Tag:activated sludge

№12|2015

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.35

Stepanov S. V., Stepanov A. S., Gabidullina L. A., Dubov O. V.

Biological treatment of oil refinery wastewater  in a biosorption membrane reactor

Summary

The basic process and kinetic regularities of biomembrane and biosorption membrane treatment of fuel and lube refinery wastewater are presented. The enhancement of denitrification process is suggested by reducing the dissolved oxygen concentration in the circula­ting flow of activated sludge by vacuum treatment. Summarizing the results of operating a pilot vacuumizing unit the more efficient use of biosorption membrane technology compared to the biomembrane method is shown. Single dosing of 1 g of powdered activated carbon per 1 liter of mixed liquor provided for reducing the mean monthly concentration of pollutants in permeate: in COD – from 68 to 49 mg/l; in BODfull – from 6 to 3.5 mg/l; in oil products – from 0.65 to 0.21 mg/l. The kinetic constants of the processes of eliminating the basic pollutants in membrane and biosorption membrane reactors were determined. It was stated that the specific oxidation rate in biosorption membrane reactors exceeded the similar indicators of membrane bioreactors only for easily sorbed substances – oil products and organic pollutants evaluated in BODfull. Vacuum treatment of circulating activated sludge during 5 minutes at minus 90 kPa pressure in a membrane bioreactor provided for 2-fold reduction of the dissolved oxygen concentration, improvement of the sedimentation properties of activated sludge (compared to the flow scheme without vacuum treatment) and the dissolved oxygen concentration less than 0.5 mg/l in the anoxic zone of the membrane bioreactor.

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№12|2016

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.31:661.5

MOROZOVA K. M., Stepanov S. V., Stepanov A. S., Sokolova T. V., Solkina O. S., Zhukova M. A.

Biological treatment of dairy industry wastewater in a membrane bioreactor (part 1)

Summary

The results of research study in the field of biological treatment of dairy wastewater are presented. The studies carried out under contact conditions showed that the kinetics of oxidation of dairy wastewater pollutants with activated sludge can be described by enzymatic reactions equation for substrate inhibition; at that, the obtained inhibition constants point at the increase of the wastewater toxicity after chemical flotation for biological treatment processes. The technology has been proved with simulative effluent in a pilot membrane bioreactor. The kinetic dependences of organics oxidation by BODfull, nitrification and denitrification were determined. The increase of oxidation capacity of the facilities by 1.46 at the sludge concentration increase from 4 to 10 g/l is shown that allows reducing significantly the size of the biological treatment facilities when using MBR technology. In the course of experimental studies at MBR plant and kinetic experiments under contact conditions the coefficients of inhibition with activated sludge metabolism products were determined for the simulative solution of wastewater by BODfull, for nitrification and denitrification. The temperature constant value for aerobic heterotrophic conversion, for nitrification and denitrification processes has been found.

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№2|2017

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.31:661.5

MOROZOVA K. M., Stepanov S. V., Stepanov A. S., Sokolova T. V., Solkina O. S., Zhukova M. A.

Biological treatment of dairy industry wastewater in a membrane bioreactor
(part 2)

Summary

The technology of biological treatment of dairy wastewater is described that provides for meeting the standard maximum permissible concentrations for fishery water bodies. The results of the experimental studies in a pilot membrane bioreactor with real wastewater of «Pestravskii» butter factory are presented. The main process and kinetic parameters of the biological wastewater treatment processes have been obtained that are needed for designing a membrane bioreactor with nitrification-denitrification that provides for meeting the standard maximum permissible concentrations for fishery water bodies or requirements to the effluents discharged into a public sewer. The maximum specific rate of diary wastewater pollutants oxidation Vmax at 7 g/l activated sludge concentration and 20 °С temperature is 40 mg/(g·h), Michaelis constant Km – 15 mg/l, inhibition coefficient of metabolism products  – 0.54 l/g, temperature constant X for aerobic heterotrophic conversion – 0.079 deg–1. Compared to the traditional treatment facilities the use of biomembrane techno­logy at the wastewater biological treatment stage provides for 1.4–1.5 reducing the treatment time, reactor volume and footprint owing to the increase of the oxidation capacity of the aeration units by increasing the activated sludge concentration to 10 g/l; and ensuring almost complete removal of suspended solids by eliminating the tertiary treatment stage. Possible elimination of chemical flotation stage before biological treatment is shown that provides for reducing the expenditures for expensive chemicals and streamlining the process flow scheme.

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№3|2019

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.356.5

KOZLOV M. N., Kevbrina M. V., Dorofeev A. G.

Secondary settlers: comparison of the calculation methods in designing and analysis of the parameters of efficient operation of the facilities

Summary

The results of the comparison of methods of calculating secondary settlers through the example of a model wastewater treatment plant (domestic method according to SNiP 2.04.03-85, German method according to Germany Standard ATV-DVWK-A131E, American method based on mass flow theory) are presented. It is shown that the surface area of settlers calculated according to Standard ATV has higher values compared to the calculations according to SNiP 2.04.03-85 and American method. The values of the surface area of settling tanks calculated according to SNiP 2.04.03-85 and American method are very close. At the same time the SNiP method is much simpler and requires much less initial parameters than the American method. For the domestic practice of operating secondary settlers it is proposed to introduce a new parameter – «dry matter loading on the settler surface» taken from the mass flow theory. This indicator indicates how much dry matter of the mixed liquor from aeration tanks enters per unit surface of secondary settlers per hour and corresponds to the incoming mass flow. By varying the dry matter loading on the surface of secondary settlers it is possible to provide for the standard suspended solids concentration in effluent. Through the example of the operating 54 m diameter settlers the dependence of the clarification efficiency on this parameter is shown.

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№10|2012

WASTEWATER SLUDGE TREATMENT

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UDC 628.336.5

Nikolaev Yu. A., Kevbrina M. V., Dorofeev A. G., Vanyushina A. Ya., Agaryov A. M.

High technology of methane digestion of wastewater sludge with biomass recycling

Summary

The technology of methane digestion of wastewater sludge with biomass recycling developed at Mosvodokanal MPUE is presented. The technology advantages ensure reducing the dry weight of sludge compared to the traditional digestion due to deeper decomposition of ash-free matter, and saving the sludge transportation, dewatering and utilization costs. Introduction of the technology at large-scale facilities will provide for eliminating the problem of hydraulic overloading.

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№10-2|2010

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.356.57.001.5

SHVETSOV V. N., MOROZOVA K. M., Smirnova I. I., Semenov M. Yu., Lezhnev M. L., Ryzhakov G. G., Gubaydullin T. M.

The Use of Bioblocks at Wastewater Treatment Facilities

Summary

Results of the laboratory study of an aeration tank operation for the purpose of technological comparison of two new modified bioblocks, BBZ-45P-14 and BBZ-65P-10, having the similar surface structure but different geometric parameters are presented. It is shown that these bioblocks can be used successfully in aeration tanks for immobilization of microorganisms of activated sludge. The tests of loading material samples have been carried out at biomass density in bioblocks of 0,3–0,36 kg/kg, at equivalent concentration of sludge in the system – 2,3 g/l. The bioblock BBZ-65P-10 is used preferably in aeration tanks, BBZ-45P-14 – in aeration tanks with low load on activated sludge, blocks of aftertreatment for additional clarification of water treated biologically and in biofilters for build-up of biological film. The comparison of results of tests on rate of activated sludge adhesion obtained with new types of bioblocks and BBZ-65 tested earlier makes it possible to conclude that the adhesion process goes off more intensively on rougher surfaces of modified models of bioblocks.

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№4|2013

WASTEWATER SLUDGE HANDLING

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UDC 628.336.3

Kofman V. Ya.

Wastewater sludge handling in Europe(review of foreign publications)

Summary

A review of foreign literature on wastewater sludge treatment and utilization is presented. Regulatory requirements to wastewater treatment facilities operation in EC countries are given. Total characteristic of wastewater sludge is given together with sludge treatment methods (chemical stabilization, anaerobic and aerobic digestion, dewatering, thermal drying etc.), ways of utilization (storage, incineration, agricultural use, pyrolysis, gasification, wet oxidation etc.)

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№10|2011

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.35:661.5.63

KOZLOV M. N., Moyzhes O. V., Nikolaev Yu. A., GRACHEV V. A., Kevbrina M. V., Dorofeev A. G., Aseyeva V. G.

M-Defanox – multisludge system of nutrient removal

Summary

M-Defanox new technology was developed for the treatment of municipal wastewater low in organics. The method is based on the use of three sludge types and dephosphorization under anoxic conditions. The technology provides for the efficient utilization of organics in biological treatment process and ensures 99% nitrogen removal, 80% phosphorus elimination, 80% COD removal and 95% BOD removal.

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№1|2013

WASTEWATER SLUDGE TREATMENT

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UDC 628.17.001.4

Lominoga O. A., Agapov D. V., Kell L. S.

Minimizing the recovery of phosphorus-containing pollutants in the process of wastewater sludge treatment

Summary

To improve the Baltic Sea basin the problem of reducing the concentration of nutrients, phosphorus in particular, in the effluents must be solved. No less important is to prevent bound phosphorus recovery in the subsequent process of activated sludge dewatering. It is shown that minimizing phosphorus recovery during sludge dewatering and preventing secondary pollution of effluents can be ensured by separate thickening of activated sludge and raw sludge; as well as by minimizing the retention time of activated sludge and raw sludge mixture before mechanical dewatering.

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№2|2013

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.35:665.6

Stepanov S. V., Strelkov A. K., Blinkova L. A., MOROZOVA K. M., Belyakov A. V.

Estimating kinetic constants for the process of biochemical treatment of oil refinery wastewater

Summary

The results of studies carried out under periodic conditions at the wastewater biological treatment facilities of the Novokouibyshevsky, Kouibyshevsky, Syzransky and Atchinsky oil refineries are presented. With reference to the measured oxygen consumption rate the values of the maximum oxidation rate, Michaelis constants and coefficient of inhibition by activated sludge degradation products were obtained. Kinetic constants depend on the raw wastewater composition and are subject to daily fluctuations. The obtained values can be used in designing aeration tanks for oil refinery wastewater treatment.

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№10|2016

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.33

Kevbrina M. V., Bogomolov M. V., Streltsov S. A., Belov N. A., Kolbasov G. A.

Optimization of the mode of sludge removal from secondary settling tanks

Summary

In the process of upgrading the Moscow Novokur’ianovskie wastewater treatment facilities the scraper mechanism for activated sludge collection in 54 m diameter secondary settling tanks was replaced by SO-54 sludge sucker. Since it was the first experience of using sludge suckers at the Kur’ianovskie wastewater treatment facilities it was decided to carry out experimental tests of the operation of the secondary settling tanks equipped with sludge suckers as well as to develop and approbate the method of efficient activated sludge collection and removal from the bottom of the settling tanks. The operation of SO-54 sludge sucker in different modes was analyzed. It was shown that the design of the settling tank provided for the operation control by switching off and on the suction pipes of the upper level of the sludge suckers, i. e. eliminating the use of complicated instruments. Regulating the operation of the suction pipes of the upper level of the sludge suckers with a time switch provides for maintaining the optimal height of the activated sludge layer. Switching off the suction pipes of the upper level of the sludge suckers results in the increased concentration of recycle sludge. As a result of changing SO-54 sludge pump operation the dosage of recycle sludge was increased from 4.6 to 7.1 g/l eliminating the effluent quality in relation to suspended solids. This allowed reducing the recycle sludge volume subject to pumping to the aeration tanks, and reducing the number of operating pumps, and power saving.

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№4|2016

ОЧИСТКА СТОЧНЫХ ВОД

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УДК 628.35:66.081.63

Ivanova O. V.

Опыт внедрения современных технологий на основе ультрафильтрационных мембран

Аннотация

Рассказано об опыте внедрения технологий биологической очистки хозяйственно-бытовых и промышленных сточных вод с использованием мембранного биореактора. Технология на основе погружных ультрафильтрационных мембранных модулей обеспечивает достижение жестких нормативных требований к приему очищенной воды в водоемы питьевого и культурно-бытового водопользования и рыбохозяйственного назначения. Применение ультрафильтрационных мембран способствует увеличению концентрации активного ила в аэротенке для глубокой очистки обрабатываемых сточных вод. Промышленный сток проходит механическую очистку на шнековой решетке, далее очищается физико-химическим способом в реагентном флотаторе, затем смешивается с хозяйственно-бытовым стоком и поступает в мембранный биореактор. Применение мембранного биореактора позволяет сократить площади, занимаемые очистными сооружениями. Сброс очищенного стока осуществляется в водоем рыбохозяйственного назначения.

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№11|2011

МГСУ - 90 лет

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UDC 628.35:661.5.001.42

Zalyotova N. A.

Experience of operating wastewater treatment facilities with two-stage nitrification-denitrification flow scheme

Summary

The results of field testing pilot treatment facilities with a capacity of 12,000 m3/day with two-stage nitrification-denitrification flow scheme are presented. The results of evaluating different methods of mixed liquor mixing within denitrification zones alongside with treatment facilities design procedure are given. It is shown that the use of mechanical mixers will provide for the required oxygenic mode in denitrification zones and improve the efficiency of total nitrogen and nitrite elimination.

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№3|2014

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.35:661.5

Stepanov S. V.

Specific features of designing oil refinery wastewater biological treatment facilities

Summary

Oil refinery wastewater is characterized by the presence of organics resistant to oxidation and practically total absence of phosphorus. The procedure of designing oil-containing wastewater biological treatment with nitrification-denitrification is used both for aeration tanks and membrane bioreactors. Designing is carried out with the use of kinetic relationships for all the regulated pollutants. During the experiments kinetic constants and coefficients of nitrification and denitrification processes, oxidation of organic substances (as BOD and COD), oil products, phenols and synthetic surfactants for waste­water of a number of oil refineries were obtained. Calculations algorithm includes the following stages: determining initial data – pollutant concentrations and wastewater flow rates; choosing the process flow scheme of the treatment facilities; calculating specific rate of biological treatment process on the basis of kinetic constants and coefficients; calculating activated sludge growth, nitrogen and phosphorus losses in the process of assimilation; estimating the retention time for oxidation of separate ingredients of pollutants and denitrification; determining the maximum aerobic process time in respect to the limiting component and treatment level in respect to other ingredients; calculating the required air consumption; checking the necessity of dosing phosphorus compounds for nutrient makeup. To improve the denitrification efficiency the configuration of the facilities was enlarged with a mixed liquor deaerator. The process design of a membrane bioreactor differs from the design of aeration tanks with nitrification-denitrification by correction of specific oxidation rate with account of the obtained kinetic constants and coefficient of inhibition with metabolism products at higher concentrations of activated sludge in the bioreactor. The experimental results allowed supplementing the procedure of designing wastewater biological treatment facilities with nitrification-denitrification developed by NII VODGEO.

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№3|2012

ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES AND EQUIPMENT

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UDC 628.35:62-278:725.42

Kharkina O. V., Strelkov A. K., Stepanov S. V., Stashok Yu. E., Sven Baumgarten, Josef Sheren

Treatment of Syzran oil refinery industrial wastewater in membrane bioreactor

Summary

The results of investigating biomembrane technology of Syzran oil refinery industrial wastewater treatment are presented. The kinetic parameters of nitrification-denitrification processes are determined. It was demonstrated that biomembrane technology provided for the intensification of these processes alongside with meeting the requirements set to the effluent quality in relation to nitrogen compounds whether with or without addition of biodegradable substrate. The experimental data proved the possibility of either using the effluent for industrial closed-loop water system makeup after partial desalination or (and) discharging it into surface water bodies after polishing with sorption.

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№10|2015

ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES AND EQUIPMENT

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UDC 628.356.1

Meshengisser Yu. M.

The past and future of the domestic aerator engineering (on the occasion of the 25th anniversary of the first RF Patent «Tube aerator»)

Summary

The stages of development of the domestic production and use of aeration systems in wastewater treatment – from traditional perforated pipes to high efficient aeration systems are described. The drawbacks and advantages of aerators, their applicability under certain conditions are designated. In the years ahead the development of  not just aerators is planned but of aeration systems that include the entire equipment set for saturating water with oxygen: regulated air blowers, delivering and distributing pipelines with shutoff and control valves, comprehensive automated air supply control systems, aerators, systems of quick-detachable fittings and other elements that provide for optimal supplying air to the aeration tanks and if necessary for easily changing the system configuration in the process of retechnologisation of the treatment facilities.

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№9|2018

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.35

SHVETSOV V. N., MOROZOVA K. M., Stepanov S. V.

Designing facilities for municipal and industrial wastewater biological treatment in aeration tanks with nutrients removal

Summary

Biological treatment facilities are the basic facilities for the purification of domestic, municipal and industrial wastewater of most of the industries (chemical, petrochemical, oil refining, food, textile, consumer goods, coke-chemical industries, agriculture etc.). However until now there has been no scientifically-grounded method of designing wastewater biological treatment facilities with nitrogen and phosphorus removal in the Russian Federation. Many years of extensive research carried out by NII VODGEO and «Water Supply and Wastewater Disposal» chair of the Samara State Technical University at the laboratory and pilot plants, at the operating facilities with processing data bulks provided for developing an adequate method of designing aeration tanks with nutrients removal. The presented method is a supplement of the method of process design of biological treatment facilities stated in SNiP 2.04.03-85 with regard to designing aeration tanks with nitri-denitrification and biological phosphorus removal; and provides for the calculations of upgrade and new construction of the facilities for biological treatment of municipal, domestic and industrial wastewater. Behind the process design is the concept of the process description with enzyme kinetics equations. The method includes the following stages: substantiation of the relevant basic data on the flow rates and qualitative composition of wastewater; determination of the process flow scheme and burden balance calculation of all the critical pollution components; determination of the kinetic constants and coefficients of enzyme kinetics equations of the transformation of each basic pollution component (BOD, nitrogen compounds, phosphorus etc.) and activated sludge growth by the statistical analysis of the operation data and chemico-analytical analysis of wastewater samples of the operating treatment facilities, by experimental data or on the basis of the available analogies; calculation of the volume of all the elements of the facilities with determination of the limitative component and treatment level in relation to other pollutants; final correction of the vo­lumes and parameters of all the process zones with account of the requirements to the level of treatment in relation to all the dictating pollution components. An example of the calculation is set. It is noted that the computation algorithm and formulas included into the method provide for designing any complicated process flow schemes with nitrogen and phosphorus removal applied both to municipal and industrial wastewater. The method provides for calculating not only the rate of removing BOD and nitrogen compounds but also other certain pollution components (oil products, detergents, fats etc.) offering additional opportunities of the wastewater biological treatment method. The method is especially useful in designing industrial wastewater biological treatment facilities because most of the foreign methods are mainly focused on the purification of domestic and municipal wastewater to the concentrations adopted in those countries. The method is developed on the principle of essential sufficiency; however is contains 70 design parameters and 28 formulas and equations. Accordingly the calculations are performed in Microsoft Office Excel which makes it possible for users even with middle software skills. Herewith it is possible to perform calculations straight for several options interactively and/or upgrade the treatment facilities in the process of their operation.

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№11|2013

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.35:661.5

SHVETSOV V. N., MOROZOVA K. M.

Procedure of designing wastewater biological treatment facilities
with nutrients removal

Summary

The procedure of designing wastewater biological treatment facilities with nitrification-denitrification is presented. Biological treatment facilities shall be designed on the basis of experimentally determined kinetic constants, nitrification and denitrification process factors, and for every limiting value depending on the requirements to the quality of treatment. Kinetic constants and factors required for designing municipal wastewater treatment facilities are given. Design algorithm is set out including the following stages: substantiation of the initial data on flow rates and qualitative wastewater composition according to the required level of reliability (more than 85–90% probability); selection of the process flow scheme – number of steps and(or) stages, operation procedure and lay out; determination of kinetic constants of equations of enzyme kinetics of every basic pollution component transformation from experimental data or from the available data base; preliminary calculation of excess activated sludge volume and adjustment of nitrogen and phosphorus mass balance; determination of limiting pollution component that needs maximum time to be oxidized; calculation of the facility capacity by limiting component with determination of the treatment level for other pollution components. The results of the long-term experimental studies of nitrification-denitrification processes with different types of municipal and industrial wastewater provide for supplementing the method of aeration tank design specified in SNiP 2.04.03-85 with formulae and data for design and optimization of aeration tank operation with nitrogen and phosphorus removal.

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№7|2012

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.35:661.5/.63.001.2

SHVETSOV V. N., MOROZOVA K. M., Domnin K. V., Arkhipova Е. Е.

Designing nitrification-denitrification retrofit at the biological treatment facilities

Summary

The results of studies carried out at the Khabarovsk wastewater treatment facilities are presented. The developed process flow sheet of wastewater biological treatment included nitrification-denitrification processes to eliminate nitrogen compounds according to the set standards. The process flow sheet provided for retrofitting dephosphatation zone to ensure maximum level of phosphorus removal at the biological treatment stage in order to reduce chemical consumption at the subsequent treatment stages. The process design of the biological treatment facilities was carried out.

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№2|2019

145th ANNIVERSARY OF THE MINSK WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM

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UDC 628.35

Dubovik O. S., Markevich R. M., Antonov K. V.

Improvement of biological removal of nitrogen and phosphorus compounds from wastewater under the conditions of cascade denitrification

Summary

In view of ever toughening requirements to wastewater treatment the optimization and intensification of wastewater treatment facilities operation become priority areas. The flow process scheme of wastewater biological treatment at the Minsk Wastewater Treatment Plant is represented by traditional aeration tanks and aeration tanks with organized cascade denitrification scheme. The main component of this scheme is the lack of inner recycle and possibility of dispersed inflow of clarified wastewater over the aeration tank zones. This provides for the presence of easily oxidizable organic substances in every anoxic zone. In view of building-up of pollutants in incoming wastewater and toughening the requirements to their removal the intensification of the biological stage has been an important aspect of the treatment facilities operation. The research objective was the scheme of cascade denitrification at the operating treatment facilities for the optimization of which different options of clarified wastewater distribution over the aeration tank zones were used. Wastewater entering the cascade denitrification is characterized by insufficient quantity of organic substances because a significant amount of industrial wastes. To increase the amount of organic substances it was decided to take out of service the primary settling tank and to reduce the frequency of sludge removal. The chosen optimal distribution of clarified wastewater over the aeration tank zones and increase of organic loading the efficiency of phosphate removal increased from 60 to 70%; and that of nitrogen removal – from 61 to 67%.

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