Tag:sea water

№9|2014

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.166.094.3(477.75)

Gutenev V. V., Denisov V. V., Skryabin A. Yu., FESENKO L. N.

Water supply of the Crimea: advanced water disinfection technologies based on the local resources

Summary

Supplying population with high quality drinking water and efficient industrial and domestic wastewater treatment have been global challenges aggravating against the growing scarcity of available fresh water. These problems together with the impact on the human health and economy have also been urgent for many territorial entities of the Russian Federation including the new one – Republic of Crimea. The main problems in water supply of the present-day Crimea have been caused by the deficiency of drinking water, low sanitary reliability of the water treatment systems, lack of sufficient amount of disinfecting units in the agricultural areas, unsatisfactory sanitary and engineering condition of the water distribution networks. All that is worsening the epidemiologic situation at the health resorts of the peninsula, particularly during the high season. The unsatisfactory and even critical condition of the Crimean municipal and communal water supply infrastructure makes it difficult to provide adequate quality water (and wastewater) services to the population. The options of applying water treatment technologies with the use of different concentrations of sodium hypochlorite with an account of the specific features of the South and Steppe Crimea are considered. The availability of sea water and brackish water sources on the peninsula plain, possible use of the «honeycomb» system of disinfectant distribution make introdu­cing the given technology on the large-scale environmentally safe and economically feasible.

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№9|2016

WATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.162:62-278

Andrianov A. P., Pervov A. G., Efremov R. V., Spitsov D. V.

Selection of efficient inhibitors for process flow schemes of the Black Sea water desalination

Summary

Sea water desalination by reverse osmosis has been widely used in drinking and domestic water supply. However, one of the major problems that complicate the operation of desalination facilities is the deposition of low solubility salts in membrane apparatus. In order to control the formation of crystal sediments on membranes different methods are used. Inhibitor dosing to raw water is the most efficient method. A variety of efficient inhibiting agents has been developed. Lately one of the main directions of studies in this field has been new types of phosphorus free and easily biodegradable inhibitors. Tests of six new phosphorus free inhibitors were carried out; the comparison with traditionally used Aminat-K inhibitor is given. The experimental dependencies that allow determining the rate of calcium carbonate scale formation in membrane apparatus are presented. Basing on the obtained results the optimal operational expenditures for sea water desalination were calculated. The study was aiming mainly at comparing the efficiency of newly developed and traditional inhibitors in the process of their use in sea water desalination schemes (by the example of the Black Sea water simulant). The conclusion of the efficiency of the inhibitors used is made on the basis of the minimum operational expenditures for desalination.

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№2|2019

ABROAD

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UDC 631.67:628.165

Kofman V. Ya.

The use of desalinated water for the needs of irrigation (review)

Summary

In quite a few foreign countries that suffer from water scarcity (Spain, Israel, Australia, Cyprus, OAE, Chile, China) and that are located in the regions with arid climate noticeable success has been reached or major developments in the field of using desalinated sea or underground water for irrigation have been initiated. The main technologies of water desalination for agricultural needs are reverse osmosis, ion exchange, electrodialysis. The factors that are constraining at this time large-scale deployment of desalinated water in irrigation practice include the high cost of desalination; the need of placing desalination plants close to agricultural fields; discharge of toxic concentrate from desalination process; the need of ensuring safety and remineralization of desalinated water. Quite a few research works in this field have been dedicated to the improvement of the energy efficiency of desalination, development of the improved irrigation schemes and selection of arable crops that could be irrigated with desalinated water with the highest economic benefit. Anyhow the steady increase of investments into the given field in foreign countries indicates that desalinated water can be definitely adapted for agricultural needs.

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№10|2019

WATER TREATMENT

DOI 10.35776/MNP.2019.10.01
UDC 628.166:661.417/.418

Pchel'nikov I. V., Terikov A. S., Nguen Tkhi Tuan Z’ep, Shchukin S. A.

The study of direct electrolysis of water in the Vietnam Sea
in the production of sodium hypochlorite

Summary

Electrochemical sodium hypochlorite is used at water supply facilities all around the world. The use of natural waters containing chlorides as a raw material is very promising since it greatly simplifies the process flow scheme for producing sodium hypochlorite. Direct electrolysis technology can be retrofitted into the existing water treatment schemes without significant changes. The use of natural water containing chlorides eliminates the purchase of salt which reduces the cost of the finished product. The results of studies of direct electrolysis of water in the Vietnam Sea are presented. During the experiments the effect of seawater flow rate and current density on the concentration of active chlorine in the resulting sodium hypochlorite, the change in the current chlorine yield and the specific energy consumption per 1 kg of generated active chlorine were determined. The main process parameters are determined that provide for producing sodium hypochlorite by direct electrolysis of sea water using an iridium-ruthenium oxide titanium anode as electrodes. It was shown that the current chlorine yield reaches maximum values (85–90%) at an active chlorine concentration in the product of 2 ± 0.2 g/dm3 which motivate the technological and economic feasibility of obtaining sodium hypochlorite from sea (ocean) water.

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№01|2015

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.166.094.3

FESENKO L. N., Ignatenko S. I., Pchel'nikov I. V.

Improving the technology of sodium hypochlorite production by seawater electrolysis

Summary

An alternative method of low concentrated sodium hypochlorite production by seawater electrolysis in substitution for sodium hypochlorite produced by the traditional technology from table white salt solution is considered. The results of studying sodium hypochlorite production by electrolysis of the natural Black Sea water, model Black Sea water in comparison with 3% table white salt solution are presented. The effect of physical and chemical parameters of seawater electrolysis on the amount of generated active chlorine was experimentally investigated. The chemical composition and structure of cathodic deposits formed with time during the electrolysis of seawater, decarbonated seawater and 3% table white salt solution were determined. Comparative evaluation of corrosion and electrochemical characteristics of metal-oxide anode coatings (oxide ruthenium-titanium anodes and oxide iridium-ruthenium-titanium anodes) at seawater and 3% NaCl solution is presented. The expediency of producing sodium hypochlorite by seawater electrolysis was experimentally confirmed and the optimal process conditions were determined. The optimal composition of metal-oxide anode coatings used in low concentrated sodium hypochlorite by seawater electrolysis was determined. Based on the results of research and experimental studies the recommendations for the selection of process flow schemes of sodium hypochlorite production by seawater electrolysis in circulating and flow operation modes were prepared, and the sound fields of their application were justified. The technical and economic assessment of the recommended technology was carried out.

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