01 2018

Number 1 / 2018

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№1|2018

THE 85TH ANNIVERSARY OF «WATER SUPPLY AND WASTEWATER DISPOSAL» DEPARTMENT OF ACADEMY OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
AND ARCHITECTURE, SAMARA STATE
TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY!

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Strelkov A. K., Shuvalov M. V., Biriukov V. V., Egorova Yu. A.

Specialized department at the enterprise as a factor of development  of the process of training highly skilled professionals


 

№1|2018

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.16.8

Kichigin V. I., Strelkov A. K.

Study of underground water treatment technologies in the northern regions of Russia

Summary

The results of studies of possible use of the underground water treatment process scheme of one of the northern regions of Russia are presented. The versatile container plant includes: ozonators, electrical flotocoagulators, contacts clarifiers and rapid filters, sorption filters with various activated carbon media, membrane filter, UV-irradiation unit for water processing, chemical plant for feeding Aqua-Aurat™30 coagulant and Praestol flocculant to water. Raw water was described as low-turbid, colored, medium mine­ralized (mainly chloride-sulphatic-bicarbonate). The quality indicators of water surpassed the requirements of SanPiN in terms of color (72 degree platinum cobalt color scheme), turbidity (11.2 mg/dm3), flourides (2.2 mg/dm3), total iron (4.54 mg/dm3, including Fe2+ – 4.51 mg/dm3), manganese (0.11 mg/dm3). It was shown that water purification according to the scheme «ozonation-chemical filtration-sorption filter-UV-irradiation-membrane unit» provided not only for color and turbidity reduction but also for nearly hundred percent removal of manganese, fluorine and iron. This process scheme can be recommended for introduction at the water treatment plants.

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№1|2018

WATER QUALITY CONTROL

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UDC 628.1/.2:543.31

Egorova Yu. A., Bykova P. G., Kichigin V. I., Nesterenko O. I., Strelkova T. A.

Ecoanalytical control and monitoring of the water quality
in Samara municipality

Summary

In Samara municipality the industrial control of natural and drinking water quality is carried out by an accredited water quality testing center. The control is executed according to the program developed by «Samarskie Kommunal’nye Sistemy» LLC and approved by the Samara Area Department of the Federal Service for Supervision of Consumers Protection and Welfare. The control is performed at all the stages of water treatment beginning from the water source to water posts in the distribution network. Monitoring the water conditions in the surface water source provides for controlling the treatment facilities operating mode and selecting the required chemical dosages at every stage of the treatment process. Industrial quality control of the wastewater coming to the municipal treatment facilities and of the effluent is carried out by a chemical and bacteriological accredited testing laboratory at every process unit from the recei­ving chamber to the discharge to the Saratov water reservoir (before the discharge the effluent is biologically tested for acute toxicity). Sludge generated in the process of wastewater treatment is tested at every stage for physical, chemical microbiological, parasitological, toxicological and radiological parameters. The efficiency of the biological treatment facilities is evaluated basing on the results of hyd­robiological analysis of activated sludge. The laboratory facilities and continuous renovation of the basic infrastructure are described. Special attention is paid to the laboratory staff development and achievements.

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№1|2018

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

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UDC 504.064.4:542.63

Palagin E. D., Bykova P. G., Gridneva M. A.

Calculation of the dilution rate in regulating effluent discharge
to water bodies

Summary

Effluent dilution is one of the methods of reducing the concentration of pollutants in water courses and water bodies. Dilution is quantitatively characterized by the dilution ratio of the discharged effluents. The current technique of developing the standards of permissible effluent discharges allows the use of different methods of calculating the dilution rate for water bodies; however their number is substantially less that the number of the methods developed for water courses. The hydraulic mode of water bodies differs significantly from the hydraulic mode of water courses and has a number of specific features that should be taken into account in the process of calculating the dilution rate. In water reservoirs and lakes both discharge and wind currents can occur that emerge under the wind impact that sets the upper water layers in motion that is transferred to the lower layers. This motion creates water setdown from one place to another causing water surface decline and inflow from the depth or from the adjacent water body zones; and also forming the compensating (gradient) current oppositely directed to the surface one. The methods of calculating the dilution ratio of the effluents discharged into water bodies and lakes are presented. The results of calculations for several options of the reference conditions are quoted. The limitations of using different methods are described. The necessary adjustments and recommendations for calculations of the general effluent dilution with account of the initial one are given. The conclusions are made related to the necessity of further developing and improving the methods of calculating the dilution ratio that take into account the specific conditions and size of water bodies.

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№1|2018

WATER DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS

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UDC 628.179.3

Egorova Yu. A., Konevskii E. V., Vas'kovskii A. V., Zaiko V. A.

Determining latent water losses in the water distribution networks in Samara by hydraulic model development and calibration

Summary

The Russian and international experience in water supply system management shows that the assessment of the efficiency of the solutions focused on ensuring the working capacity of a water supply and distribution system should take into account possible active search for the latent water losses in the process of the system operation. The successful solution of this task can be implemented only with the help of advanced computer technologies and appropriate software. With the purpose of improving the energy efficiency of the operating activities «Samarskie Kommunal’nye Sistemy» LLC carried out the search and subsequent elimination of the latent water losses in a localized water supply zone with a surface area of 560 hectare; Zulu Hydro hydraulic modeling program developed by «Politerm» Company and Water GEMS software developed by Bentley were approbated in practice. Based on the results of the calculations a 90 hectare area was picked out with the maximum potential unaccounted water losses. Besides, because of the occurrence of the boundaries of possible influence of the adjacent water supply zones in the designated area an assumption of the water migration was made. As a result of the elimination of the detected water losses the total water consumption in Samara lowered by 1.38%.

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№1|2018

DESIGNING WATER SUPPY SYSTEMS

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UDC 628.1:614.842.62

Zaiko V. A., Il'in N. A., Sargsyan A. M.

Water supply systems for firefighting in small communities

Summary

The issues of arranging firefighting in small communities that usually lack firefighting water systems and the arrival of firefighting machinery sometime is delayed are discussed. The information on the availability of firefighting water systems in Russian communities and the number of fire accidents against population is presented. It is noted that special attention should be paid to establishing advanced water supply systems in small communities that can be also used for firefighting. A water supply scheme is proposed that provides for domestic water supply and external firefighting from fire hydrants eliminating the use of mobile pumping units. To accomplish this it would be reasonable to use regulating and reserve tanks to store a reserve water stock for firefighting; pumping units with variable speed drives; pipe fittings with electric operators; advanced automation equipment and water supply and distribution control systems. The options of operating modes of such water supply system in normal conditions and in case of fire are presented.

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№1|2018

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.316.12

Stepanov S. V., Panfilova O. N., Abdugaffarova K. K.

Removing heavy metal ions from wastewater in the process
of tertiary treatment with a new sorbent based on modified clays

Summary

The concentrations of heavy metal ions present in municipal and industrial wastewater after biological treatment often exceed the maximum permissible values set for fishery water bodies. Sorption on activated carbon is a popular method in wastewater tertiary treatment practice. However, activated carbon is rather expensive and ineffective in removing heavy metal ions. Lately zeolites that provide for meeting MPCfishery waterbodies in tertiary treatment have been used; however, their sorption capacity is low. In ordert to reduce the cost of tertiary treatment brand new sorption materials that are free from shortcomings of activated carbon and zeolites, widely used and affordable are required. The results of studying the removal of heavy metal ions from the model multicomponent solution with the use of new sorbents based on modified clays and peat from the Samara Region are presented. The activation was executed by thermal method. For the enhanced removal of copper, iron, manganese, zinc and lead ions from effluents the sorbent prepared from two clay types and peat in equal ratio with polyvinil acetate emulsion as a bonding agent turned to be most efficient. The required contact time of sorbent and solution was 90 minutes. For aluminium removal a sorbent prepared from two clay types, peat,wood ash and polyvinil acetate can be used with 150 minutes contact time with the solution. Sorbents prepared on the basis oft he Samara Region clays provide for meeting MPCfishery waterbodies in the process of removing copper, iron, manganese, zinc, lead and aluminium from municipal and industrial effluents after biological treatment.

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№1|2018

SURFACE RUNOFF TREATMENT

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UDC 628.312:556.164

Palagin E. D., Gridneva M. A., Bykova P. G., Nabok T. Yu.

Study of the dynamics of surface runoff composition of the urban lands

Summary

The qualitative composition of surface runoff of urban lands is affected by significant fluctuations. Studying its dynamics, determining possible regularities and causes of these fluctuations can be conveniently carried out with the use of the mathematical apparatus of the time series analysis. The procedure of seasonal decomposition was applied to the time series of monthly dynamics with the annual periodicity of seasonal fluctuations with the help of the multiplicative model. The results of the quantitative chemical analysis of surface runoff at the «XXII Party Congress» outfall of the Samara municipality for 2004–2016 were used as benchmark data. As a result of the performed analysis the occurrence of the seasonal regularities of the surface runoff composition changes was determined. The seasonal indices of 15 effluent quality parameters were determined: BODfull, suspended solids, mineralization, chlorides, sulfates, ammonium ion, nitrite ion, nitrate anion, phosphates (as phosphorus), total iron, copper, zinc, aluminium, oil products, and detergents (anionic). Based on the given seasonal decomposition of the time series the qualitative assessment of the effect of the trend, seasonal and random components on the unsteadiness of the surface runoff quality parameters was performed.

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№1|2018

PIPELINE SYSTEMS

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UDC 628.168.3

Atanov N. A. , Gorshkalev P. A., Chernosvitov M. D., Smirnova A. M.

Study of drinking water aggressiveness in the Samara municipality

Summary

The results of studying corrosion rate and steel pipe passivation time in the water distribution network of the Samara municipality are presented. To determine the rate of corrosion the gravimetrical method was used. Surface (the Volga River) and underground water (treatment facilities of the Kuibyshev Region) was used as a test object. The experimental studies showed that river water was corrosive in relation to steel pipes: the corrosion rate reached 0.1665 g/(m2·h) on the fifth month of exposure so far, whereas the samples had severe pitting (one month) and crater (5 months) injuries. The values of the corrosion rate in underground water were in the range of 0.01–0.06 g/(m2·h), and the investigated samples did not have any significant corrosion injuries. The experiment timing was not enough to complete passivation. By the example of the sample (50 years working service) it was shown that complete passivation of steel pipes with corrosion processes extinction and material integrity maintaining was possible; however, later the interior face of the pipe bottom line became covered with corrosion deposits (7 mm thick). The results of studying the drinking water aggressiveness de­monstrate the following: complete passivation of the interior face of steel pipes is provided by the formation of dense corrosive deposits; the growth of the corrosive deposits results in the decline of the pipe capacity; external corrosion of a non-insulated steel pipe under the wet conditions dominates and results in the formation of blue holes. Replacing steel pipe with plastic ones is economically sound.

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