Tag:phytoplankton

№10|2010

POTABLE WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.16:556.115:582

Shushkevich E. V., Karpushenko A. V., Polyanin V. O., Stolyarova E. A.

Water Treatment and Water Quality Control under the Conditions of Phytoplankton Development on the Example of the Moskva Water Source

Summary

Water bloom can influence significantly on the reliability of water supply of Moscow. The phytoplankton development depends on a whole number of factors: warming up and illuminance of water masses as well as availability of nutrients, biogenic elements (nitrogen and phosphorous mainly), in sufficient quantity are basic of them. Morphometric peculiarities of reservoirs and their hydrological conditions are of great importance. Quantity of phytoplankton changes appreciably year in year out. High concentrations of algae at certain periods favour the deterioration of organoleptic characteristics of water quality which complicates the process of water treatment. In that case it is necessary to carry out a whole number of measures beginning from redistribution of outflows from reservoirs and completing by introduction of innovation technologies of water treatment.

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№8|2019

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

DOI 10.35776/MNP.2019.08.04

UDC 628.1:543.31

Govorov O. B., Govorova Zh. M., Rudich Ul’iana

Changes in the quality of natural water from a public water supply source during transportation

Summary

The issues of the water quality transformation from a natural water supply source during transportation by long-distance water mains from the water intake to the water treatment facilities site and the reasons affecting the changes in the qualitative composition of water are considered. The results of the studies on the changes in the water quality of a natural water source characterized by low turbidity, medium color, seasonal growth of phytoplankton and the concentration of organic compounds are presented. It has been established that in certain periods of the year both the improvement and deterioration of the quality of water transported by water mains by several times occur in terms of the following indicators: permanganate value, total microbial count, phytoplankton count and biomass, resulting in several times increase in the pollution load on the treatment facilities and decrease in the efficiency of the water treatment process. Continuous monitoring and systematization of data on the changes in water quality will make it possible to timely adjust the modes and parameters of water treatment plants, thereby ensuring sustainable water treatment efficiency according to the regulatory requirements.

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№4|2017

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

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UDC 504.06

Skryabin A. Yu., Popovian G. V., Tron' I. A.

Study of the factors effecting the intensive growth of microalgae in the Don River

Summary

The factors enhancing the growth and evolution of the microalgae species composition in the Don River were studied. The effect of phosphorus on the phytoplankton growth rate was proved. The sources of nutrients incoming to the water bodies were analyzed. The factors of anthropogenic eutrophication of water bodies are presented: dyke construction facilitating the reduction of the river flow rate; decay of the vegetation on the lands immersed during the construction of water reservoirs and canals; intensive development of industrial production, agricultural activities, cattle breeding; increase of household and industrial use of synthetic detergents. The strategy of controlling water source bloom is proposed: bloom suppression during its development directly in the water body; the use of biological treatment methods (rehabilitation of the natural biocenosis by seeding certain microalgae species – different Chlorella strains and some species of herbivorous fish, e.g. silver carp; elimination of household and industrial use of phosphorus-containing detergents and their replacement with phosphate free detergents; strengthening of control of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer use in agriculture; construction and stepwise reconstruction or upgrade of wastewater treatment facilities that provide for enhanced removal of nitrogen and phosphorous compounds.

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№08|2015

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 504.06

Skryabin A. Yu., Popovian G. V., Tron' I. A.

Microalgae as a factor affecting the organoleptic properties of the Don River water

Summary

Stringent hygienic requirements are set to the drinking water quality: epidemiologic, radiation and chemical safety, favorable organoleptic properties. The applicable regulatory documents control a number of parameters; however, other factors exist that affect the water safety and potability. In particular, among these are the amount and species composition of microalgae in water. Massive microphyte growth in surface water sources during water bloom raises serious difficulties in the process of water treatment and severely affects such regulated parameters as color and taste. The laboratory workers at «Rostovvodokanal» JSC have made observations of the microphyte growth in the Don water for 34 years. During this period the evolution of the species composition of microalgae in the Don River has been investigated. It was proved that certain cyanobacteria species affect the organoleptic properties of water. The efficiency of different water treatment methods of odor strength reduction is considered. For the operating water treatment plants the method of water odor strength reduction with the use of rapid gravity filter by natural aeration is suggested.

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№9|2017

WATER INDUSTRY

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UDC 581.526.325

Babaev A. V., Zamana G. T., Puklakov V. V.

Model prediction of water quality patterns
in the Mozhaiskoe water reservoir under the heat wave conditions

Summary

The issues of water quality in water reservoirs used for public water supply are of primary concern. Intensive phytoplankton development in them is a most common problem in water supply. Therefore the selection of tools that provide for predicting to a high degree of accuracy the processes of water quality formation in water reservoirs under various hydro meteorological summer conditions is a task of primary importance. The results of the model prediction of the basic water quality patterns under the heat wave conditions and of the diagnostic calculation of the environmental conditions of the Mozhaiskoe water reservoir in 2014 carried out according to GMV-MGU model and verified by the field studies data are presented. The verification showed good reproduction of the water quality patterns of the Mozhaiskoe water reservoir by the model. The comparison of the model prediction results, diagnostic calculation and field studies data showed that the model prediction of the water reservoir conditions for the minimum winter storage decrease, low flow spring tide and excessive summer heat is coherent with the actual 2014 pattern when similar hydro meteorological conditions were observed. GMV-MGU model can be used for predictions and diagnostic calculations of water quality patterns in the water reservoirs used for public water supply in the process of planning the measures on operating and long-term control of hydroengineering facilities and water intakes operation.

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№2|2012

ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES AND EQUIPMENT

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UDC 628.16.08

Govorova Zh. M., Magomadov Z. R.

Production of drinking water from small-scale water reservoirs

Summary

Production of drinking water for domestic use from small-scale water reservoirs with limited yield and initial water quality formed under natural and anthropogenic impact is of special interest. The methods of water pretreatment (chemical free removal of phytoplankton in prefilter with floating medium and oxidant integrated effect) are considered; their contribution to the improvement of water coagulation process has been experimentally proved. The method of calculating coagulant dosage with the use of the coagulation capacity complex factor that takes into account inter alia the effect of zeta potential is suggested. Advanced technologies of water treatment are considered; the results of their industrial-scale testing are presented.

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№3|2016

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.113.8:504.064.4

Nitsak G. B., Nesterova A. R.

The causes of odor in drinking water during the summer period in Ekaterinburg

Summary

The results of studies carried out to determine the causes of odor of biological origin in public water supply of Ekaterinburg during the summer period are presented. The analysis was performed with water samples taken in accordance with the operating programs of in-process water quality monitoring in the public water supply systems during the 2001–2013 vegetative periods. The algae species directly inducing the odor in water were determined. The markers that provide for well-timed responding to the water quality changes were determined. Based on the results of the studies the order of actions during the summer period was introduced at the enterprise that provided for measuring the amount of Planktothrix agardhii with the standard procedure of raw water monitoring and reducing the sampling intervals in case of spotting the trends of the algae amount growing. In case the set marker value is reached the process flow pattern at the treatment facilities is changed to ensure guaranteed elimination of water odor.

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№3|2014

VODOKANALS OF RUSSIA

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UDC 628.16.094.413.094.3

Vasil'eva A. I., Nasyrova M. R., Kantor L. I., Trukhanova N. V., Melnitsky I. A.

Role of algae in the formation of water chlorination byproducts

Summary

For many years the precursors and mechanisms of water chlorination byproducts formation in the process of water purification at the surface water intake of Ufa city have been investigated. The main task of the study was evaluating the contribution of the representatives of the three phytoplankton species typical for the Ufa River to the trihalomethanes formation: diatomic (Bacillariophyta), green (Chlorophyta) and blue-green algae (Сyanophyta). Initially phytoplankton cells were isolated from the river water samples by concentrating, then in laboratory conditions algae were cultured on substrata. The chlorination experiments were carried out both with water samples with algae biomass and with the sample filtrates. The model samples were chlorinated with 1; 2; 3 mg/l chlorine dosages, exposure time – 2 hours. The concentration of trihalomethanes was measured by gas chromatographic vapor-phase analysis with electron-capture detection. The results of the studies revealed the following specific features. The samples with high concentration of blue-green algal biomass (13.6 mg/l – 96%) after chlorination with 3 mg/l dosage showed significant increase of the total trihalomethane concentration– 131.6 µg/l. In the samples with dominant green algal mass (26.19 mg/l – 99.8%) or with green (0.07 mg/l – 53%) and diatomic algae (0.059 mg/l – 47%) only the lowest total trihalomethane concentrations were detected – 3.69 and 2.62 µg/l, respectively. The similar situation was observed in the process of chlorinating filtrates of these samples. This suggests that blue-green algal metabolites or products of the algal mass decay are most probable precursors of trihalomethanes.

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№3|2017

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.164/.167

FESENKO L. N., Ignatenko S. I., Pchel'nikov I. V., Fedotov R. V., Tcherkesov A. Yu.

Technological and design solutions of upgrading the Don River water treatment facilities (the case of water treatment facilities of Khapry farm,  Miasnikovskii district, Rostov Region)

Summary

The Don River water is used as a source of the public water supply of Rostov-on-Don, Taganrog, Novocherkassk and other cities. From January till April (during the winter freeze-up) the river water is characterized by increased total hardness (up to 10–12°) as well as by the presence of blue-green and diatom algae in concentrations reaching 100·106 c/l water in summer periods. Mechanical sieve filtration is an advanced technique of microalgae removal. Filters are installed as a rule at the very beginning of the technological process and are designed for removing coarse suspended particles, phyto- and zooplankton. Advanced microfilters are characterized by simple design, high output, compact size and low consumption of wash water; their ope­ration is automated. In view of the high cost of ion exchange and membrane technologies and accompanying generation of considerable amounts of secondary difficult to utilize highly mineralized waste solutions the technology of hardness reduction by caustic soda softening was suggested. The expediency and efficiency of applying this method were experimentally confirmed. In case of the water treatment facilities of Khapry farm in the Rostov Region with the water intake in the lower reach of the Don River the process flow scheme of upgrading the water treatment plant providing for the water quality meeting the Sanitary Rules and Regulations 2.1.4.1074-01 was substantiated and developed. The use of this technology eliminates ge­neration of liquid wastes subject to the discharge into the public sewer, natural water bodies or land disposal.

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№2|2014

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.161.3

Zhurba M. G., Govorova Zh. M., Petrov Iu. V., Govorov O. B.

The technology of water purification from the source in conditions of high anthropogenous impact (substantiation, design, introduction)

Summary

The concept of «efficient water purification» is suggested, the selection criteria are set out. Process flow diagram of water abstraction and purification facilities has been designed including: primary water purification with removal of suspended solids and phytoplankton in prefilters with floating media; chemical water treatment in the process of clarification in lamella plate clarifiers and filtration in two-stage filters with inert and heavy media with regular addition of fine-granulated sorbent between the stages; combined water disinfection with the use of weak sodium hypochlorite solution and uv-radiation. The results of pre-design testing the technology of the Don River (the Bol’shaia Kalancha river arm in conditions of high anthropogenous impact) water purification at the test bench are presented. Chemical free water filtration in prefilter media provides for reducing phytoplankton loading approximately by 26–38% and suspended solids loading by 10–35% at the basic facilities at less than 50 m/h filtration rate. Uniform and efficient mixing and floc formation are provided within 0.5–1.5 and 10–15 minutes, relatively, at the speed of the mixer blade rotation of 185 and 60 rpm and recommended coagulant dosage of 2.5 mg/l (10 mg/l in case of sharp deterioration of the water quality). The operation of a nanofiltration plant during the period of water quality deterioration ensured reducing hardness, total dissolved so­lids, sulfate and chloride concentrations. The basic process parameters of separate units of the process flow scheme that provide for reliable compliance with the standard water purification degree are defined. Based on the study results the recommendations on designing were developed and the water abstraction and purification facilities with a capacity of 150,000 m3/day were designed. At present the facilities are under construction.

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№1|2012

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.16.081:628.191:576.8

DUDKIN E. V., Samsonova S. P.

Microfiltration removal of phyto- and zooplankton

Summary

The results of pilot testing DynaDisc microfiltration system manufactured by Nordik Water Produkts AB for capturing phyto- and zooplankton are presented. The tests were carried out at the treatment facilities of Volzhsky and Izhevsk water and wastewater companies by the experts from Ionoobmennye tekhnologee CJSC. The data on the efficiency of using microfiltration during water reservoir blossoming that results in reduced rapid filter loading and water quality improvement are presented.

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№4|2013

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

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veist-tek-2013UDC 504.064:628.35

Shashkina P. S., Shchegolkova N. M.

Ecological state of the small river in the Moscow Area after nutrients removal unit commissioning

Summary

The results of monitoring the ecological state of the Pekhorka River (the Moscow Area) on the hydrochemical and hydrobiological water quality parameters are presented. The river water contains more than 90% of the Lyubertsy (Moscow) wastewater treatment facilities effluents. The nutrient removal unit retrofitted into the treatment process was commissioned in August 2006. The regular ecological monitoring carried out by Mosvodokanal OJSC staff showed that from that moment the nitrogen concentration in the river water downstream of the treatment facilities discharge decreased by more than 30%, and that of phosphorus – by 50%. Beginning from 2006–2007 till the present moment the increase of phyto-and zooplankton species diversity has been observed.

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Российская ассоциация водоснабжения и водоотведения

Конференция итог

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