06 2018

Number 6 / 2018

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№6|2018

PROBLEMS, PERSPECTIVES

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UDC 628.5:504.06

NEFEDOVA E. D., Hyamyalyainen M. M., Malikova E. V., Rusanova E. V.

External benchmarking at water and wastewater utilities

Summary

Benchmarking has been a world recognized tool for system improvement at an enterprise and finds ever wider application in Russia
including water and wastewater utilities. SUE «Vodokanal of St. Petersburg» has been carrying out external benchmarking at both national and international levels for more than a decade. The operating rate of a company is analyzed and compared with operating rates of other enterprises of the branch; herewith advanced technologies and efficient technical solutions are introduced. The experts of SUE «Vodokanal of St. Petersburg» have developed a benchmarking concept that takes into consideration the international experience of its use. The concept determines benchmarking types, its basic stages, ways of conducting, and information resource for data exchange within the enterprise. The approaches that provide for the overall estimation of the benchmarking object with the use of cause-consequences diagrams and operating rate complex are shaped. The long-term experience and system approach to the benchmarking execution allow SUE «Vodokanal of St. Petersburg» to carry out the comparison of the operating rates at the national and international levels. Participation in the annual international program of benchmarking of the water utilities «International benchmarking in the area of providing water and wastewater services» gives an opportunity to get an assessment of the independent experts in relation to the choice of directions of the operation improvement.

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№6|2018

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.161:628.169

Alekseev S. E., Shelest S. N., Захаров В. Р., Moor N. V.

Experience of retrofitting the technology of wash water utilization at the Omsk water treatment facilities

Summary

The main phases of addressing holistically the problem water source pollution with wastewater generated at the Omsk water treatment plant are considered. The results of technologic pre-engineering that provided for determining the optimal flow scheme of the treatment process and filter wash water reuse as well for defining the process parameters of combined treatment of river and wash water are presented. It is shown that the chemicals mainly used for drinking water purification can be used for filter wash water treatment. The studies were carried out by test coagulation method, i. e. by adding various amounts of polluted wash water and chemicals used at the water treatment plant into raw river water. The efficiency of combined treatment of river water is improving with increasing the amount of added polluted wash water. The design concepts and process flow scheme of water treatment that provided for constructing and commissioning filter wash water reuse unit with minimum capital expenditures are presented. The operating experience affirmed the correctness of the adopted process and design solutions. As a result the abstraction of raw river water was reduced by 9–13% and wash water discharge into the Irtysh River- the water source was completely abandoned. Wash water treatment is carried out together with raw river water at the water treatment facilities. Herewith the drinking water quality fully meets the requirements of Sanitary Regulations and Norms 2.1.4.1074-01.

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№6|2018

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.161.2:678.046.36

Савочкин А. Ю., Shilov M. M.

Purification of underground water containing high concentrations of silicon, iron and manganese

Summary

The aspects of purification of underground water containing high concentrations of silicon, iron and manganese are considered. Different forms of silicon present in water are analyzed and the basic physics and chemistry of desilication are presented. The implementation of the technology of comprehensive purification of water containing high concentrations of silicon, iron and manganese is described. Through the example of three opera­ting water treatment plants the negative effect of silicon on de-ironing and demanganation processes is shown. Two factors are accentuated that enhance the negative effect: the presence of organic admixtures in raw water and, possibly, higher degree of polyme­rization. Taking into account the application character of studies this presumption demands further study. The developed techno­logy provides for water purification to drinking standard by every parameter. For the implementation of the technology dosing a great many of five types of chemicals (NaOH, Mg salts, NaClO, coagulant, flocculant) is required as well as large volume of sludge is subject to utilization. For this reason this technology is recommended for use only when an alternative water source is unavai­lable.

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№6|2018

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.166.085

Bogun P. V.

On increasing the capacity of UV-units for liquid disinfection

Summary

The results of theoretical studies of the possible capacity improvement of units for disinfecting liquids including water by ultraviolet irradiation eliminating any increase in energy consumption are presented. Capacity improvement is possible at the fixed reactor geo­metry and source strength owing to the redistribution of liquid flows in the reactor. It is shown that the maximum possible efficient radiation dose is equal to the mean by reactor volume radiation intensity multiplied by the mean time of liquid residence in the reactor. The necessary and sufficient condition for obtaining this dose is the availability of liquid flow in every point of the reactor volume and equal radiation dose for every microvolume of liquid. By way of example the calculations of the maximum possible radiation dose for a spherical reactor with a point source of radiation and for a cylindrical reactor with a linear radiation source are presented. It is noted that widely manufactured at present UV water disinfection unit designs with a single source (a lamp) use only 30% of the source capa­city. The design with a cylindrical reactor and spiral downward liquid flow distributed along the reactor length provides for the maximum possible radiation dose and/or capacity of the installation.

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№6|2018

SURFACE RUNOFF TREATMENT

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UDC 628.33

Gandurina L. V., Kvitka L. A., Nikitin R. A., Ansimov A. D.

Effect of dispersion characteristics of suspended solids
on the parameters of surface runoff treatment

Summary

Quantitative and dispersion characteristics of insoluble pollutants in rainfall and snow-melt water and its effect on the parameters of removing pollutants from water by sedimentation, chemical free and chemical filtration are considered. It is shown that the concentration of suspended solids in surface runoff multiply exceeds the concentration of oil products whereupon these pollutants are present in the form of two-component particles. In the particles oil products or inorganic admixtures can be adsorbed components, and during sedimentation of surface runoff suspended solids and oil products are being removed synchronically. The concentration and kinetic consistency of suspended solids from residential areas are lower than those from highways; which reduces the sedimentation time in the storage settling tank and concentration of pollutants in settled water. During 1–3 days of settling tank empting monotonic reduction of suspended solids concentration in settled water before filtration occurs. Fluctuation range depends on the sedimentation time in the settling tank, initial suspended solids concentration and tank empting time. The use of coagulants before filtration of settled surface runoff from highways provides for improving the treatment efficiency and obtaining sustained quality of filtered water.

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№6|2018

DESIGNING WATER SUPPY SYSTEMS

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UDC 696.11

Butko D. A., Danekiants A. G., Mel’nikov I. S.

Choosing the optimal water supply schematic for a high-rise building

Summary

The task of enhanced studying scientific substantiation of the selection of a water supply system schematic with the development of criterial indicators (parameters) of optimization is formulated. The analysis of the state of real estate construction market provided for making a substantiated choice of a model building for which seven different versions of water supply schematic were designed and hydraulic and technical and economic calculations were made. The core indicators of reliability were calculated with the use of three methods. The significance coefficients are proposed that determine the degree of impact of a single assembly failure on the general system robustness. The regularities of the fitting failure-free operation probability changing with increasing the number of storeys in a building were determined. An algorithm of choosing an applicable water supply schematic was drawn up that was based on the question-answer method and took into account the basic data on the number of storeys, pressure limitations, building design features, redundancy possibility and (or) necessity as well as additional equipment installation. The optimization parameters were determined: material characteristics, reliability and energy consumption. To solve the formulated task a uniform integral equation of reliability-economic index is proposed. The coefficients and all relevant numerical values assumed depending on the schematic under considera­tion are cited. Inserting basic data into the equation provides for the coordinates for definition domain development. Each schematic in view of its specificity has a definite range of values (definition domain).

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№6|2018

ENERGY CONSERVATION

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UDC 628.112.24:621.65

Fisenko V. N.

Energy efficiency of pumps in water supply and wastewater disposal systems

Summary

The aspects of anti-terrorism security of water supply and wastewater disposal facilities are considered alongside with the dyna­mics and structure of the Russian domestic market of pumping equipment for water supply and wastewater disposal systems. Current world trends in improving pumping equipment in relation to furnishing with the systems of intelligent management and control and improving energy efficiency within the frames of «Internet of things» (IoT) concept cause problems in interdisciplinarity. The Soviet experience in improving the domestic approach to the assessment of the energy efficiency of pumping systems in the process of ISO/ASME 14414 standard revision is considered. The criteria of the energy efficiency of pumps for water supply and wastewater disposal systems are presented; their advantages and continuity of the similar international practice are shown. In order to determine what pumps manufactured in the Russian Federation and imported to RF are energy efficient in relation to the operation requirements for water supply and wastewater disposal systems it is necessary to define on the basis of the currently available best practice a common approach to the assessment of energy efficiency that can be used by both manufacturers, designers and users of pumping equipment, and by public oversight and monitoring authorities. Pumping equipment that does not meet such requirements must be excluded from the official stream of commerce in water supply as not compliant with the current ecological requirements and put on the restriction list in RF. The problems of interdisciplinarity in relation to the assigned use in safety critical industries of the domestic radioelectronic element base, domestic operating systems, software in instruments and systems of monitoring and control of pumping equipment of water supply and wastewater disposal systems warrant solutions. Allocation of public funds for equipment integrated with data processing centers located overseas must be limited.

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Российская ассоциация водоснабжения и водоотведения

Конференция итог

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