Tag:calcium carbonate

№9|2019

WATER TREATMENT

DOI 10.35776/MNP.2019.09.02
UDC 628.16:62-278

Pervov A. G., Andrianov A. P.

The mechanisms of action of inhibitors in the process of calcium carbonate precipitate formation in reverse osmosis apparatus

Summary

Knowledge of the mechanism of precipitation of slightly-soluble salts on reverse osmosis membranes is extremely important while choosing measures to prevent it and reduce the consumption of concentrate. The conducted studies provided for enunciating a fresh approach to the mechanism of crystalline deposit formation and the role of inhibitors in preventing this process. The development of the experimental technique is based on the idea that the first crystallization phase — crystal nucleation is homogeneous, that is, occurs in stagnant zones in the concentrate volume at high oversaturation with calcium carbonate. Upon the formation the crystals are removed from the stagnant zones and settled on the membrane surface like other suspended particles present in the treated water. The results of studying the adsorption of polymer inhibitor molecules on the crystal surface during nucleation and crystalline growth on the membrane are presented. The experimentally obtained dependences of the rate of adsorption of inhibitors on the dose of inhibitors, the rate of formation of calcium carbonate, the rate of nucleation, and on the total surface of the germinal crystals are given. The study of micrographs of crystals showed the dependence of the size and number of crystals on the oversaturation value in the stagnant zone during nucleation as well as on the effectiveness of the inhibitor. A method is presented that allows determining the concentration of dissolved salts in the stagnant zones of the membrane apparatus and the oversaturation values corresponding to the onset of the crystallization process eliminating the addition and use of various inhibitors.

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№1|2012

POWER AND RESOURCE CONSERVATION

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UDC 628.164

AHMEDOV G. Ya.

Removing carbonate deposits from geothermal heating and hot water supply systems

Summary

The method of removing calcium carbonate deposits from geothermal heating and hot water supply systems is considered. The results of experimental studies of dissolving calcium carbonate deposits in geothermal water in heat-exchange equipment by increasing carbon dioxide partial pressure are presented. On the basis of the conducted experiments a method and a flow scheme of dissolving calcium carbonate deposits that provide for elimination of heat loss with geothermal water used for treatment are suggested.

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№2|2010

RESOURCES SAVING

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UDC 541.183:697.932.6.001.2

AHMEDOV G. Ya.

Enhancement of Efficiency of the Use of Geothermal Water for Hot Water Supply

Summary

Results of the study of the fractional composition of sand coming by with geothermal water from Apsheron, Karagan and Chokrak aquifers, and also its influence on kinetics of the precipitation of the solid phase of calcium carbonate from of geothermal water solutions are presented. A design scheme of effective use of geothermal water for hot water supply and heating is resulted.

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№1|2020

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

DOI 10.35776/MNP.2020.01.01

UDC 628.16:62-278

Pervov A. G., Golovesov V. A., Spitsov D. V., Rudakova G. Ya.

Ways of reducing the operating costs of membrane units
for the preparation of drinking water from underground water sources

Summary

Experimental investigations have been conducted to determine the main process parameters of membrane units (filtrate yield, the rate of scaling on membrane surface). Basing on the results of the experimental studies the total costs of purification of underground water of various chemical composition were obtained. The studies were conducted on laboratory benches with the use of nanofiltration membranes with various selectivity rates. The consumption of service chemicals and operational costs for the equipment were calculated by the software designed earlier by the authors for determining the process parameters of membrane units. While designing membrane units, nanofiltration membranes with low values of selectivity, power consumption and expenditures for chemicals are preferred. The dependencies of the calcium carbonate scaling rates on membrane types and the multiplicity of volumetric concentration of source water were obtained. A comparison of costs shows that the use of membranes even for cases of water deferrization is more economical than the known traditional technologies.

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№6|2010

PROBLEMS, PERSPECTIVES

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UDC 628.168.3:662.997

AHMEDOV G. Ya.

Stabilization Treatment of Geothermal Water

Summary

Stabilization treatment of geothermal water with the help of degasification and with the use of a crystalline initiator are considered. The experience of operation of geothermal equipment in the case of disturbance of carbonate-calcium equilibrium in water is presented. Degasification of geothermal water treated preliminary for carbon dioxide up to the equilibrium value makes it possible to speed up crystallization of calcium carbonate in the contact medium. It is proved that the more is the drop of pressure in a crystallizer the more is the concentration of a suspension being generated. The speed of separation of the solid phase of calcium carbonate from the geothermal water solution is proportional to the component of the pressure drop in the crystallizer from equilibrium to the final value.

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