05 2020

Number 5 / 2020

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№5|2020

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

DOI 10.35776/MNP.2020.05.01
UDC 628.166.085

Bogun P. V., Kniazeva Elena

Improving the energy efficiency of UV water disinfection systems

Symmary

The performance of a number of ultraviolet water disinfection systems available on the market is analyzed in comparison with systems of the maximum capacity reached as a result of theoretical studies, at the same energy consumption. It is demonstrated that the maximum performance values declared by the system manufacturers are 1.1–2 times less than could be obtained for the same designs, provided the irradiation uniformity of the treated flow is ensured. A technical solution is proposed that provides for the uniform exposure due to the flow velocity distribution that decreases with the distance from the lamp in proportion to a decrease in the average irradiation intensity along the length of the lamp. This solution allows approaching significantly the maximum design performance with the minimal cost and minor changes in the design. The distribution of treated water flows in a system with diaphragms-spreaders that ensure the required flow direction, is investigated. It is demonstrated that for a reactor vessel up to 50 cm long one diaphragm is enough, whereas for larger vessels installing additional flow spreaders can solve the problem. Possible use of the proposed solution for any systems with a longitudinal flow relative to the location of the UV lamps is shown.

Key words

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№5|2020

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

DOI 10.35776/MNP.2020.05.02
UDC 628.16

Dobrynina Natal’ia, Karkanitsa Ol’ga

Control of the technological processes at the water intakes
of Novokuznetsk

Summary

In recent years, a set of measures has been implemented at the operating water intakes of the city of Novokuznetsk using advanced equipment and technologies that have provided for improving the integrity and efficiency of the water supply system. It was noted that in order to achieve maximum efficiency of the water treatment facilities, continuous improving the technology of water purification is required. The most acceptable and economical solution to this problem is carrying out research works at the technological lab of the Dragun water supply facilities. The filtration properties of materials (expanded clay, burned rocks, albitophyre, quartzite, etc.) were studied that resulted in choosing the type of filter material and determining its optimal grain particle size for loading filters at the water treatment facilities. The most effective chemicals for water purification from the local water source, the Tom River, were identified. These are aluminum oxychloride coagulant and cationic flocculants. The introduction of a comprehensive process automation system provided for the control of the technical condition of the equipment and its process parameters, as well as for the data acquisition, processing and storage.

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№5|2020

FIREFIGHTING WATER SUPPLY

DOI 10.35776/MNP.2020.05.03
UDC 004.94+519.6:656.56+699.814

Mikhailovskii E. A.

Modeling hydraulic modes of firefighting water system operations in the Internet

Summary

Basic fire protection of industrial and storage facilities, shopping and entertainment centers and other objects is made up of automated firefighting installations, internal fire water pipeline and water curtains. The analysis of the results of hydraulic calculations performed while designing these systems provides for selecting the required equipment composition, evaluating the operation of the systems in different modes etc. Hydraulic calculations are carried out, as a rule, using hand calculation, or a partially automated process. Algorithms are also used that implement numerical modeling procedures involving off-the-shelf software that simplifies compiling a system of equations with the formation of a calculation model from nodes and connecting paths. The software available in the domestic market is either not effective or very expensive, and requires user training. Substantive and mathematical statement of the flow distribution problem with variable nodal flow rates for a random pipeline system including fire protection, is presented. The corresponding modification of the nodal pressure method is given that takes into account the dependence of the flow through the nozzle (sprinkler, fire branch, etc.) on the pressure (head) upstream of it. This task and other ones can be solved using «ISIGR» programming and computing suite developed at the Institute of Energy Systems named after L. A. Melent’ev of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The software is designed for modeling in the Internet the hydraulic modes of the ring systems of water, gas supply and firefighting. The software has an effective, convenient, user-friendly graphical interface that provides for drawing a network layout with minimal effort, performing hydraulic calculations, and interpreting the results in graphical or tabular style.

Key words

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№5|2020

ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES AND EQUIPMENT

DOI 10.35776/MNP.2020.05.04
UDC 626.134:628.132

Pomazkin E.

Long-term protection and waterproofing of precast concrete drinking water tanks

Summary

For the construction of drinking water tanks reinforced concrete is most often used that has significant advantages compared to other materials, e.g. environmental friendliness (monolithic and precast concrete does not release toxic substances into water); durability (with proper operation, tanks made of reinforced concrete reliably serve at least 100 years while maintaining operational properties); the possibility of building tanks of different capacity and shape; affordable cost. The option of repair and waterproofing of prefabricated reinforced concrete water tanks in a drinking water supply system in the presence of defective areas is given. Such defects include: destruction of the protective layer of concrete with reinforcement baring, damage of the waterproofing of the wall panels adjoining the foundation, static joints between wall panels, wall panels adjoining ribbed floor slabs. Repair and waterproofing are carried out using Penetron and Skrepa materials that have the required permissions for being used in drinking water supply systems.

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№5|2020

ВОДОЗАБОРЫ

DOI 10.35776/MNP.2020.05.05
UDC 628.112.24:622.245.71

Opryshko B. A., Shvetsov V. A., Belavina O. A.

Improved design of the head of a blowing well

Summary

An improved design of the head of a blowing water well is proposed. The head falls within the domain of technological tools used for automated monitoring of underground drinking water deposits with the help of submerged stand-off recording sensors. The head is used in wells located in unguarded areas. It is demonstrated that the heads installed on blowing wells provide for automated monitoring of underground drinking water in unguarded areas under various climatic conditions. Herewith, the results of the monitoring improve, whereas the monitoring costs decrease. The improved design of the head is characterized by high-strength.

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№5|2020

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

DOI 10.35776/MNP.2020.05.06
UDC 628.32:66.081.63

Pervov A. G., Tikhonov Konstantin

Domestic wastewater treatment by reverse osmosis

Summary

Possible treatment of domestic wastewater by the reverse osmosis with the purpose of producing high-quality effluent suitable for the discharge into fishery water bodies or for the use as process water has been investigated. Possible recycling of reject water from a reverse osmosis unit by drastically reducing the flow rate to the value less than 0.5–1% of the incoming flow and removing the reject water as a moisture component of the dewatered sludge is presented. Experiments have been carried out to determine the change in the concentration of dissolved solids in the filtrate of the membrane apparatus and a decrease in the membrane capacity in the process of wastewater treatment and reject water flow reduction. The obtained dependencies allow to determine the following: the required flow rate of the reject water depending on the concentration of suspended solids and COD; the required filtrate yield depending on the concentration of ammonium in raw wastewater. The methodology for determining the surface area of membranes and the number of membrane apparatus at each stage of wastewater treatment is described. The optimal values of working pressure, economic indicators of the unit in comparison with other wastewater treatment technologies were determined.

Key words

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№5|2020

ОЧИСТКА СТОЧНЫХ ВОД

DOI 10.35776/MNP.2020.05.07
УДК 628.54

Ksenofontov Boris, Antonova E. S.

Process concentrate treatment by flotation at CHP plants

Summary

The problem of processing oily wastewater generated at power plants is discussed. Much attention is paid to the purification of process concentrate that is characterized by higher temperature (55–70 °С). A pneumatic flotation unit used for the process concentrate treatment at the South CHP plant operated by Lenenergo OJSC is considered. The major drawback of the unit is pointed out: the changes in the rubber properties result in the changes in air bubble dimensions, and the efficiency decreases. A possible solution to the problem can be the use of an ejection aeration system with a disperser. The experiments in a laboratory unit on determining the size distribution of the bubbles generated by the ejection aeration system at 55°С were conducted. In addition, model oily wastewater was subject to purification in a unit with the pneumatic and ejection aeration systems. The average size of the finely dispersed bubbles generated by the ejection aeration system with a disperser was 60 μm, and that of the coarse bubbles was 105 μm. It is shown that the use of the ejection aeration system with a disperser provides for reducing the residual concentration of oil products from 4 to 1 mg/l or reducing the purification time from 25 to 15 minutes.

Key words

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№5|2020

PIPELINE SYSTEMS

DOI 10.35776/MNP.2020.05.08
UDC 628.144:628.179.34:528.88

Guseinli El’mir Imran ogly, Alieva A. D.

A new method for remote detection of water leaks in pipelines

Summary

The possibility of developing a new method for remote detection of water leaks in pipelines is considered. To develop the recommendations on the optimal implementation of altitude (aircraft or satellite) sounding in order to detect water leaks in pipelines, the main physical processes that affect the results of detecting water leaks by remote sensing are analyzed. The need for taking into account the following physical effects is shown: the dependence of the reflective spectrum of the soil on its moisture content; the dependence of the optical density of atmospheric aerosol (AOD) on the relative humidity (RH); inverse relationship between the air temperature and humidity; temperature dependence of the reflected signal of the soil due to soil drying. A new method for detecting leaks in pipelines is proposed that involves re-driving the water pipeline route and comparing the obtained spectrometric results taking into account the influence of the air temperature on the soil moisture and the degree of the atmospheric aerosol humidity.

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№5|2020

OPERATION OF PIPELINE SYSTEMS

DOI 10.35776/MNP.2020.05.09
UDC 628.147.25

Solov’ev Viktor

The concept of eliminating failures by the method
of re-laying sections of the water distribution and sewer networks

Summary

«The concept of eliminating failures by the method of re-laying separate sections of the water distribution and sewer networks» is presented that provides for changing the parameters of the network trouble sections subject to the replacement, or for correcting the criteria of making decisions about re-laying trouble sections. As a result, an increase or decrease in the length of the replaced networks for the reporting period is provided in accordance with the available capabilities. The proposed methodology in Vodokanal of Novokuznetsk for the control system arrangement allows the responsible personnel to make timely decisions on the network section re-laying; and visually and easily evaluate the results of the operations in current mode. Before the introduction of the control system, about 7% of the total number of trouble sections of the water distribution and sewer networks were subject to the replacement. Upon the introduction of the control system the number of replaced trouble sections increased to 20–22%.

Key words

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