Tag:chlorination

№11|2016

ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES AND EQUIPMENT

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UDC 628.166.085

Kostyuchenko S. V., SMIRNOV A. D., Pokhil Yu. N., Bagaev Yu. G.

Introduction of UV-disinfection at the Novosibirsk wastewater treatment facilities

Summary

Water recycling in the modern municipal services is a comprehensive task. On one hand the city inhabitants should be supplied with high-quality drinking water meeting all the sanitary and hygienic requirements; on the other hand the discharged municipal effluents shall not produce any adverse effect on the environment. To fulfil these tasks the most advanced disinfection technologies that ensured meeting all the microbiological requirements to the drinking water and effluents were introduced at the Novosibirsk water and wastewater treatment facilities. The use of ultraviolet irradiation provided for the efficient multi-barrier protection in drinking water purification and environmentally safe disinfection of wastewater.

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№4|2017

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.166.085

SMIRNOV A. D., Strelkov A. K., Tkachev A. A.

Revisiting the selection of wastewater disinfection technology

Summary

Environmental law enforcement in relation to discharging chlorine and organochlorine contaminants induces the use of advanced safe and efficient chlorine free methods of wastewater disinfection. The use of ultraviolet irradiation provides for meeting all the requirements imposed on the technology of wastewater disinfection eliminating any adverse impact on the environment. The use of this technology eliminates possible penalty charges for polluting the environment with chlorine and organochlorine contaminants. The economic comparison of two disinfection methods (the application of sodium hypochlorite and UV-irradiation) reveals significant operational benefit when introducing UV-disinfection. Annual savings of operational expenditures is 50% and more at the comparable capital expenditures. The advantages of UV-disinfection are as follows: efficiency in relation to all types of indicator and pathogenic microorganisms, whereas chlorine-containing chemicals do not often ensure fair efficiency in viruses and protozoa elimination; no by-products are generated; no adverse impact on the water bodies is produced (consequently, no penalties); no threat of overdosing; easy and simple control over the disinfection process; no need in dosing system and additional control systems; disinfection effect independence from fluctuations of effluents quality within the limits of the design parameters; minimum footprint; no additional facilities are needed (e. g., contact tank for dechlorination); possible retrofitting into the existing buildings or facilities, for example, in the process of wastewater treatment facilities upgrade and chlorination replacement; low operational expenditures (lamp replacing once in a year and a half – two years and energy saving). In this context switching to chlorine free disinfection technologies that eliminate the formation of organochlorine contaminants is a correct solution.

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№2|2010

PROBLEMS, PERSPECTIVES

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UDC 628.16.085

GUSEVA O. A., GERASIMOV M. M., SMIRNOV A. D.

Modernization of the Process of Secondary Water Disinfecting in the Treatment System (on the Example of the Amur)

Summary

Results of the research of various modes of water disinfecting (chlorination, the UV-irradiation) at a special pilot test complex are submitted. Data on the virological and bacteriological analysis of water under the conditions of background and high microbiological pollution of the Amur are presented.

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№1|2014

ABROAD

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UDC 628.16.001.2

Kofman V. Ya.

Scientific research in the field of drinking water treatment

Summary

From the bibliometric analysis the basic subject areas of the research in the field of drinking water were determined. The leading research institutions, periodicals and countries in this field are presented. The general information on the articles is supplemented with the data on the major scientometric indices based on the citation account: author’s H-index and impact factor of a journal. The basic topical trends are the state of environment, purification of drinking water from diffe­rent sources, environmental pollution resulting from human intervention, toxicology. Water Research Journal (Great Bri­tain) takes the leading position in water topics. From the data array under consideration (30 597 articles) 25 000 (around 80%) articles have been written by the authors from one country, 5381 articles are the results of the international cooperation. The authors of the articles are representatives from 168 countries. Among pollutants most often mentioned in the publications are: arsenic (1138 articles; 5.1%), fluorides (411; 1.8%), nitrates (351; 1.6%), lead (297; 1.3%), cadmium (274; 1.2%). For the reviewed period (1992–2011) 143 articles were dedicated to pharmaceuticals (0.64%). Among the treatment methods adsorption, ozonation and chlorination are most often mentioned. It was noted that in 2011 the number of published articles on chlorination was almost equal to that on ozonation; however, later the extent of chlorination research increased significantly. The recent popularity of adsorption can be explained not only by the wide use of the given technology in practice but in a greater degree by unsophisticated equipment, low costs of experiments and a great variety of adsorbents, including adsorbents produced from cheap agricultural and industrial wastes.

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№10|2013

ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES AND EQUIPMENT

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UDC 628.16.094.3

Kofman V. Ya.

New advanced oxidation technologies of water and wastewater treatment (part 1)
(foreign publications review)

Summary

With the increase in population and industrial water consumption satisfying the demand for drinking water becomes a very pressing issue. This problem can be solved by using innovation process flow schemes of wastewater treatment. Advanced oxidation technologies are among them, i. e. homogenous and heterogenous photocatalytic processes, ozonation, Fenton’s process options, ultrasonic treatment, wet oxidation, electrochemical processes, oxidation in supercritical
water, plasma processes, ferrate and persulfate technologies, ionization radiation and microwave treatment. Hydroxyl radicals play key role in these processes. Photocatalytic processes proceed in the presence of catalysts with titanium dioxide (TiO2) being most efficient among them. The processes proceed in photocatalytic reactors in the presence of suspended catalyst and supported catalyst. In the process of water disinfection the synergistic effect is reached at combining advanced oxidation technologies and chlorination. Fenton’s process is based on the use of Fenton’s reagent, i. e. mixture of Fe2+ salt (catalyst) and hydrogen peroxide. Optimal рН value of 2.8–4 is the basic parameter of this process. Ozonation process proceeding in the presence of hydroxyl radicals originating from chemical transformation of ozone at 2.8 hydroxyl radical reduction potential is considered. Optimal formation of hydroxyl radicals is provided in ozonizers with hydrogen peroxide dosing device (Peroxone process). Ozonation in the process of UV-irradiation; ozonation in the process of UV-irradiation in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, ozonation in combination with ultrasound (Sonozone process) are considered. The use of advanced oxidation technologies in wastewater treatment produces positive results that provide for satisfying the water demand. (To be continued).

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№6|2016

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.16

Tsukanov N. A., Budykina T. A., Spitsyn E. N., Budykina K. Iu.

On the experience of applying DynaSand filters  for drinking water deironing in Kursk

Summary

Drinking water supply of Kursk and the Kursk Area has been provided exclusively from underground water artesian sources because of the lack of affluent rivers and water bodies on the territory of the region. The given underground water is characterized by excess levels of ions of iron, manganese and hardness salts as well as by -radioactivity because of the specific geographical location and availability of the iron-ore deposit (Kursk Magnetic Anomaly). The basic method of water purification before supplying to the distribution network is disinfection with chlorine. In 2013 a drinking water deironing plant was put into operation with a capacity of 75 thousand m3/day. Water is preliminary chlorinated with sodium hypochlorite, then the generated iron hydroxide (III) sludge is removed by filtration in self-cleaning DynaSand filters manufactured by Nordic Water (Sweden). There is no analogue of deironing plant of such capacity with the use of DynaSand filters in Russia. Owing to the introduced technology the city of Kursk has been supplied with water of standard quality in relation to iron, manganese concentrations, and total hardness.

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№7|2011

POTABLE WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.16/.31.085

Rudnikova G. I., Zelenin A. M.

Water Disinfection Using the UV-Irradiation at Water Treatment Facilities of the City of Angarsk

Summary

For the purpose of improving the barrier function with respect to viruses, parasites and water bacteria at water treatment facilities of Angarsk the station of potable water UV-disinfection was put into operation in 2009. The station’s equipment is located in the building of main facilities block before the vertical mixers. From the first days of operation the high efficiency of the UV-disinfection method was established. The analyses results show the complete inactivation of all water microorganisms and dependence of intensity of lamps radiation on physicochemical properties of river water as well. For the purpose of eliminating this dependence the alternative scheme of water feed is offered: treated water after the filter is delivered to UV-disinfection plants instead of river water.

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№5|2012

WATER AND WASTEWATER COMPANIES (VODOKANALS) IN RUSSIA

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UDC 628.17.001.4

Kostyuchenko S. V., Khrenov K. E., Khramenkov S. V., Filatov N. N., Glinik A. I., Kvalvasser A. I., Koudryavtsev N. N., Zhoukov V. I., Petrova O. N., Parilov P. S.

The experience of UV equipment operation at the Lyubertsy Wastewater Treatment Facilities in Moscow

Summary

The experience of the ultraviolet equipment operation for effluent disinfection at the Lyubersty wastewater treatment facilities in Moscow is presented. The modular design of UV equipment provided for establishing large-scale facilities with minimum footprint for UV-disinfection of municipal effluents (1–3 million m3/day capacity and higher). The high performance is ensured by the unique UV-modules with specially designed superpower bactericidal low pressure lamps supplemented by numerous systems of monitoring, control and energy saving. Equipping the entire wastewater treatment facilities with UV disinfection modules will ensure significant improvement of the environmental and sanitation-and-epidemiological conditions of the Moskva and Pekhorka Rivers.

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№10|2016

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.161.3:546.711

Alekseeva L. P., Kourova L. V., Alekseev S. E.

Specific features of using chemical treatment in removing manganese compounds from underground water

Summary

Many underground water sources in Russia used for drinking water supply are characterized by increased concentrations of iron and manganese. There are different chemical and nonchemical methods of underground water treatment. In some cases nonchemical methods of treatment cannot provide for the required drinking water quality. However, the use of chemicals for removing iron and manganese compounds makes the process more complicated and increases the cost of water treatment; therefore their use shall be substantiated and approved by technological studies. The aspects of removing manganese compounds from underground water with the use of chemicals in cases when it was stated that nonchemical methods were not efficient are considered. The results of studies on determining the efficiency of using oxidants, alkalizing and coagulating chemicals are presented. When using oxidants in removing manganese from water the range of optimal chemical dosages is relatively small. The efficiency of manganese removal with the help of oxidants increases with the increase of water pH. For more integrated removal of oxidized manganese compounds and other pollutants from water flocculants can be used in the process of water clarification.

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№12|2017

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.166.085

Volkov S. V., Tkachev A. A., Piskareva V. M.

The use of ultraviolet irradiation as a part of multibarrier disinfection schemes

Summary

In order to ensure reliable disinfection of drinking water in relation to viruses, protozoa and other pathogenic organisms resistant to chemical methods, i. e. to prevent waterborne diseases increasing the dosages of chemicals – chlorine or chlorine-containing substances is needed. However at that, chlorination by-products including trihalomethane are formed. The use of multibarrier disinfection schemes is one of the most actual solutions in drinking water purification that provides for the high efficiency at significant reduction of unfavorable side-effects. One of the prevailing multibarrier technologies of drinking water disinfection is the combined use of ult­raviolet irradiation and chlorination. Ultraviolet irradiation has become one of the basic technologies of multibarrier schemes. The experience of using UV-irradiation in combination with different chemicals at the water treatment facilities in Russian and foreign cities – Nizhny Novgorod, Budapest, Vienna is described. Retrofitting advanced multibarrier schemes of purification and disinfection of surface water will provide for improving significantly the sanitary and epidemiologic protection of the population and improving drinking water qua­lity.

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№4|2019

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

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UDC 628.166

Pokhil Yu. N., Novoshintsev V. N., Kamaletdinov A. R., Kostyuchenko S. V., Tkachev A. A., SMIRNOV A. D.

Use of UV-disinfection in water supply and wastewater disposal systems of Novosibirsk

Summary

Vodokanal of the city of Novosibirsk has been one of the first water and wastewater utilities in large Russian cities to completely switch to the disinfection of drinking water and wastewater with ultraviolet irradiation. Advanced multi-barrier technologies for the preparation of drinking water (combined use of UV disinfection and chlorination) provided for obtaining safe drinking water of high quality. UV units introduced at the pumping-filtration stations (PFS-1 and PFS-5) of the city provide for the reliable disinfection of filtered purified water up to the requirements of SanPiN 2.1.4.1074-01-01, perform a barrier role against pathogenic microorganisms of bacterial, viral and parasitic nature. UV equipment installed at the municipal wastewater treatment facilities with a total capacity of 600 thousand m3/day ensures the required degree of disinfection in accordance with SanPiN 2.1.5.980-00 (radiation dose not less than 40 mJ/cm2). The UV-disinfection station built on the basis of tray-type vertical type equipment manufactured by «LIT» SPA is installed in three concrete flow channels. To improve the energy efficiency of the UV disinfection station operating under the conditions of uneven incoming wastewater flow during the day a system for the UV irradiation rate control by signals from an external flow meter and a tau meter measuring the UV transmittance was retrofitted. Ultraviolet disinfection of effluent does not affect the Ob River. Used for several years UV disinfection of wastewater and up to now is the best available technology.

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№3|2014

VODOKANALS OF RUSSIA

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UDC 628.16.094.413.094.3

Vasil'eva A. I., Nasyrova M. R., Kantor L. I., Trukhanova N. V., Melnitsky I. A.

Role of algae in the formation of water chlorination byproducts

Summary

For many years the precursors and mechanisms of water chlorination byproducts formation in the process of water purification at the surface water intake of Ufa city have been investigated. The main task of the study was evaluating the contribution of the representatives of the three phytoplankton species typical for the Ufa River to the trihalomethanes formation: diatomic (Bacillariophyta), green (Chlorophyta) and blue-green algae (Сyanophyta). Initially phytoplankton cells were isolated from the river water samples by concentrating, then in laboratory conditions algae were cultured on substrata. The chlorination experiments were carried out both with water samples with algae biomass and with the sample filtrates. The model samples were chlorinated with 1; 2; 3 mg/l chlorine dosages, exposure time – 2 hours. The concentration of trihalomethanes was measured by gas chromatographic vapor-phase analysis with electron-capture detection. The results of the studies revealed the following specific features. The samples with high concentration of blue-green algal biomass (13.6 mg/l – 96%) after chlorination with 3 mg/l dosage showed significant increase of the total trihalomethane concentration– 131.6 µg/l. In the samples with dominant green algal mass (26.19 mg/l – 99.8%) or with green (0.07 mg/l – 53%) and diatomic algae (0.059 mg/l – 47%) only the lowest total trihalomethane concentrations were detected – 3.69 and 2.62 µg/l, respectively. The similar situation was observed in the process of chlorinating filtrates of these samples. This suggests that blue-green algal metabolites or products of the algal mass decay are most probable precursors of trihalomethanes.

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№8|2012

THE CENTENARY OF TCHELYABINSK MUE «WATER SUPPLY AND WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT PRODUCTION ASSOCIATION»

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UDC 628.161

GERASIMOV M. M., SMIRNOV A. D., Davlyaterova R. A., Peremykina L. A., Smagin V. A.

Advanced water treatment technologies in the city of Tchelyabinsk

Summary

The use of advanced technologies in the process of Shershnyovsky storage reservoir water treatment for domestic water supply of Tchelyabinsk and satellite-towns is described. Introducing comprehensive multi-stage water disinfection technology at the Tchelyabinsk water treatment facilities conforms fully to the international advanced trends in water treatment practice.

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№1|2010

PROBLEMS, PERSPECTIVES

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UDC 628.162/.163

Pavlov A. A., Dziminskas Ch. A., Kostyuchenko S. V., Zaytseva S. G.

Modern Technologies of Potable Water Preparation at the Sludinskaya Waterworks of Nizhny Novgorod

Summary

It is told about introduction, for the first time in Russia, of modern technologies of preparation of potable water at the Sludinskaya waterworks of Nizhny Novgorod: chlorammonization, ozonization, optimal system of coagulation, UV-disinfection that has allowed to optimize operational costs, to minimize negative by-effects and to provide high quality of potable water.

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№3|2018

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.166

Tkachev A. A., Baranov V. L., Piskareva V. M.

Comparative assessment of the operating expenditures for wastewater disinfection with the use of chlorination and UV-technology

Summary

Protection of drinking water sources has been the most important comprehensive task. The state of the surface water bodies is determined to a large extent by wastewater flow in them that should be epidemiologically safe according to the RF legislation. The use of ultraviolet irradiation has been the most environmentally and economically efficient disinfection method. To provide for the assessment of the economic efficiency of UV-disinfection technology five operating wastewater treatment facilities of different capacity were considered. The comparison of the annual operating expenditures for chlorination (exclusively of the expenditures for dechlorination and charge for chlorine and chrloorganic compounds discharge) and UV-irradiation was carried out. The studies showed that operating UV-disinfection units were more cost-effective compared to operating chlorination units at the treatment facilities of different capacity.

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№6|2012

WATER AND WASTEWATER COMPANIES (VODOKANALS) IN RUSSIA

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UDC 628.31.085

Kostyuchenko S. V., Khrenov K. E., Khramenkov S. V., Streltsov S. A., Filatov N. N., Kvalvasser A. I., Koudryavtsev N. N., Volkov S. V.

The construction of the world biggest effluent disinfection facilities at the Kouryanovo wastewater treatment plant in Moscow

Summary

The drivers for choosing UV-radiation as a basic technology of effluent disinfection at the Kouryanovo and Lyubertsy wastewater treatment facilities are presented. The proven experience of UV-disinfection plant operating at the second line of the Novo-Lyubertsy wastewater treatment facilities gave rise to the next stage of introducing the given disinfection method at the Kouryanovo wastewater treatment facilities. In the course of designing it was decided to retrofit UV-disinfection plant into the existing elevation layout of the treatment facilities by using open-channel UV-plants with vertical lamp position. The specific features of the treatment facilities operation and the condition of the discharge canal also took into account.

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№03|2015

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.166.085

Kostyuchenko S. V., Baranov V. L., Tkachev A. A.

Ultraviolet radiation – an advanced method  of wastewater disinfection

Summary

The current regulatory requirements to effluent disinfection with chlorine agents demand an obligatory dechlorination stage. In the present context physical methods of wastewater disinfection can be an alternative solution. The method of wastewater ultraviolet radiation with the wave length of 253.7 m and low pressure amalgam lamps is most efficient and widely used. The given method is characterized by the high disinfection efficiency in relation to all types of microorganisms including viruses; by the absence of negative environmental impact; by the absence of disinfection by-products in wastewater, and equipment compactness. Engineering and economical comparison of the two methods of disinfection is presented: with the use of chlorine agent and ultraviolet radiation. It is shown that the method of ultraviolet radiation disinfection is more cost effective. The absolute value of the annual economic effect of using the equipment for UV disinfection of wastewater is increasing with the increase of the capacity of the facilities as a result of significant operational costs saving even at minor increase of the amount of the wastewater treated.

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№1|2012

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.316.6

SMIRNOV A. D., Bivalkevich A. I., Strelkov A. K., Breslov B. E.

Efficiency and economic expediency of the industrial methods for wastewater disinfection

Summary

Technical and economic assessment of municipal and industrial wastewater disinfection methods is given. At present the method of UV-disinfection with the use of low pressure amalgam lamps is recognized from both technical and economic points of view as a most acceptable method widely used all around the world. UV disinfection ensures most efficient inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms including chlorine-tolerant (viruses) present in effluents. UV irradiation of wastewater is not accompanied with formation of by-products that could produce negative impact on living organisms and human health, i. e. this method is both environmentally and hygienically safe.

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mvkniipr ru 

Российская ассоциация водоснабжения и водоотведения

WST19 200x300

Конференция итог

VAK2