Tag:laboratory control

№10|2014

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

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UDC 628.11:504.054

Karpushenko A. V., Polyanin V. O.

The impact of economic activities on the sanitary-ecological state
of the Moscow drinking water sources

Summary

Human economic activities and water use conditions in the basins of the Moskva, Vazuza and Upper Volga rivers are the key factors that determine the natural water quality. The water resources used for the Moscow water supply are formed from surface water vulnerable to the anthropogenic impact. The sanitary-ecological state of the water sources, the hydrologic river regime and water quality determine to a large extent the specific features of the public water supply at present and will have an impact on its development in future. Establishing an efficient monitoring system and coordinating the activities of supervising, regulating and operating organizations in the field of maintaining proper sanitary and ecological state of the rivers, water reservoirs and their catchment areas are the prerequisites of the reliable water supply of the metropolitan area and sustainable water use in the Moskva-Oka river basin. Among the problems that demand focused attention are: the storm and wastewater disposal regulations, large-scale villa development at the riverfront, violations of agricultural technologies of manure storage and utilization, low public environmental consciousness, the lack of a reliable mechanism of observing the sanitary and environmental regulations, the lack of appropriate practice of exploitation of rivers and water reservoirs. All that causes gradual degradation of small rivers, water reservoir eutrophication, decrease of self-purification capacities of water bodies, and creates additional difficulties in water treatment. Such scope of work requires the development of schemes of comprehensive use and protection of water and land resources that prescribe measures, schedules, implementation priorities, and sources of financing specifically for a given water utilization system or a river basin. Sustainable use of water resources as well as catchment areas is particularly important for the drinking water sources. Precisely this approach will provide for implementing the legislated in Russia priority of using water bodies for drinking and public water supply to the full extent.

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№10|2014

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.179.34

Babaev A. V., Stolyarova E. A., Koubenko V. V., Shashkova O. S., Salgalov A. A.

Identification of different water types in case of the municipal distribution network failures

Summary

Prompt localization of latent and apparent water losses has been an important task of the «Mosvodokanal» JSC activities. The time needed for eliminating failures in the municipal distribution network depends significantly on the efficient identification of the leakage source and owner of the service lines. The issues of sample identification under different emergency conditions are considered. It is shown that alongside with instrumental methods of water leak detection laboratory analytical methods can also be used. Underground water inflow is a most elementary case of water losses. Taking into account that surface water from the Moskva and Volga rivers serves as a water source of the public water supply the presence of fluorides, low mineral content and the absence of organic pollutants are reliable evidences of the underground origin of the water inflow. At the same time high mineral content, presence of phosphates, ammonia salts, high permanganate values evidence the inflow of polluted wastewater. A reliable proof of leakage water originating from the public water supply is the presence of water purification by-products, chloroorganic compounds in particular. The experimental results showed that the minimum significant chloroform value in real samples of leakage water in the Moscow public water supply was 3 µg/l. This chloroform concentration remains unchanged with time with the disinfection practice adopted at the Moscow water treatment plants: chlorammoniation during both primary and final chlorination. The statistically processed data arrays of special experiments and real samples for a few years indicate that the given concentration of chloroform detected in the sample is a proof of water originating from public water supply systems.

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№10|2012

POTABLE WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.1.033.002.237

Shushkevich E. V., Bastrykin R. I., Babaev A. V., Shotina K. V., Koubenko V. V.

Potable water quality management in the Moscow water distribution network

Summary

The results of activities on improving water quality monitoring in the Moscow water distribution network are presented. The technical measures on ensuring the sanitary safety are described. Establishing operational control of the water quality at the water treatment plants and in the distribution network is reported. Beside reconstruction and upgrade the entire package of technical and preventive measures is required in order to minimize the negative processes causing water quality deterioration in the distribution network: pipe inspection, flushing annually dead-end sections and low flow pipelines, additional control of residual chlorine during summer periods etc.

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№11|2015

WATER QUALITY CONTROL

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UDC 628.1.033:543.3

Kuznetsov V. N., Zemerova A. N.

Chromatography – one of the advanced methods of the multicomponent analysis of highly volatile compounds in water

Summary

Gas chromatography is used in the Central laboratory of Ekaterinburg «Vodokanal» for the control of chloroorganic compounds, phenol and phenol derivants in water. The method is based on the separation of volatile components where inert gas (carrier gas) that flows through the stationary phase with a large surface area is employed as a moving phase. The advantages and disadvantages of the given method as well as the requirements to the carrier gas are presented. In the process of separating complex mixtures comprising components with close chemical and physical properties and mixtures containing many different substances strict requirements to the operation of the chromatographic column are put in the forefront. Packed, capillary and polycapillary columns are used in gas chromatography. Capillary columns without carrier where the stationary phase film is spread on the inner surface of the capillary are meeting all the requirements. This column type provides for the highest separation efficiency compared to the common packed columns. The specific features of the capillary chromatography method provide for the strict requirements to chromatographic detectors designed to detect and measure the number of the components in the moving phase flow at the outlet of the chromatographic column. The data on using different instruments that provide for the accurate results of the analysis within a short time is given.

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vstmag engfree 200x100 2

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Российская ассоциация водоснабжения и водоотведения

Конференция итог

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VAK2