11 2019

Number 11 / 2019

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№11|2019

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

DOI 10.35776/MNP.2019.11.01

UDC 628.11:504.4.054

Pomeliaiko Irina

Water supply of the resorts of Caucasian Mineralnye Vody

Summary

The results of long-term environmental monitoring of water used for household and drinking purposes of the resort towns of the Caucasian Mineralnye Vody are presented. The characteristics of river and spring waters are given. The degree and form of their pollution and physiological usefulness are estimated. The causes of pollution of water bodies with heavy metals, oil products, nitrogen-containing compounds are analyzed. The data on the non-compliance of the chemical and microbiological composition of the water being studied with the requirements of regulatory documents is presented. The main factors affecting the pollution of water resources in the region are identified. Direct and indirect problems associated with the water supply of resorts are considered. Recommendations on improving the quality indicators of a number of water sources are given. The monitoring results obtained indicate that the quality of the water used in the resort cities of the Caucasian Mineralnye Vody for water supply only partially meets the requirements to the safety, physiological usefulness and organoleptic properties. Consumption of spring water can lead to serious health problems since almost everywhere this water contains: Hg, As, Ba, Pb, Se, Sr, Al, NO2, phosphates, oil products, in concentrations that exceed the MPCs. Microbiological and parasitological standards are significantly exceeded. Analysis of the data of the long-term environmental monitoring allows stating that the situation with water resources in the resort cities of the Caucasian Mineralnye Vody is close to critical.

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№11|2019

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

DOI 10.35776/MNP.2019.11.02
UDC 502.5(282):577.175.12

Chesnokova S. M., Savel'ev O. V.

Assessment of plant growth regulators affecting phytoplankton
and zooplankton in a small stream

Summary

The results of studying by biotesting plant growth regulators most widely used in agriculture in Russia and the CIS countries (Amitsid, Atlet, Geteroauksin, Tsirkon, Ethamon, Epin-extra) affecting phytoplankton (green alga Chlorella vulgaris) and zooplankton species (Daphnia magna Sr. cladoceran) are presented. As test parameters, the effect of suppression (inhibition) and stimulation of algal cell multiplication in water samples with plant growth regulators was used which was recorded by reducing or increasing the optical density of the algal cell suspension in the sample at 96-hour exposure and mortality of one-day daphnia youngsters at 96-hour exposure. For work commercial plant growth regulators in the concentration range of 10-9–10-3 mg/dm3 and water from the Ilevna small stream, the left tributary of the Oka River, were used. It was established that all studied plant growth regulators caused daphnia death. The toxic effect depended on the nature of the product, concentration and duration of exposure. Depending on the concentration, plant growth regulators either stimulated or inhibited the multiplication of green alga Chlorella vulgaris cells.

Key words

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№11|2019

WATER INTAKES

DOI 10.35776/MNP.2019.11.03
UDC 628.147.1:63

Opryshko B. A., Shvetsov V. A., Belova Ekaterina

Improving the method of monitoring groundwater levels in production wells of the Kamchatka Territory

Summary

In accordance with the Water Strategy of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2020, as well as with the Rules for the technical operation of public water supply and sanitation systems and facilities, workers of water utilities must control the static and working groundwater levels in operating water production wells. However, in practice, this control is not actually performed. The main reason is the lack of advanced measuring instruments at the enterprises, as well as specialists who could control the operation of the well. The purpose of the study is to justify the need of using advanced automated means of measuring the level of groundwater at water supply and sanitation facilities. The modes of changing the static and working groundwater levels in the water production wells of the Kamchatka Territory are studied. The research results showed that monitoring shall be carried out with automated devices that will provide for reducing the work labor input and transportation costs as well as for increasing the reliability of the measurement results.

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№11|2019

WASTEWATER SLUDGE HANDLING

DOI 10.35776/MNP.2019.11.04
UDC 628.336.54

Ponomarenko A. M., Kevbrina M. V., Dorofeev A. G., Nikolaev Yu. A., GRACHEV V. A., KOZLOV M. N., Agaryov A. M.

Key findings of full-scale tests of a sludge digestion technology
with biomass recycling

Summary

The results of laboratory studies and full-scale tests of the technology of wastewater sludge digestion with biomass recycling are presented. While conducting industrial tests of the technology with biomass recycling an increase in the disintegration of ash-free matter on average up to 56.6% (the value in the control option is 42.2%) was achieved. The disintegration of ash-free matter significantly improved the dewaterability of sludge. The average increase in biogas yield was 3%. During the experiments no negative impact of the sludge recycling technology on the operation of the digester was recorded. The obtained research results allow concluding that the introduction of sludge digestion technology with biomass recycling at the Moscow Wastewater Treatment Facilities is highly promising. Calculations showed that with the introduction of this technology a decrease in the dry matter amount at the outlet of the digesters compared with traditional technology by 9–10% can be expected. The demand for a flocculant for thickening the recycle is minimized by the improved dewaterability of sludge and, thus, the consumption of flocculant during dewatering is reduced.

Key words

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№11|2019

WASTEWATER SLUDGE HANDLING

DOI 10.35776/MNP.2019.11.05
UDC 628.385

Litty Yu. V., Kovalev Dmitrii, Kovalev Andrei, Katraeva I. V., Mikheeva El’za, Nozhevnikova A. N.

Use of a vortex layer apparatus for improving the efficiency of methane digestion of wastewater sludge

Summary

Improving the efficiency of anaerobic digestion of wastewater sludge including methane yield and the depth of mineralization of organic matter increasing is an urgent task. As part of the study the effect of wastewater sludge pre-treatment in an apparatus with vortex layer of ferromagnetic particles on the efficiency and kinetic parameters of the subsequent anaerobic digestion of the sludge under thermophilic conditions was investigated. The analysis of the particle size distribution of wastewater sludge before and after treatment in the vortex layer apparatus was carried out. The technological parameters of sludge processing in the vortex layer apparatus provided for increasing methane yield by 3%, degree of decomposition of organic matter by 8–9%, and hydrolysis constants by 4.7%. To estimate the kinetic parameters of the process the modified Gompertz equation and the first-order equation were used.

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№11|2019

SEWERAGE NETWORKS

DOI 10.35776/MNP.2019.11.06
UDC 628.24:69.059

Perminov N. A., Klementyev M. N., Perminov A. N., PANKOVA G. A.

Analysis of maintenance geotechnologies and monitoring
of sewer tunnels in complicated geotechnical engineering conditions

Summary

A comprehensive approach to the selection of geotechnologies for the reconstruction of long sections of sewer tunnels in complicated ground conditions, under technogenic impact and continuous transportation of effluents is described. Based on the analysis of operating long-running sewer tunnels, as well as the results of an instrumental examination of their technical condition, the main factors of technogenic and natural origin that reduce their design safety and sustainable operation of the most loaded sections of the system of sewer tunnels are described. The lack of data on this issue in the regulatory framework and technical literature is noted. The advantages and disadvantages of the applied technologies of sewer tunnel rehabilitation are given. Recommendations and requirements to the rehabilitation of tunnels are proposed depending on the ground conditions, wear rate, section length, dynamics of wastewater transportation.

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№11|2019

SEWERAGE NETWORKS

DOI 10.35776/MNP.2019.11.07
UDC 628.24:628.292:532.595.2

Zhitenev A. I., Kurganov Iu. A., IGNATCHIK V. S., Sarkisov S. V., Vinokurov Pavel

Results of experimental studies of water hammer arising in the operation of sewage pumping stations

Summary

The results of studies of water hammer arising in the operation of sewage pumping stations are presented. The studies were carried out at two stations of the same type in St. Petersburg. At present, there are no practical recommendations aimed at reducing the strength of water hammer at sewage pumping stations including the choice of location, type of check valves, a combination of their joint operation with smooth start, etc. Therefore, a set of experimental studies is conducted in St. Petersburg aimed at the solution to this problem. During the research, piezoresistor pressure transducers and a modular signal register were used. The use of check valves with hydraulic brakes is a more effective measure to combat water hammers compared to the smooth start and halt of the pumping unit. Water hammers that occur at the startup of pumping units while operating in combination with check valves without hydraulic brakes can exceed water hammers that occur when they stop.

Key words

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№11|2019

VENTILATION SYSTEMS

DOI 10.35776/MNP.2019.11.08
UDC 697.92

Rymarov A. G., Agafonova V. V.

Personalized forced ventilation system in an office building

Summary

Improving the air quality in the working area of the office space is an urgent task. The design feature of such rooms is a small height (about 3 m) that complicates supplying the required volume of induced air without creating drafts in the working area. It is noted that the solution to this issue is associated with the use of new materials and technologies in practice. These include textile ducts made of 100% polyester with carbonic fiber weave. This material possesses strength, wear-resistance, minimal ablation of particles from the surface. Unlike steel zinc-coated air-ducts, it is possible to cut with laser precision holes with fused edges of the required pitch and diameter in the textile ducts. A lay-out of arranging personalized forced ventilation in an office building based on a designed air terminal device with a microperforated textile insert is presented. This device provides for adjusting the air flow depending on the individual needs of the person up to shutting down the system in the absence of an employee. Reducing induced air flow contributes to the energy efficiency of the ventilation system.

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