09 2019

Number 9 / 2019

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№9|2019

90 YEARS FROM THE DATE OF THE ESTABLISHMENT OF «WATER SUPPLY AND WASTEWATER DISPOSAL» DEPARTMENT OF MICE–MSUCE

 

DOI 10.35776/MNP.2019.09.01
UDC 628.1/2:550.8.02

Gogina Е. S., Orlov V. А., Volkov A. A., Chizhik K. I.

Water supply and wastewater disposal: yesterday, today and tomorrow

Summary

The article is dedicated to the 90th anniversary of the establishment of the Department of Water Supply and Wastewater Disposal at the National Research Moscow State University of Civil Engineering. Almost age-old traditions are carefully preserved and developed by the Department of Water Supply and Wastewater Disposal. A brief overview of the establishment and development of the specialty «Water supply and wastewater disposal» in Russia is also given. The immediacy of the problems of this important industry in society is noted. It is told about people who have made a significant contribution to the development of the specialty, the training of students and scientific and teaching staff of the country. The research carried out by the staff of the department «Water Supply and Wastewater Disposal» corresponds both to the traditions of the established scientific schools and the current problems of public utilities and industrial water resources. The results of research work have been implemented at the facilities of many cities, not only in Russia, but also abroad.

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№9|2019

WATER TREATMENT

DOI 10.35776/MNP.2019.09.02
UDC 628.16:62-278

Pervov A. G., Andrianov A. P.

The mechanisms of action of inhibitors in the process of calcium carbonate precipitate formation in reverse osmosis apparatus

Summary

Knowledge of the mechanism of precipitation of slightly-soluble salts on reverse osmosis membranes is extremely important while choosing measures to prevent it and reduce the consumption of concentrate. The conducted studies provided for enunciating a fresh approach to the mechanism of crystalline deposit formation and the role of inhibitors in preventing this process. The development of the experimental technique is based on the idea that the first crystallization phase — crystal nucleation is homogeneous, that is, occurs in stagnant zones in the concentrate volume at high oversaturation with calcium carbonate. Upon the formation the crystals are removed from the stagnant zones and settled on the membrane surface like other suspended particles present in the treated water. The results of studying the adsorption of polymer inhibitor molecules on the crystal surface during nucleation and crystalline growth on the membrane are presented. The experimentally obtained dependences of the rate of adsorption of inhibitors on the dose of inhibitors, the rate of formation of calcium carbonate, the rate of nucleation, and on the total surface of the germinal crystals are given. The study of micrographs of crystals showed the dependence of the size and number of crystals on the oversaturation value in the stagnant zone during nucleation as well as on the effectiveness of the inhibitor. A method is presented that allows determining the concentration of dissolved salts in the stagnant zones of the membrane apparatus and the oversaturation values corresponding to the onset of the crystallization process eliminating the addition and use of various inhibitors.

Key words

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№9|2019

WATER TREATMENT

DOI 10.35776/MNP.2019.09.03
УДК 543.3:544.576

Vikulina Vera, Кирошка Стефания

Change in ζ-potential of aquatic environment in ultrasonic field

Summary

At the boundary of the adsorption layer of the micelle an electrokinetic potential arises named ζ-potential. The numerical value of ζ-potential produces a significant impact on the processes that occur during water treatment, namely, coagulation and sedimentation. The influence of ultrasonic cavitation on the change in ζ-potential of aquatic environment is considered. Ultrasonic equipment and instruments for determining ζ-potential are presented. Experimental data on the effect of ultrasonic field on the electrophoretic mobility of particles in water is presented. The dependence of ζ-potential on the duration of ultrasonic treatment is obtained. The conducted experimental studies confirm the use of the ultrasonic method of water treatment for the enhancement of water treatment processes.

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№9|2019

WATER TREATMENT

 

DOI 10/35776/MNP.2019.09.04
UDC 543.3:544.576

Vikoulin P. D., Khlopov Kirill, Cherkashin Mikhail

Effect of ultrasonic field on the dynamic viscosity of water

Summary

Enhancing water purification processes is provided by various methods including physical ones, in particular, exposure to ultrasonic vibrations. The change in the dynamic viscosity of water affects the rate of deposition of particles in the aquatic environment which can be used in natural and wastewater treatment. At the Department «Water Supply and Wastewater Disposal» of the National Research Moscow State University of Civil Engineering experimental studies were conducted under laboratory conditions to study the effect of ultrasound on the change in the dynamic viscosity of water. A laboratory setup has been designed consisting of an ultrasonic frequency generator of the relative intensity, a transducer (concentrator) that transmits ultrasonic vibrations to the source water, and sonic treatment tanks. Experimental studies on the impact of the ultrasonic field in the cavitation mode on the dynamic viscosity of the aqueous medium were carried out; the exposure time was obtained to achieve the maximum effect.

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№9|2019

WATER TREATMENT

 

DOI 10.35776/MNP.2019.09.05
UDC 628.112.23: 351.852.14

Prokof’eva P. S., Chizhik K. I.

Artesian wells of the Moscow region of the 19th–20th centuries

Summary

A historical review is presented that describes the results of the completed stage of work on the search and study of underground water intake structures of the pre-revolutionary period in the Moscow Region. The materials presented concern mainly the so-called «artesian wells». These structures are scarcely covered in modern professional books. By design these wells had a large diameter and depth and were located above artesian boreholes. Their construction was caused by the need to place large-sized pumping units that were an integral part of the process of constructing an artesian well. The article presents a brief overview of such underground water intakes that existed as part of the city water pipelines in Moscow, documentary information on the methods of their construction, as well as a description of the artesian well discovered by the authors in Serpukhov, Moscow Region.

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№9|2019

WATER DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS

DOI 10/35776/MNP.2019.09.06
UDC 628.14:620.193

Andrianov A. P., Tchoukhin V. A.

Identification of corrosion of galvanized pipes in the water supply system

Summary

The data on the research and application of a new method for identifying corrosion of house water plumbing made of galvanized steel pipes are presented. The method can be used for regular monitoring of the technical condition of cold and hot water supply systems made of galvanized steel pipes in residential, public and industrial buildings. The method is based on determining corrosion products of pipelines and equipment, zinc and copper in particular, on a test biscuit. The technical result of the proposed solution is the possibility of its application directly from the start of the operation of the water supply system as well as reducing the time to identify the occurrence of corrosion of pipelines and equipment during long-term operation.

Key words

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№9|2019

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

DOI 10.35776/MNP.2019.09.07
UDC 628.356

Bazhenov V. I., Ustiuzhanin A. V., Koroleva Ekaterina

Aeration for wastewater biological treatment: updating foreign terms and abbreviations

Summary

The study of domestic and foreign methods for aeration tanks evaluation and their design guidelines is presented. The analysis of modern approaches to the calculation of treatment facilities indicates that the calculated air flow rate is determined in accordance with the oxygen demand of the biological process for the oxidation of organic compounds, nitrification and denitrification. International terms and abbreviations have been adapted to Russian analogues taken in conjunction with the theory of oxygen mass transfer, as well as the international guidelines for the design of wastewater treatment facilities. The difference between the field (experimentally measured) and calculated (determined for the design) parameters OUR and AOR, SOTR and SOR is explained. Balance equality between OTR and AOR is an optimal and economical design solution. It is noted that the use of updated international terms and abbreviations in tender and competitive procedures (during design and delivery) will simplify their implementation and ensure mutual understanding between the parties. The need for regulation of the air supply to aeration tanks is justified by the balance of oxygen «consumption – transfer». In dynamic conditions for regulated systems OTR → OUR. With the automated maintenance of the set point for the concentration of dissolved oxygen this condition provides for the savings in energy consumption.

Key words

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№9|2019

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

DOI 10/35776/MNP.2019.09.08
UDC 628.353:661.5

Iantsen O. V.

Advanced solutions for the reconstruction of small-scale wastewater treatment facilities: design and calculation

Summary

The advanced solutions proposed for the reconstruction of small wastewater treatment facilities that contain biofilters are considered. The peakpoint of designing and constructing biofilters occurred in the 1960–1970s. At present biological filters are often used for wastewater treatment. It is proposed to use them again as the basic treatment facilities. These structures, as a rule, are structurally reinforced concrete tanks; so it is advisable to develop new process flow schemes taking into account the use of existing structures. Three process flow schemes with different combinations of nitrification and denitrification zones are considered. Graphic results of sanitary and technical analyses of a number of indicators are presented on the basis of which sufficient purification efficiency is shown that allows discharging effluents into fishery water bodies. A method for calculating biofilters for specific media materials is proposed. It is concluded that the height of the structure depends not only on the required level of purification, the parameters of the incoming water but also on the type and size of the media material. The proposed process flow schemes will provide for the wider use of biofilters both in the reconstruction of existing and in the design of new treatment facilities.

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№9|2019

PIPELINE SYSTEMS

DOI 10/35776/MNP.2019.09.09
UDC 628.2+532.54

Dezhina I. S., Orlov V. А., Zotkin S. P.

The study of the surface texture of pipes with the purpose
of increasing their transporting capacity

Summary

The results of exploratory research on the transportation of water and sand in specially designed laboratory and work benches including a platform with replaceable modular polymer elements (troughs) with artificial roughness are presented. The methodology of experiments on large benches with modular piped elements using photo- and film equipment as well as devices for determining velocity, filling and slope is presented. The nature of the turbulence zones with a different texture of the inner surfaces of the troughs in the form of obstructions of different height is revealed. The results of hydraulic experiments are presented in two modes: single-phase (water without foreign inclusions) and two-phase (water mixed with sand of different fractional composition). According to the results of experimental studies the areas of effective operation of modular troughs for sand transportation for various textures of artificial roughness of pipes of sewer systems were identified. The expediency of using corrugated inner walls of pipelines transporting wastewater for the efficient removal of sand belts settled on the bottom and walls of the pipes is substantiated.

Key words

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