12 2019

Number 12 / 2019

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Index of the Articles (doc, pdf), Published in the Water Supply and Sanitary Technique Magazine in 2019г.


 

№12|2019

WATER INDUSTRY

DOI 10.35776/MNP.2019.12.01
UDC 504.54.062.4:502.65

Ivankova T. V.

Assessment of the degree of anthropogenic load in the basin of the small Alma river

Summary

The ecological state of small river basins determines the water and hydrochemical regime of larger rivers and groundwater deposits. Measures required to improve the conditions of a small river are identified on the basis of an assessment of the ecological state of its catchment basin. Spatial environmental diagnostics of the basin of the small Alma river, located in the northern part of the Bakhchisarai Region of Crimea, was carried out. The critical ecological situation in the piedmont part of the river basin has been identified. This area is located in the recharge zone of the artesian basin and poses risk as a potential source of groundwater pollution. The practical significance of this work provides for using research results for hydroecological purposes in assessing the ecological state of landscapes, monitoring the impact of anthropogenic factors on the environment, and planning recreational development of the basin of the Alma river and similar small rivers.

Key words

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№12|2019

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

DOI 10.35776/MNP.2019.12.02
UDC 504.533:628.35.504.4.062.2

Safonov A., Andriushchenko N., Popova N., Boldyrev K. A.

Natural materials for sorption purification of chrome
and cadmium-containing leachates of solid waste landfills

Summary

The analysis of the sorption characteristics of natural materials (vermiculite, expanded clay, perlite, «Trade» zeolite) during the purification of cadmium and chromium-containing leachate with a high COD load was carried out. It was determined that zeolite had the maximum sorption capacity for Cd and Cr and the lowest biological fouling. When using vermiculite and expanded clay or mixtures on their basis, one can expect an increase in the sorption capacity for Cd and Cr during microbial fouling that inevitably occurs during contacting with water polluted with organic compounds and nutrients. In this case biofouling can increase the immobilization properties of materials for redox-dependent metals due to the enzymatic resources of bacterial cells that use them as electron acceptors. The effect of microbial fouling changed the parameters of materials in different directions: for Cr, in most cases, downward, and for Cd, significantly upward. Moreover, chromium biological recovery by biofilms is an additional effect of immobilization. Varying the composition of the sorption material provides for selecting mixtures that are optimally suitable for the purification of leachates from solid waste landfills with high COD and nutrients load, both when used in situ and in surface systems.

Key words

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№12|2019

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

DOI 000000

Chernikov N., Ivanov V.

To the 125th anniversary of the first in Russia «Water Supply, Wastewater Disposal and hydraulics» university department

Аннотация

Петербургский государственный университет путей сообщения (ПГУПС) является первым в России высшим учебным заведением транспортного и строительного профиля [1]. Он был открыт в 1809 г. и первоначально назывался Инс­титутом корпуса инженеров путей сообщения (ИКИПС). Там и была организована кафедра «Водоснабжение и водостоки» (ныне «Водоснабжение, водоотведение и гидравлика»).


 

№12|2019

WASTEWATER SLUDGE TREATMENT

DOI 10.35776/MNP.2019.12.04
UDC 628.336.3

Variushina G. P.

Technological aspects of dewatering sludge of industrial-storm
wastewater of motor transport enterprises

Summary

Information on the conditions of generation, volumes, chemical composition and properties of sludge generated at the industrial wastewater treatment facilities of motor transport enterprises is provided. Examples of process engineering solutions for dewatering sludge generated during the wastewater treatment process are given. The technological aspects of enhancing mechanical dewatering of thickened sludge using high-molecular polyelectrolytes are considered. The data of laboratory experiments on choosing the type of flocculant, its dose, technological parameters of the process, as well as the results of determining the moisture content of dewatered sludge obtained in a model of a drum vacuum filter are presented. Examples of effective domestically produced dewatering apparatus and their technical characteristics, recommendations and criteria for their selection, as well as factors influencing the operational parameters of the dewatering equipment are given. It is found that the highest dewatering capacity of drum vacuum filters (residual sludge moisture content from 66 to 83%) can be achieved by using VPK-402 cationic flocculant for processing sludge generated at the workshop premises of a motor transport enterprise.

Key words

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№12|2019

PIPELINE SYSTEMS

DOI 10.35776/MNP.2019.12.05

UDC 628.144:532.542

Averkeyev I. A.

On special features of determining the coefficient
of equivalent polymer pipe roughness
(to be discussed)

Summary

The criteria of estimating the condition of the inner surface of water and wastewater pipelines are considered and appraised. In particular, the feasibility of using equivalent roughness Кэ coefficient as such a criterion is substantiated. Two main methods of determining Кэ parameter are presented and described: with the help of hydraulic experiments with subsequent processing of the results by Prandtl and Colebrook–White equations; direct measurement by a proficorder of the arithmetic mean deviation of the profile of the inner surface of the pipe from the midline Ra with the subsequent conversion to Кэ using the empirical dependence obtained by A. Ia. Dobromyslov. An assessment of the reliability of the results obtained by these methods is given. The feasibility of developing a standard regulating the procedure of determining the parameter Кэ and the mandatory in-process monitoring of it are considered.

Key words

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№12|2019

SEWERAGE NETWORKS

DOI 10.35776/MNP.2019.12.06

UDC 628.27:69.059

Vasilyev V. M., Morozov G. V., Zhukov S. V.

Choosing the methods of rehabilitation of gravity sewers

Summary

Rehabilitation of sewer networks becomes an essential element in maintaining the entire sewage system in running order by minimizing the operating costs, increasing the life of pipelines, increasing the self-sustainability of the system using advanced automation, control and analysis tools. In order to maximize the life of pipelines and eliminate damaging parallel laid utility networks, it is necessary to correctly choose the methods of networks rehabilitation based on the experience and analysis of the existing ones. The main methods of repair and rehabilitation of pipelines are considered and classified. The necessity for system approach to the reconstruction is noted. A block diagram has been developed that provides for choosing a reconstruction method depending on the nature of the pipeline destruction and based on the telemetry inspection. Examples of its application in the existing structures are given. The article is written on the basis of an analysis of the technical publications and experience of operating and designing sewer networks in St. Petersburg.

Key words

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№12|2019

SEWERAGE NETWORKS

DOI 10.35776/MNP.2019.12.07
UDC 628.218:624.139

Terekhov L. D., Mainy Sh.

Study of the changes in the thermal conditions of sewer networks in winter

Summary

Sewer pipelines are one of the main components of a sanitation system that determines its integrity and effectiveness. The sanitation system of Kyzyl has been constructed in the areas with a rigorous climate that is characterized by deep seasonal soil freezing exceeding 3.2 m. Reducing the depth of laying sewer pipelines against this background is a critical task. The study was aiming at the substantiation of reducing the pipe laying depth while maintaining the integrity of their operation in the normal way and ensuring non-freezing in possible emergency situations. The results of full-scale studies of the thermal conditions of operating the sanitation system of Kyzyl in winter are presented. The results of wastewater temperature measurements in different sewer network sections at different times of the day are given. Based on the obtained data a thermotechnical calculation of the network was carried out that provided for assigning 1.8 m pipe laying depth of the building drains with possible reduction in future.

Key words

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№12|2019

ABROAD

DOI 10.35776/MNP.2019.12.08
UDC 628.16:62-278

Kofman V. Ya.

Gravity membrane filtration in water and wastewater treatment schemes (a review)

Summary

Gravity membrane filtration technology involves the use of flat polymer ultrafiltration and microfiltration membranes with pore sizes from several nanometers to several hundred nanometers submerged in water at 40-100 cm, i.e. operating under a hydrostatic head of 40–100 mbar as a driving force of the membrane filtration in deadlock mode. The bacterial community of the source water induces the formation of a biofilm layer on the membrane surface. At the same time, the presence of eukaryotes in the biofilm layer that are characterized by predatory behavior produces a kind of “biological purification” effect that provides for decreasing the filtration resistance of the biofilm due to the formation of voids and development of its heterogeneity. As a result of the dynamic development of such a system, its sustainability and relative continuity of the permeate flow at the level of 2–10 l/(m2·h) are achieved. Sustainable water flow in the gravity membrane filtration mode is maintained for many months without cleaning the membrane. The system ensures the removal of organic substances and pathogenic microorganisms from water. Different-scale testing of the gravity membrane filtration system has been carried out: for decentralized river water treatment, for stormwater and gray wastewater treatment in local treatment systems to produce water suitable for non-potable consumption, in wastewater treatment for safe discharge, and for seawater pretreatment before desalination. Currently, examples of the practical application of this filtration system are known.

Key words

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№12|2019

INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITIONS AND CONFERENCES

DOI 000000

 

FESENKO L. N.

XII «TECHNOVOD–2019» International Scientific and Practical Conference

Аннотация

22–23 октября 2019 г. в Москве прошла двенадцатая Меж­дународная научно-практическая конференция «Технологии очистки воды – «ТЕХНОВОД». Организаторами конференции стали ГК «Аурат» (Москва), АО «МосводоканалНИИ­проект», ООО НПП «ЭКОФЕС» (г. Новочеркасск) при информационной поддержке Южно-Российского государственного политехнического университета (НПИ) им. М. И. Платова (г. Новочеркасск) и редакции журнала «Водоснабжение и санитарная техника» (Москва).


 
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