sheet provided for retrofitting dephosphatation zone to ensure maximum level of phosphorus removal at the biological treatment stage in order to reduce chemical consumption at the subsequent treatment stages. The process design of the biological treatment facilities was carried out.

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