01 2020

Number 1 / 2020

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№1|2020

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

DOI 10.35776/MNP.2020.01.01

UDC 628.16:62-278

Pervov A. G., Golovesov V. A., Spitsov D. V., Rudakova G. Ya.

Ways of reducing the operating costs of membrane units
for the preparation of drinking water from underground water sources

Summary

Experimental investigations have been conducted to determine the main process parameters of membrane units (filtrate yield, the rate of scaling on membrane surface). Basing on the results of the experimental studies the total costs of purification of underground water of various chemical composition were obtained. The studies were conducted on laboratory benches with the use of nanofiltration membranes with various selectivity rates. The consumption of service chemicals and operational costs for the equipment were calculated by the software designed earlier by the authors for determining the process parameters of membrane units. While designing membrane units, nanofiltration membranes with low values of selectivity, power consumption and expenditures for chemicals are preferred. The dependencies of the calcium carbonate scaling rates on membrane types and the multiplicity of volumetric concentration of source water were obtained. A comparison of costs shows that the use of membranes even for cases of water deferrization is more economical than the known traditional technologies.

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№1|2020

ПОЗДРАВЛЯЕМ С ЮБИЛЕЕМ!

DOI 000000

УДК

ПОЗДРАВЛЯЕМ С ЮБИЛЕЕМ!

Аннотация

20 января 2020 г. исполняется 80 лет
ВАЛЕРИЮ НИКОЛАЕВИЧУ ШВЕЦОВУ, доктору технических наук, профессору, крупнейшему специалисту в области водного хозяйства России, главному редактору журнала «Водоснабжение и санитарная техника».


 

№1|2020

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

DOI 10.35776/MNP.2020.01.02
UDC 628.1:006.3:66-926

Samburskii G. A., Ustinova O. V., Leont’eva S. V.

Specific features of standardization of chemicals
for the preparation of drinking water (through the example of polyaluminium chloride coagulant)

Summary

Coagulation process has been a widespread process technology for removing coarse suspended impurities from water, as well as colloidal organic contaminants present in dissolved form. Polyvalent metal salts are effective coagulants for the systems with aqueous disperse medium. The purpose of the work was developing a new state standard to provide for a uniform assessment of the quality of coagulants. The scope of coagulants in the process of water treatment is considered and their comparative analysis is carried out. The general requirements to the control of polyaluminium chloride quality are formulated. The developed and approved new national standard GOST R 58580-2019 «Polyaluminium chloride. Technical conditions» is presented that takes into account the requirements of sanitary legislation, technical regulation, safety of the processes of production and transportation of polyaluminium chloride.

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№1|2020

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

DOI 10.35776/MNP.2020.01.04
UDC 628.316

Belov S. G., Naumchik G. O.

Reuse of stained wash water for washing fabric after dyeing

Summary

The processes of aqueous work up of the fabric used at the textile enterprise «Svitanak» OJSC were studied during the fabric preparation, dyeing and subsequent washing. The quality of wash water at various stages of washing the fabric after dyeing was studied by such indicators as the color intensity by dilution rate, COD, permanganate index, foaming capacity and pH. Experimental data are presented that prove the possibility of using ozone for the purification of the wash water mixture from the last six fabric washings after dyeing to the requirements to the quality of water supplied to the dye-finishing processes. An approximate economic calculation has been performed that proves a high economic effect of establishing the reuse of wash water regenerated with ozone for washing fabric after dyeing.

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№1|2020

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

DOI 10.35776/MNP.2020.01.03
UDC 628.355

Zalyotova N. A., Zalyotov S. V.

The study of the response of dehydrogenase activity
of sludge to a change in the process parameters of an aeration tank

Summary

The biological method of wastewater treatment is a comprehensive multicomponent process; the activities of the enzyme system being the key component of it. It is known that dehydrogenases have been one of the most important enzymes the ensure the biological process. The complicated mechanism of the action of enzymes has not been fully described so far; however, in the practice of monitoring biological treatment processes, an indicator of the dehydrogenase activity of sludge is used. The research results provided for supplementing the available information with actual data on the interdependence of the level of dehydrogenase activity of sludge and indicators of individual process parameters of biological treatment. It was shown that the mode of operation of aeration tanks (organic matter load on sludge, dose of activated sludge, etc.) and the values of the initial dehydrogenase activity and dehydrogenase activity of the same sludge sample with weakly concentrated solution (DASН2О) are interconnected and depend on the organic load on sludge. The results of the study can be used to control the biological process of wastewater treatment.

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№1|2020

ENERGY CONSERVATION

DOI 10.35776/MNP.2020.01.05
UDC 628.292:62-531.3:65.011.4

Yermolin Yu. A.

Potentialities of energy saving in the operation of a sanitation system of a big city

Summary

The article, without mathematical formalization, with due consideration of physical interpretations of the process of wastewater disposal in a large city, reveals the potential for energy savings in the process of wastewater transportation in an extensive gravity network, enclosed in its very structure. This potential can be fulfilled through targeted operational redistribution of wastewater flows over sewage pumping stations and transportation mains of the network, achieving the minimum of total energy consumption by all pumping stations. It is shown that the calculation of such a redistribution is possible only on the basis of a mathematical model of the project by formulating and solving the corresponding optimization problem. The requirements that the mathematical model of the project shall meet are discussed; and its capabilities are shown while operating the network not only in normal operating conditions but also in emergency situations. The consideration of the problem is based on the positive results of a large-scale industrial experiment conducted earlier on the optimal management of a section of the Moscow sanitation system.

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№1|2020

ENERGY CONSERVATION

DOI 10.35776/MNP.2020.01.06
UDC 621.65:62-531.3

Usachev A. P.

Method of evaluating the effectiveness of frequency regulation of the performance of sewage pumping units

Summary

The method of evaluating energy savings through the use of frequency regulation of the pumping unit performance at sewage pumping stations is considered. The method is based on a graphical analysis of the parameters of the operation point of the pumps in the working group and is developed for the use in sewer networks that operate according to the level in the receiving tank. The proposed method of evaluating the effectiveness of frequency regulation at sewage pumping stations has been proved by many years of experience of using and is precisely evaluative. Energy savings at sewage pumping stations are significantly lower than at water pumping stations. This applies to the systems with start/stop control because the effect of frequency regulation consists in reducing the velocity of fluid in the pressure pipeline. The bigger the dynamic component of the network characteristic in relation to its static component (in the range of the station capacity change), the stronger effect is manifested. In practice, this is extremely rare. The energy savings in the above examples with the start/stop mode does not exceed 10% (excluding the losses in the frequency converter).

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№1|2020

ABROAD

DOI 10.35776/MNP.2020.01.07
UDC 628.316.12:546.1:665.753.4

Kofman V. Ya.

Development of promising methods of wastewater treatment with energy recuperation in China and India (a review)

Summary

In China, active research is underway for developing a technology for excess activated sludge fermentation to obtain hydrogen. The process of anaerobic fermentation includes three main stages: hydrolysis, formation of hydrogen and acids, and methane generation. At the hydrolysis stage, the formation of low-molecular substances from high-molecular starch, fibers and proteins. At the stage of the hydrogen and acids formation hydrogenogenic and acetogenic bacteria ensure the fermentation of low-molecular substances with the formation of a number of organic acids, hydrogen and carbon dioxide. At the stage of methane generation, methanogenic bacteria metabolize the products formed in the previous stages with the release of methane and carbon dioxide. As a result, hydrogen can be obtained only by inhibiting the activity of methanogenic bacteria eliminating the impact on the activity of hydrogenogenic bacteria. Considering these circumstances methods are being developed to enhance the production of biohydrogen. The main efforts in this area aim at finding strains with high efficiency of anaerobic fermentation. Another direction is choosing a method of activated sludge pre-treatment from among thermal, acid, alkaline, microwave treatment, sterilization and ultrasonic treatment. Significant prospects are associated with the use of a consortium of microorganisms and mixed substrate containing, along with wastewater sludge, food waste, straw or manure. In India, the technologies of processing various types of industrial wastewater with the production of biomass enriched with lipids for the subsequent production of biodiesel have been on the march. The studies have been performed using Rhodococcus opacus bacteria, Rhodosporidium kratochvilovae yeast and Desmodesmus sp microalgae.

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