Tag:adsorption

№10|2019

ABROAD

DOI 10.35776/MNP.2019.10.09
UDC 628.3:62-278

Kofman V. Ya.

Micromotors – a recent trend in developing water and wastewater treatment technologies (a review)

Summary

Micromotors are autonomous, performing certain functions, self-propelled microdevices based on inorganic, organic or biological materials. Implemented in a micromotor design are two functions: autonomous movement and effective capture and/or destruction of various chemicals, including pollutants. To ensure autonomous movement the micromotor device provides for the creation of local thermal, acoustic, chemical gradients arising from asymmetric morphology or surface structure. The movement is provided through the use of various energy sources including light, electric and magnetic fields, ultrasonic waves or chemical “fuel”. The chaotic trajectory of micromotors throughout the solution provides for the highly efficient interaction of the chemicals immobilized on their surface with the targeted pollutants or detectable substances. The most elaborated principle of creating autonomous movement is the generation of a recoil impulse at asymmetric formation of gas microbubbles as a result of a chemical reaction. Currently, the main studies on the use of micromotors in water purification processes are carried out in the areas of analysis of aqueous media, removal of heavy metals, organic pollutants, dyes and oil products, as well as water disinfection. It is estimated that micromotors possess unique capabilities in the field of detection and removal of pollutants in aqueous media due to a combination of adsorption and catalytic properties with autonomous movement.

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№1|2014

ABROAD

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UDC 628.16.001.2

Kofman V. Ya.

Scientific research in the field of drinking water treatment

Summary

From the bibliometric analysis the basic subject areas of the research in the field of drinking water were determined. The leading research institutions, periodicals and countries in this field are presented. The general information on the articles is supplemented with the data on the major scientometric indices based on the citation account: author’s H-index and impact factor of a journal. The basic topical trends are the state of environment, purification of drinking water from diffe­rent sources, environmental pollution resulting from human intervention, toxicology. Water Research Journal (Great Bri­tain) takes the leading position in water topics. From the data array under consideration (30 597 articles) 25 000 (around 80%) articles have been written by the authors from one country, 5381 articles are the results of the international cooperation. The authors of the articles are representatives from 168 countries. Among pollutants most often mentioned in the publications are: arsenic (1138 articles; 5.1%), fluorides (411; 1.8%), nitrates (351; 1.6%), lead (297; 1.3%), cadmium (274; 1.2%). For the reviewed period (1992–2011) 143 articles were dedicated to pharmaceuticals (0.64%). Among the treatment methods adsorption, ozonation and chlorination are most often mentioned. It was noted that in 2011 the number of published articles on chlorination was almost equal to that on ozonation; however, later the extent of chlorination research increased significantly. The recent popularity of adsorption can be explained not only by the wide use of the given technology in practice but in a greater degree by unsophisticated equipment, low costs of experiments and a great variety of adsorbents, including adsorbents produced from cheap agricultural and industrial wastes.

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№6|2013

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.33

Alekseyev E. V.

On using «specific flotosorption» index in flotator process design

Summary

An approach to describing the process of extracting pollutants by flotation based on the adsorption mechanism of the interaction of the participating phases is suggested. Basing on these perceptions possible determination of the flotation engineering parameters is shown. The analysis of the typical dynamics of the water treatment process in contact flotation cell models is presented. The recommendations on determining the parameters of the flotation process: flotation cell capacity and supplied gas (air) flow rate are given.

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№1|2014

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.316.12:546.72

Filatova E. G., Pomazkina O. I., Dudarev V. I., Soboleva A. A.

Removing iron with carbon sorbent from plating wastes

Summary

The results of investigating adsorption capacity of sorbents in relation to iron ions (III) under static and dynamic conditions (with the use of isotherms and kinetic adsorption curves) are presented. To provide for removal of iron ions (III) and tertiary treatment of plating wastes IPI-T activated carbon was used that was produced from the wastes of phenol-formaldehyde resin production and modified with sulfosalicylic acid for IPI-Tm sorbent production was used. The maximum rate of sorbate passing through the sorbent layer was 5–7.5 ml/min which corresponded to the linear velocity of 1.5–2 m/h under full-scale conditions. The main factor that affects the sorption process is pH with optimal value of 1.79. Constants of BET adsorption equation for IPI-Tm modified sorbent were determined. The limiting sorption capacity of the monolayer was 128 mmol/kg, for IPI-T sorbent – 20.8 mmol/kg, limiting adsorption А∞ – 100 mmol/kg, adsorption equilibrium constant – 1·104; at that standard Gibbs energy of adsorption was 22.819 kJ/mol. Under dynamic conditions the time of the protective effect of IPI-Tm sorbent was 4 hours, i. e. 2 hours longer compared to IPI-T sorbent, and the volume capacity for IPI-Tm was 7.2 mg/l, i. e. twice as high as that for IPI-T.

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№6|2012

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

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UDC 628.16/.31

Kofman V. Ya.

Removing compounds showing hormonal activity from water and wastewater (review)

Summary

Various natural and nonnatural substances have been present in the environment. They can affect the normal hormonal activity in animals and humans. This class of substances is defined as «compounds with hormonal activity». The classification of compounds with hormonal activity is given. The methods of removing these compounds from water and wastewater, i.e. bioaugmentation, membrane technologies, adsorption, oxidation processes etc. are presented.

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№7|2016

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.33:544.723

Nikolaeva L. A., Golubchikov M. A.

Removal of oil products from industrial wastewater with the use  of modified carbonate sludge-based sorption materials

Summary

Activated carbon adsorption is one the efficient methods of removing oil products from wastewater. This method provides for ensuring water quality that meets the requirements to the discharges into the surface water or the conditions of using in closed-loop water supply systems at the industrial plants. The data on the use of solid waste products as sorption materials in wastewater treatment are presented. Development of new cheap waste products-based sorption materials is of big scientific and practical importance. Utilization of granulated hydrophobous carbonate sludge-based sorption material (wastes of thermal power plants) as oil products adsorbent is suggested. Process characteristics and adsorption capacity of the material received were studied; express-testing of the quality of aqueous extract of the developed granulated adsorbent on the acute lethal toxicity for Daphnia Magna Str. crustaceans and Poecillia Reticulata Pet fish was carried out. The process flow scheme of wastewater treatment at «Nizhnekamskneftekhim» OJSC is presented. The calculations of an adsorption filter retrofitted into the scheme of tertiary treatment of conventionally clean effluents with new hydrophobous sorption material were carried out. It is suggested to use the outspent sorbent as an additive to construction ground coat.

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№2|2011

WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.162.15

Nikitin A. M., Skolubovich Yu. L., Voytov E. L.

Enhancement of Efficiency of Water Supply Stations Operation

Summary

Issues of intensification of processes of coagulation treatment of low-temperature, low-turbidity and high-chromaticity water from surface sources of water supply using the reactor-clarifiers of a new design are considered. The reactor-clarifier combines advantages of sludge blanket clarifiers and granular-bed filters, has a low operational cost and reliability. The efficient complex technology of treatment of potable water from surface sources developed on the basis of experimental studies is presented. This technology increases the efficiency of operation of reconstructed water supply stations at minimal working costs. The quality of potable water treated meets the specified requirements.

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№5|2019

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.33:662.2

Ponomareva O. S., Glushankova I. S., Martynova A. A.

Thermal treatment of wastewater from the production
of high-energy compounds

Summary

During production of special-purpose products in technological processes and in the synthesis of components of high-energy compounds wastewater containing pollutants in high concentrations is generated; therefore before discharging into sewer networks it shall be preliminary neutralized. The results of studies on the purification of process effluents generated in the production of components of high-energy compounds contaminated with ethanolamine, ethylene diamine, heavy metal ions (nickel and lead) are presented. The analysis of process effluent treatment methods: ozonation, two-stage purification (chemical, adsorption), thermal neutralization was carried out. As a result of thermodynamic analysis and calculation of the processes of thermal destruction of pollutants in highly concentrated effluents technical solutions have been developed and an installation for the thermal disposal of effluent followed by multi-stage flue gas cleaning has been designed. The calculation of the dispersion of pollutant emissions into the atmosphere during the operation of the installation showed that running the process in a preset mode ensured compliance with the standard sanitary and hygienic requirements.

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Российская ассоциация водоснабжения и водоотведения

Конференция итог

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