08 2018

Number 8 / 2018

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№8|2018

WATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.16.081.3:351.777.6

Lebed’-Sharlevich Ia. I., Beliaeva N. I., Mamonov R. A., Pechnikova I. A., Kharchevnikova N. V., Khokhriakov A. A., Zholdakova Z. I

Sanitary and epidemiological safety and efficiency of silicocarbonic sorbent used for removing oil and oil products from water

Summary

The results of research for the sanitary and epidemiological eva­luation and determination of the efficiency of using TSHR silicocarbonic sorbent manufactured by «Khiminzhiniring» LLC for removing oil and oil products from water are presented. Sorption methods based on the physical and chemical interaction of oil with solid oil absorbing material – sorbent efficiently remove oil from the surface of water bodies. The use of sorbent can be combined with mechanical methods of oil spill skimming and biological methods of decomposition of oil collected from the sorbent surface. The investigated TSHR silicocarbonic sorbent is a product of special thermal destruction of rice husk; it appears as «carbon –silicon dioxide» finely dispersed binary solid structure. With the use of chemico-analytical and toxicological methods the sorbent safety related to toxic and allergic action was studied as well as its capability to remove oil components and inorganic substances from water. Sorption methods based on physical and chemical interaction of oil with solid oil absorbing material – sorbent proved to be efficient in removing oil from the surface of water bodies. The use of sorbents can be combined with mechanical methods of oil spill skimming and biological methods of decomposition of oil collected from the sorbent surface. As a result of studies it was stated that TSHR sorbent met the sanitary and epidemiological requirements. The model tests revealed the sorbent efficiency in removing phenol, methylnaphthalene, chloroform, ethanol and inorganic compounds. It proves the possibility of using TSHR sorbent not only for removing oil from water in water bodies but also for water purification for drinking and other purposes. The necessity of carrying out additional field studies to determine wider range of dissolved oil components and the efficiency of sorbent use for removing oil film and dissolved substances is stated.

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№8|2018

WATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.166:661.417/.418

FESENKO L. N., Pchel'nikov I. V., Terikov A. S., Nguen Tkhi Tuan Z’ep

Study of chloride concentration effect on the generation  of active chlorine in direct electrolysis

Summary

Electrochemical sodium hypochlorite has been most often used in water treatment at the water and wastewater treatment facilities. Natural water containing chlorides can be used as raw material for its production. The results of studies of electrolysis of low minera­lized water with 25, 50 and 100 mg/dm3 chloride concentration are presented. The simulated solution was prepared by «Ekstra» table salt dilution in distilled water. The tests were carried out within 10–500 A/m2 current density range. The concentration of active chlorine is increasing alongside with the electrolysis time. It is stated that at the preset values of anodic current density active chlorine of different concentrations can be obtained, e. g. up to 220 mg/dm3 at 100 A/m2 current density and 100 mg/dm3 chloride concentration. The process is notable for the amount of generated active chlorine exceeding the stoichiometric chloride concentration in water in process up to 1.7–1.9 times; this can be caused by the formation of other oxidants, e. g. hydrogen peroxide. At the current density less than 500 A/m2 the output of active chlorine decreases. According to the experimental results a nomogram for determining the active chlorine current yield depending on the chlorine concentration in the solution and current density is proposed.

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№8|2018

WATER INDUSTRY

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UDC 581.526.325

Ialaletdinova A. V., Enikeeva L. V., Beloliptsev I. I., Vozhdaeva M. Iu., Kantor E. A.

Estimation of the correlation between oxidizability and water flow rate while passing through the water storage reservoir dam

Summary

The results of studying temporal variability of water oxidizability in the Ufa River are presented. The work was in determining the frequency distribution of the studied values, probability of unfavorable conditions related to the deterioration of the water quality in relation to the studied parameters, and searching for the correlation between the indicators and water flow rate. The oxidizability in the Ufa River during flood periods is formed to a lesser degree by organic substances washout from the catchment basin and to a greater extent is determined by the water quality in the water storage reservoir and organic substances in the bottom deposits. The frequency distribution of this indicator has been determined; the probability of unfavorable conditions occurrence (floods and high water) accompanied by the deterioration of the water quality in relation to the oxidizability has been estimated. It was determined that the oxidizability proba­bility distributions had a tail part shifted in the direction of larger values of the indicator and showed that during unfavorable periods the oxidizability exceeded 5 mg/dm3. The frequency distribution of the tail part of the indicator approximated by power law P1(О) =
= 337681·О–6,96 (R2 = 0,92). It was stated that upon the occurrence of unfavorable conditions (floods and high water) the oxidizability of water in the river would not exceed the preset value (11 mg/l) with probability 97%. It was shown that during flood periods the water flow in the river higher than 450 m3/s enhanced the increase of the oxidizability values. The correlation between oxidizability increase and water flow passing through the dam was determined and expressed in the form of equation. The average prediction error was 16%.

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№8|2018

WATER SUPPLY AND WASTEWATER DISPOSAL SCHEMES

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UDC 628.218

Chupin R. V.

Indicative and adaptive management of the water supply
and wastewater disposal system development

Summary

The transition to market relations determined a new for Russia concept of public utilities management. This concept can be presented as two stages. The first stage is the elaboration of water supply and wastewater disposal development schemes; the second stage is the implementation of the scheme on the basis of investment programs of the public utilities complex. The investment programs provide for the financial support of the development and upgrade of water supply and wastewater disposal systems by means of the investment component in the tariff, connection charge for newly built capital construction projects and target financing of separate state and municipal programs, loans and credits. The important indicators of water supply and wastewater disposal systems are as follows: specific water consumption per capita per day; water leaks per one kilometer of the pipeline; power consumption per one cubic meter of supplied or consumed water; integrity, safety, seismic resistance etc. Indicator management is the development and implementation of measures directed for improving or reaching certain values of these indicators. On the basis of the indicative planning theory a method of elaborating development options, their estimation, selection of the preferred option under the conditions of the uncertainty of the specific water consumption, cost indicators and limitations on the investments into the construction and upgrade of water supply and wastewater disposal systems is proposed.

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№8|2018

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.35:661.5

Smirnov Aleksandr Vladimirovich, Bogatyrev M. M., Ivanova Iu. A.

Wastewater treatment facilities of Adler city

Summary

The wastewater treatment facilities in Adler (Greater Sochi Area), some of the most modern facilities in Russia were built as a part of the Olympic infrastructure. The Adler wastewater treatment facilities were designed on the basis of innovative solutions: for the first time 3-D engineering was applied; the best available techniques were taken into account; zero emission system was implemented – all the facilities are covered by airproof covers; the air from the facilities is supplied to the gas cleaning system; sludge handling includes dewatering and drying; consequently the amount of sludge is reduced and sludge is disinfected. The process scheme stipulated by the project includes primary mechanical treatment of wastewater, full biological treatment, tertiary treatment and effluent disinfection. The system of generated sludge utilization includes mechanical dewatering in centrifuges with subsequent additional drying. The design concept behind the project formulated more than 10 years ago (2008 project) determined the development path of the advanced treatment technologies and served as an example of the wastewater treatment facilities built according to the principle of the best avai­lable techniques.

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№8|2018

SURFACE RUNOFF TREATMENT

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UDC 628.212.2/3

Vatin N. I., Grekov M. A., Leonov L. V., Probirsky M. D., Rublevskaya O. N., Chechevichkin A. V., Iakunin L. A.

The experience of year-round operation of FOPS® filter in the purification of surface runoff from technologically disturbed resident areas

Summary

At present residential areas in big cities in particular, have been exposed to technogenic pollution related to heavy traffic, development of managed territories including areas close to big shopping and leisure centers and other crowded places. In order to improve the quali­ty of life for the citizens and reduce the negative impact on the environment special attention shall be paid to the collection, removal and treatment of surface runoff from such territories. The purpose of testing FOPS®-MU filter during four seasons (spring – summer – autumn –winter – spring) was the assessment of the efficiency and practicability of operating this equipment for surface runoff treatment. In the process of observations it was stated that the main source of the pollution of surface runoff from resident areas (suspended solids, oil products, iron, manganese) was automobile transport. Peak concentrations of some pollutants reached 150–400 maximum permissible concentrations set for the effluent discharged into the municipal sewer. Year-round continuous operation (for 13 months) of FOPS®-MU filter showed high treatment efficiency in relation to different pollutants during the entire testing period without any loss of the operating capacity including after the negative temperature period. The high performance characteristics of FOPS®-MU filter were also promoted by using FOPS®-K filter-basket for collecting waste.

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№8|2018

НОВЫЕ ТЕХНОЛОГИИ И ОБОРУДОВАНИЕ

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Цифровые технологии для повышения эффективности работы насосного оборудования

Аннотация

Концепция «Индустрия 4.0» продолжает активное внедрение во все сферы производства. Дигитализация и «умные» сети делают системы более гибкими, эффективными и безопасными в эксплуатации. Применение цифровых технологий в насос­ных системах способствует повышению эксплуатационной готовности и надежности оборудования, упрощает ввод в эксплуатацию, управление целыми системами, контроль за их работоспособностью и позволяет оперативно реагировать на изменяющиеся условия.


 

№8|2018

ABROAD

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UDC 628.116

Kofman V. Ya.

Rainwater in municipal water supply systems
(a review)

Summary

In countries that suffer from the scarcity of water resources rainwater has been an alternative water supply source for many years. At present rainwater collection, purification and use for domestic purposes (in toilets, laundry washers), for irrigation and landscape improvement, and also for drinking water supply is carried up to the state-of-the art. Herewith coping with the water resources scarcity is not the sole reason that stimulates the development of rainwater collection and use systems. In many countries well off for water resources the systems of rainwater collection and use are considered as the processes that provide for the sustainable operation of the municipal sewerage by reducing and equalizing the frequency, peaks and volumes of storm water entering it. Branching and increasing the capacity of storm water sewers by the use of rainwater retention tanks provide for the reduction of the storm sewer loading and anthropogenic impact on the water bodies that receive effluents. This approach within the frames of the water industry development concept based on the decentralized processing of different wastewater types is on a par with the schemes of grey and black wastewater treatment and reuse.

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Российская ассоциация водоснабжения и водоотведения

Конференция итог

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