Tag:ecological safety

№7|2014

WATER DISTRIBUTION NETWORK RELIABILITY

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UDC 628.144.62-192

Primin O. G.

Analysis of factors producing an effect on the integrity and environmental safety of water distribution networks

Summary

The environmentally safe construction and operation of public utilities facilitates to a large extent the sustainable deve­lopment of cities and communities. Pipelines of a water distribution network can be referred to the basic elements of the municipal water supply system and, as operational practice shows, are most vulnerable. Transition to market economy, reforming housing and public utilities under conditions of wear and aging of engineering life support systems of the Russian cities and communities, lack of material and financial resources for their renovation have significantly exacerbated the ecological situation in the country. Unsatisfactory condition of the water supplying pipelines in most of the cities, imperfect operation management result in numerous pipeline failures and, consequently, in material and environmental damages caused by the changing hydrogeological territorial regime, underflooding, raw wastewater discharge into water bodies and surface spills, increased soil corrosiveness etc. In that context supplying the population with sufficient amount of drinking water of the required quality and environmental safety of water use have been most urgent issues in Russia. The integrity and environmental safety have been the main requirements set to the public water supply pipelines. The results of studying the assessment and analysis of the factors effecting the integrity and environmental safety of the water distribution pipelines are presented. The assessment and analysis of the external factors (parameters, characteristics) that can produce a significant effect on both the pipe integrity and environmental safety and their efficient lifetime are the basis of developing the measures on improving the reliability of the municipal water distribution pipelines.

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№12|2010

POTABLE WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 579.556:628.161.1

Gorshenin A. P., Garasko E. V., Ponomarev A. P.

Influence of Nanobacteria on Potable Water Quality and Safety

Summary

Results of the microbiological monitoring of potable water quality in the cities of Ivanovo, Vladimir, Kostroma using bacteriophysical and electron-microscopic methods are presented. Nanostructures capable of reproduction were found in the samples of potable water. A phenomenon of nanotransformation accompanied by the formation of several morphological conformations of nanobacteria is revealed. Nanobacteria presenting in potable water prepared using the traditional ways influence on its quality and may pose a hazard to human health. Determination of the fact of unfavorable influence may require the development of innovative water treatment techniques for eradication of nanobacteria.

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№5|2019

SEWERAGE NETWORKS

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UDC 628.237

Fedorov Sviatoslav Viktorovich, Vasilyev V. M., Klementyev M. N.

Study of gas evolution in a sewer section

Summary

Transportation of wastewater through sewer networks is accompanied by the generation and evolution of gases from the flow. For a quantitative assessment of the gas evolution process a sewer section model has been developed in the ANSYS CFX finite element analysis package. The model takes into account the combined flow of wastewater, entrained air and sewage gas (e.g. carbon dioxide) coming from the collector tray. Monitoring was carried out in a section of the domestic sewage system (DN = 500 mm) in the industrial zone of Obukhovo in St. Petersburg. The measured values of the vacuum pressure are in the range of model calculations. The process of designing a computational area of the sewer section and establishing initial and boundary conditions is presented. As a result of modeling the dependences of the carbon dioxide concentration and the pressure of the gas-air environment in the underroof space of the pipeline with different slopes and filling levels were obtained. The results obtained can serve as a basis for the approach to predicting the process of gas evolution in sewer sections.

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№7|2011

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.32/.356.085

Linev S. P., Grigorieva E. V., Minakova N. S., Voskoboynikova V. E.

The Lipetsk Aeration Station at the Service of Ecological Safety of Region

Summary

The plan of development of the biological treatment facilities of the city of Lipetsk using the modern technologies and equipment for waste water treatment is presented. The experience of attraction of investments under conditions of limited budget financing is considered. A full complex of actions on reconstruction of treatment facilities will make it possible to ensure high-quality treatment of the city’s waste water in accordance with the requirements for discharge into fisheries water bodies, which will improve the sanitary-epidemiological conditions of the Voronezh River.

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№3|2012

AT THE RUSSIAN WATER AND WASTEWATER ASSOCIATION

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UDC 628.31

DANILOVICH D. A.

Best available technologies in municipal wastewater management

Summary

On the basis of developing amendments of the Russian environmental legislation and analyzing the international experience the basic principles of applying the concept of best available technologies (BAT) to municipal wastewater management were developed. Twelve groups of best available technologies are suggested covering the entire range of economically achievable engineering and organizational measures carried out by water and wastewater utilities to minimize the environmental impact. Within these groups specific definitions of the best available technologies were set forth.

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№1|2016

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

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UDC 628.3:504.05

Lerner А. D., Inchagov А. D.

Regulation of wastewater discharges within the framework
of the national environmental policy

Summary

The interrelation of the environmental legal relations in the field of regulating pollution discharges into the water bodies and public utilities operation is considered. Regulation of wastewater discharges and environmental payments for the negative impact on the water bodies are directly interconnected. Above-limit payment for discharges is one of the factors of the bankruptcy of water and wastewater utilities. Amendments to the system of regulating the negative impact on the water bodies introduced in 2015 could neither solve the existing problems nor eliminate the contradictions between the interests of the institutions of the RF Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Protection, water and wastewater utilities and national fiscal interests. According to the current methods of regulation drafting technically unachievable requirements to the effluent discharges are set to the water and wastewater utilities; and failure to observe them is subject to substantial financial responsibility. Shifting a part of the financial responsibility from water and wastewater utilities to business did not improve the economic performances of water and wastewater services but placed additional financial burden on business. No changes in discharge regulations that were envisaged in Federal Law No. 73-FZ of June 3rd, 2006 «On the enactment of the Water Code of the Russian Federation» occurred due to the lack of the regulatory and legal framework expected from the institutions of the RF Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Protection. The amendments to the environmental regulations introduced into the legal framework do not correlate with each other and reflect the interests of different institutions. It is evidence of the absence of the national environmental policy. The constituted statutory regulations must correspond to the provisions of the national environmental policy, solve the tasks set by the policy, eliminate the emerging contradictions. The basic principles that must make the foundation of the national environmental policy are presented. The main principles are the balance of the public interests, environmental interests, the interests of water and wastewater utilities and business, all-level budgets, technically achievable requirements to the negative impact and the priority of environmental protection over the national fiscal interests.

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№11|2013

PIPELINE SYSTEMS

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UDC 628.214:532.595.2

Primin O. G.

Ensuring reliable and environmentally safe operation of pressure sewers

Summary

Surge in a pipeline is a significant factor that is affecting the environmental safety and reliability of the public wastewater disposal system. In case of an emerging surge noticeable pressure fluctuations occur that could cause pipeline burst and damage of the related hydraulic and mechanical equipment (pumps, valves etc.). It results in sewage spills, material and environmental losses. The main causes of an emerging surge in municipal pressure sewers can be as follows: mains fai­lure, imperfections of the control schemes of the main pumping units at the sewage pumping stations. To ensure reliable operation of the pumping stations the use of hydromechanical devices as well as of high-speed emergency switching on automatic and protection devices including controlled electric drives and softstarters is provided. It was determined that in wastewater disposal practice hydromechanical fittings that reduce the surge effect shall be used. To prevent from surge water discharge through bypasses with installing safety valves and hydraulic tanks is used. In addition to wastewater discharge from pumping stations pressure sewers of intricate shape shall be equipped with air intake and relief devices at the intermediate points. It is found that surges in operation of sewage pumping stations can be eliminated by improving the reliability of external power supply by establishing truly independent power sources, designing combined power supply schemes, high-speed automatic switchover devices in 6–10 kV switchboards of big stations.

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№3-1|2013

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

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UDC 628.32:502.36

Il'in Iu. A., IGNATCHIK V. S., Ignatchik S. Iu.

Determining the environmental safety indicators of wastewater treatment facilities

Summary

A method of evaluating the environmental safety indicators of wastewater treatment facilities is presented. The method includes confirmatory analysis with the help of computer simulation of process technologies applied at the wastewater treatment complexes that consist of different purpose blocks in order to evaluate emergency outages affecting the effluent quality. The risk of possible failures of separate units that are parts of the process layout as well as the degree of environmental impact on the entire treatment facilities is determined.

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№2|2018

DESIGNING WATER AND WASTEWATER SYSTEMS

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UDC 628.218

Chupin R. V.

Optimization of the prospective plans of water supply
system development under the tight financing conditions

Summary

The transition to market relations determined a new for our country technology of the urban utility systems management. This technology can be presented in two stages. The first stage is the development of the water supply and wastewater disposal plans; the second one – is the implementation of these plans on the basis of the investment programs of the public utility sector. The investment programs are shaping the financial support of the development and upgrade of wastewater disposal systems by means of the investment component in the tariff; charges for connecting newly built capital construction projects and targeted financing from separate state and municipal programs, loans and credits. Under this approach the determinants are the investments and their limitation in stages and wastewater disposal system development periods. In connection with this new problems and challenges arise related to the efficient allocation of these investments in the construction of new and upgrade of the existing water and wastewater projects. Based on the developed models and methods of substantiating the structure and parameters of wastewater disposal systems a method of shaping and optimizing the options of wastewater disposal system development under the tight financing conditions is proposed.

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№11|2017

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.166.085

Kostyuchenko S. V., SMIRNOV A. D., Tolstoi M. Iu.

Domestic technologies and equipment for chemical free treatment of water and wastewater of the Siberian cities and industries

Summary

The chemicals used in liquid and gaseous media treatment and purification either stay intact in the processed environment or disinteg­rate and react with the processed environment or admixtures in it and form numerous secondary and often toxic products. In this context chemical free methods of media purification aiming at their environmental safety are of most interest. Chemical free methods of treatment do not result in the formation of such a big amount of secondary products; whereas the efficiency of their use is often higher because they less depend on the type and structure of the targeted substance or admixture as well as on the conditions of use. Ultraviolet irradiation has been the most efficient and widely used method of chemical free disinfection of effluents both in Russia and abroad. The capital expenses for UV-disinfection are significantly reduced since there is no need in constructing contact tanks for chlorination and dechlorination; in addition the absence of chemical consumption eliminates the need in constructing a chemical plant and installing dosing systems. Using the example of the Siberian Region the advantages of using UV-irradiation in wastewater treatment is described.

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№2|2016

PIPELINE SYSTEMS

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UDC 628.24

Voronin S. G., Skrebnev Iu. V.

Improving the environmental safety of sewage pipeline laying  with the use of new breed ceramic pipes

Summary

The characteristics and advantages of the advanced sewage ceramic pipes of new breed are presented as well as the range of products and the technology of pipe manufacture with the use of clay and chamotte. Taking into consideration the distinctive advantages of ceramic pipes (long lifetime of pipes and fittings; tightness of abutted joints; high chemical resistance; non-wearing of the inner surface of pipes, fittings and abutted joints), the conclusion of the expediency of launching large-scale ceramic pipe manufacture in Russia is made. Alongside with the introduction of ceramic pipes developing the standards with account of the entire lifetime of all the sewage pipelines and advanced technical equipment for open and trenchless pipe laying is required.

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№2|2013

LEGISLATION, STANDARDS, GUIDELINES

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UDC 349.6:628.396

ALEKSEEV V. S.

Legal and technologic principles of toxic and highly mineralized wastewater management

Summary

Federal Law «On water supply and wastewater management» in effect from the 1st of January 2013 is lacking regulatory requirements to the processes of handling toxic and highly mineralized wastewater, whereas 2.01.28-85 SNiP (Construction rules and norms) specify the regulation of landfilling industrial solid and liquid wastes listed in the inventory of branch ministries. In relation to handling toxic wastewater it is recommended to be guided by «Criteria of hazardous waste ranging to classes of hazard to natural environment» Instructional Guidelines issued by RF Ministry of Natural Resources (2003). The clause-by-clause comments to Federal Law «On water supply and wastewater management» suggest to permit disposal of liquid wastes (wastewater) of the first and second classes of hazard as well as highly mineralized wastewater into deep horizons of the earth's crust isolated from fresh underground and surface waters. The permission must be in line with Natural Resource Law.

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№11|2013

WATER SOURCES QUALITY CONTROL

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UDC 628.16:504.064

Vasilenko S. L., Kobylianskii V. I.

The system of early warning of water quality deterioration
on the basis of toxicological testing

Summary

To improve raw water quality monitoring at water intakes and determine water toxicity the methods of biotesting are used to provide for making timely protecting management decisions. The system of raw water quality monitoring in municipal water supply is based on setting maximum permissible concentrations of pollutants. In Ukraine the normative standards of surface water protection from pollution (SanPiN 4630-88), where critical chemicals of the first and second classes of hazard alone amount to hundreds. The techniques developed earlier are inconsistent because of the discrepancies between the enlarging list of pollutants and out-of-date technical and methodological capacities of the supervisory agencies. The use of the biotesting method based on recording the photosynthetic capacity and respiration of Chlorella vulgaris Beijer or Scenedesmus quadricauda green algae for strategic pollution monitoring has been suggested. The flowchart of an automatic continuous monitoring station and an algorythm of natural water quality assessment were designed. The correlation between water toxicity index and traditional integral, physical and chemical water quality indices is shown. The flowchart of an automatic continuous monitoring station and its technical capacbilities that provide for tapping into the regional environmental monitoring system are described. A pilot model of the automatic continuous monitoring station was successfully tested at the Petchenezhskoye water reservoir. It was found that the toxicity index increased when BOD increased and the oxygen concentration decreased. The oxidation characetristic at that time did not change practically. On the basis of investigating natural water composition and experimental measuring water toxicity setting 40% threshold toxicity value for drinking water supply is recommended.

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№6|2017

WASTEWATER SLUDGE TREATMENT

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UDC 628.336.71:628.477.8

LOBANOV F. I., Maurin Eric, Plekhanov A. V.

Thermal treatment – a promising trend in wastewater sludge utilization

Summary

The presence of toxic elements in wastewater sludge generated at the wastewater treatment facilities precludes from using to the full extent the biosludge rich in nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium as efficient organic or combined organomineral fertilizers and potting soil for reclamation of disturbed lands. In this context the task of developing advanced technologies of wastewater sludge treatment in order to mitigate the negative impact on the environment with the use of different passivation methods of active forms of toxic metals has been set. The information on metal furnaces made of hi-tech alloy with fluidized bed for thermal treatment of wastewater sludge is presented in comparison with furnaces made of chamotte brick. Compact modular furnaces have been designed for incinerating 2000–6000 tons of sludge annually at small-scale wastewater treatment facilities. Furnaces for medium and large-scale wastewater treatment facilities have been designed for incinerating from 6000 to 80000 tons of sludge annually. The use of mineral additives and different inorganic sorbents ensures efficient treatment of waste gases. It is shown that metal furnaces with patented design have advantages compared to the traditional furnaces made of chamotte brick particularly when used at small-scale wastewater biological treatment facilities.

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№7|2012

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

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UDC 628.16.004.69(571.61/.64)

Kondratyeva L. M., Rousinov I. S., Domnin K. V.

Environmental safety and water treatment technology improvement in the Amur River Region

Summary

Advanced approaches to the water treatment processes with the use of local natural zeolites that improve the environmental safety are considered. Among the basic trends in developing water treatment technologies special attention is given to chemical free methods of the Amur water purification with the help of natural sorbents and biochemical processes activation in biofilms, water in the public systems polishing and stimulation of ground water deironing in local water treatment.

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№1|2014

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

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UDC 504.75.06:628.31

Pupyrev E. I., Shelomkov A. S.

Economic assessment of environmentally safe wastewater treatment technologies

Summary

In the competitive environment in Russia customers and investors shall take into account economic factors when designing municipal wastewater treatment facilities. Cost-effective and environmentally efficient wastewater treatment technologies are determined with account of regional specific features when siting the treatment facilities. Three representative groups of settlements are specified: rural (less than 20 thousand residents), towns (50-100 thousand residents), cities and megacities. The characteristics of municipal wastewater typical for every group are presented. Wastewater of rural settlements contains high concentrations of suspended solids and nutrients. Effluents of towns and cities contain heavy metals resulting as a rule from raw industrial wastewater discharges. The requirements to the effluent quality of typical settlements are presented. For every group of settlements the environmentally acceptable treatment technologies are suggested and economically substantiated. The following wastewater treatment technologies have been analyzed: full aerobic biological treatment; advanced biological treatment with nutrients removal (nitrogen, phosphorus); advanced biological treatment with nutrients removal (nitrogen, phosphorus) with tertiary treatment at filtration facilities and sorption filters. The suggested approach to the selection of a wastewater treatment technology with account of the economic and environmental conditions can be used in designing other systems of ecological purpose.

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mvkniipr ru 

Российская ассоциация водоснабжения и водоотведения

WST19 200x300

Конференция итог

VAK2