05 2018

Number 5 / 2018

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№5|2018

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.161

NEFEDOVA E. D., Feofanov Yu. A.

The experience of operating new water treatment facilities
at the South Water Treatment Plant in Saint-Petersburg

Summary

The information on specific features of the process flow schemes of drinking water preparation at the municipal water treatment plants in Saint-Petersburg is presented. The process of drinking water treatment at the new water treatment facilities (K-6 Block) of the South Water Treatment Plant is described where the cutting-edge technologies of water treatment are used. The technologies ensure the standard drinking water quality as regards all the indicators prescribed by Sanitary Rules and Regulations 2.1.4.1074-01 at any possible changes in the Neva River water quality, in particular in case of unfavorable and accidental events in water sources (in case of accidental discharges, storms at the Ladoga etc.). An automated water quality control system with the use of flow-type analyzers fed with water samples taken continuously at different points of the treatment process has been introduced at the plant. This provides for the on-line information on the operation efficiency of separate units for operating control. The analysis of the operational data for K-6 Block that includes lamella clarifiers, double-layer filters with sand media and activated carbon is presented. Herewith wash water and sludge treatment and utilization are provided. The results of the comprehensive water quality analysis for 51 parameters at the outlet of K-6 Block at the South Water Treatment Plant are given.

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№5|2018

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

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UDC 614.71:613.15

Sabirova Z. F., Budarina O. V., Shipulina Z. V.

Special aspects of substantiating sanitary protection zones
for the municipal wastewater treatment facilities

Summary

A comprehensive hygienic assessment of the municipal wastewater treatment facilities (with a capacity of 73 and 180 thousand m3/day of domestic and industrial wastewater) as sources of the chemical and physical impact on the ambient air and public health is presented. The studies were carried out in a city in the Moscow Area with a population of more than 150 thousand residents. The characteristics of the wastewater disposal system including wastewater treatment technology, standard equipment of the treatment facilities, technical operation parameters, composition and amount of emissions are typical for the Russian small cities including the cities in the Moscow Area with a population of 100–2000 thousand residents. It was stated that the maximum input into the gross emission was given by sludge beds (68%), aeration tanks and secondary settlers of the biological treatment process (12.4 and 5.3%). It is shown that the impact of the chemical and physical factors on the ambient air and public health (following the methodology of the assessment of the noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic effect occurrence) does not exceed the hygienic regulations and permissible risk values. Based on the results of the study a system of criteria that can be recommended for the substantiation of the sanitary protection zones for the wastewater treatment facilities is proposed.

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№5|2018

DESIGNING WATER AND WASTEWATER SYSTEMS

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UDC 628.1/.3:65.011.4

Prodous O. A., Samburskii G. A., Shipilov A. A.

The system of appraisal of water and wastewater projects sent
for the expert examination (to be discussed)

Summary

A conceptually new system of water and wastewater project appraisal is presented. The appraisal is carried out by non-governmental expert companies on the basis of the adopted criteria of the differentiated selection of projects that use advanced efficient materials, equipment and cutting-edge engineering and process solutions. The key procedure of any water or wastewater project implementation provides for the following stages: terms of reference; engineering company (design documentation, engineering documentation); state expert appraisal; state architectural and constructional surveillance; construction and erection company. To ensure more efficient execution of the federal laws the following criteria of the selection (appraisal) of the projects sent for the state expert examination are proposed: constructional or cost criterion of the project solution estimation; technology or operation criterion; economic criterion of the design solution efficiency. The proposed system contributes towards the improvement of the design quality of all the design chapters by the appraisal carried out by the experts before sending the projects to the state expertise authorities.

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№5|2018

WATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.16:66.067

Krapukhin V. B., Kulyukhin S. A.

Helical filter elements and their hydraulic characteristics

Summary

The description of two constructional designs of helical filter elements with reduced adhesive properties capable of operating in «filtration-regeneration» mode without replacement for more than 105 cycles is presented. Owing to the special property of the filter element residing in the fact that the filtering flow passage of the element expands during regeneration and recovers to the original state during filtration; and owing to the vibration of the filter baffle during regeneration complete recovery of the filtering properties of the elements after each filtration-regeneration cycle is provided. The scheme of the unit for determining the hydraulic characteristics of helical filter elements both in the presence of the dynamic membrane made of filter perlite powder and in the absence of it is presented. The helical filter element capacity is determined (pore size: 8, 11, 17, 28, 38, 51, 77, 114, 154 and 248 μm) during filtration of water free of any pollutants and when using precoated dynamic membranes made of filter perlite powder. Sample weight of dry filter perlite powder for precoating one helical filter element was 4, 8, 12 and 24 g. The dependences of the filtration rate from the pressure of the filtered flow, filter baffle porosity and filter perlite powder weight precoating the helical filter element were determined.

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№5|2018

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.54:622.765.431.5

Antonova E. S.

Method of designing a double-chamber flotation machine
with an aeration ejection system with dispersant

Summary

A double-chamber flotation machine with an ejection system with a dispersant is considered. It is demonstrated that the use of a dispersant provides for the multimodal distribution of bubble sizes characterized by several groups. The importance of the correct choice of the process time as one of the most important parameters for the flotation unit design is noted. The method of calculating a double-chamber flotation machine with an ejection system with a dispersant with due account for the specific features of the bubble size distribution and hydrodynamic situation in chambers is proposed. The method of calculating the process time is based on the use of multistage flotation model that presents the distribution of bubbles into several groups depending on the size. The hydrodynamic situation in the chambers is taken into account by the use of equations for perfect-mixing and plug-flow reactors. The calculation of a double-chamber flotation machine with an ejection system with a dispersant for the purification of carwash wastewater was carried out. The results of calculating the parameters of the aeration system, process constants, flotation time and specific geometrical parameters of the flotation machine are presented. The presented case study demonstrates the possible use of the given method for designing the proposed flotation unit.

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№5|2018

SURFACE RUNOFF TREATMENT

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UDC 502.36:628.221:628.33

Vereshchagina L. M.

Aspects of adoption of the technologic regulation of surface runoff discharge

Summary

Topical issues are discussed related to the regulation of surface runoff discharge into water bodies that arose in connection with the implementation of 219-FZ Federal Law «On amending Federal Law «On environmental protection» and separate enactments of the Russian Federation» in the process of adopting the process parameters of the best available techniques as the basis of the federal regulation of the environmental intrusions of the business activities instead of the existing principles based on the standard quality of fishery waters. The list and values of the process parameters of the best available techniques of surface runoff treatment set in «ITS 10-2015. Wastewater treatment with the use of public wastewater disposal systems of communities, urban districts» with account of the actual environmental conditions of the water bodies that receive discharges is presented. The list of the statutory and regulatory enactments currently under development is also presented alongside with the recommendations of the RF Ministry of Construction, Housing and Utilities of February 5, 2018 that shall be followed during the transition period in the process of designing, constructing and upgrading the treatment facilities operated by the organizations that provide for wastewater disposal of settlements including public storm water drainage systems classified as I or II category projects (in case of applying for a complex ecological permit).

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№5|2018

WASTEWATER SLUDGE TREATMENT

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UDC 628.336

Koulakov A. A., Terekhova E. M., Kutsevol M. A.

Improvement of municipal wastewater sludge treatment methods

Summary

The introduction of the process schemes of removing nitrogen and phosphorus from wastewater demands a customized approach to handling the generated sludge. Permanent residence of sludge during thickening in anoxic conditions results in its septicity, deterioration of dewatering properties and phosphorus yield into supernatant. The results of the study of possible enhancement of municipal wastewater sludge thickening processes through the example of the Vologda wastewater treatment facilities that use nitrification-denitrification and biological dephosphorization in wastewater treatment are presented. During sludge dewatering in belt filter presses two return flows are generated – filtrate and washwater. Filtrate contains residual flocculant that can be reused. It was found that adding 10–15% filtrate from the dewatering facilities to the sludge during thickening resulted in increasing the thickening rate within first 30 minutes of the process, in particular; this fact provides for almost double reduction of the sludge amount. It is noted that 3 hours preaeration of sludge during thickening reduces the time of thickening by increasing the settling rate from 0.8 to 1.2–1.4 mm/min. A process flow scheme of sludge processing that includes two-stage thickening with preaeration and filtrate dosing and subsequent mechanical dewatering has been developed. Combining preaeration and filtrate dosing provides for reducing the sludge thickening time to 3–6 hours; improving its dewatering properties and reducing the dosage of flocculant during dewatering.

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№5|2018

ABROAD

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UDC 628.19

Kofman V. Ya.

Water crisis in Flint, Michigan, USA (2014–2015)

Summary

The city of Flint (Michigan, USA) was supplied with drinking water under the contract from Detroit. In 2014 for reasons of economy it was decided to provide for the temporary drinking water supply by rehabilitating the old water treatment plant that abstracted water from the local Flint River. Laboratory studies of the Flint River water were carried out; however, the corrosiveness index either was not determined or ignored; as a result orthophosphate corrosion inhibitor was not dosed into the water. In the municipal water distribution system and many houses up to now lead pipes and lead-containing fittings have been used. Under the circumstances the concentration of lead in water increased sharply. The existing municipal water quality monitoring system and sampling practice were focused mainly on concealing the low water quality. Numerous complaints of the residents, manifestation of exanthematous disease after using hot water, elevated lead concentrations in children’s blood led to announcing the emergency situation in the city and taking measures to investigate on the federal level the true situation with water contamination with lead.

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№5|2018

МЕЖДУНАРОДНЫЕ ВЫСТАВКИ И КОНФЕРЕНЦИИ

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Международная научно-техническая конференция,  посвященная памяти академика РАН  Сергея Васильевича Яковлева

Аннотация

В очередной раз Национальный исследовательский Московский государственный строительный университет стал площадкой для проведения Международной научно-технической конференции, посвященной памяти академика РАН Сергея Васильевича Яковлева, – «Яковлевские чтения».


 
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