03 2018

Number 3 / 2018

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№3|2018

WATER QUALITY CONTROL

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UDC 628.1.033:543.3

NEFEDOVA E. D., Hyamyalyainen M. M., Kovzharovskaia I. B., Shevchik G. V.

Risk-oriented approach to the arrangement  of drinking water quality control

Summary

Supplying the population with safe drinking water has been one of the priority tasks in the water supply sector. For many years the approach to the arrangement of the quality control of drinking water supplied to the population with the use of a public water supply system has not been changed and has been carried out in full compliance with the active for that time laws and regulations. In 2016 RF Government Decree of August 17, 2016 No. 806 «On using the risk-oriented approach in the arrangement of certain types of the state control (inspection)» was adopted that allowed the providers of water supply services to use the risk-oriented approach in the arrangement of the process control of drinking water quality with account of the population health risk. In accordance with the current legislation SUE «Vodokanal of St. Petersburg» has developed the «Program of the process control of the drinking water quality and safety in the city of Saint-Petersburg for the period of 2017–2022» with account of the risk-oriented approach in the arrangement of drinking water quality control that is currently implemented in the control and supervision by Rospotrebnadzor bodies.

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№3|2018

WATER QUALITY CONTROL

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UDC 628.1.03

Ponomarev A. P., Podkolzin I. V.

Morphology and mineral composition of nanostructures
in drinking water

Summary

As a result of the studies the method of excreting nanostructures from drinking water samples on the basis of micro- and ultrafiltration with the use of microfilters (450 nm pore size) and semipermeable membrane (15 nm pore size) was developed. It was found that in the process of ultrafiltration the mineral composition of water before and after passing through the membrane did not change. At the complete water passing into ultrafiltrate the membrane traps organomineral nanostructures with a diameter of 10–200 nm containing macro- and microelements. The integrated method of micro- and ultrafiltration provides for the efficient removal of nanostructure or nanobacteria from drinking water while preserving its mineral composition; this allows recommending this method for obtaining purified water for humans and animals. The analysis of the nanostructure mineral composition showed that calcium and sodium were prevailing macroelements; their total respective percentage content was 60–70%. This data proves the prior information given by the authors that calcium has been the main building blocks of the nanobacteria coat identified in human and animal blood. Taking into account the morphological specific features of the nanostructures excreted from drinking water, their form and dimensions, it should be noted that they are identical to the transformed cells of nanobacteria of human and animal blood. Comparison of the results of the analyses of three independent methods – electron microscopy, mass-spectrometry and chromatography allows being reinforced in view that nanobacteria originate from water that brings them into living organisms. Herewith, research workers that deny the existence of nanobacteria as living organisms recognize the fact that the given nanostructures can produce a significant impact on the human health.

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№3|2018

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.161.2:544.723.2

Gorelova E. I., Kotov V. V., Данилова Г. Н.

Iron removal from water by sorption on carbonic-silicate composite

Summary

In order to remove impurities from water a composite based on BAU-A activated carbon, silicon dioxide and kaolin with addition of silver nanoparticles was prepared. The composition of the obtained composite supposes the possibility of integrated water treatment with the removal of organic and inorganic impurities and microorganisms; while the presence of silicate- and alumosilicate-containing components in the composite supposes its cation-exchange properties. By scanning microscopy method the increase of the dispersion degree to nanoparticles of the composite fragments after processing with NaOH solution was found. The processes of Fe2+ ions sorption from aqueous solutions were studied. The physical and chemical properties of carbonic-silicate composite: saturate specific sorption and selectivity coefficient were determined. Sorption on 10 g of sorbent was carried out by the limited space method with the circulation 0.4 dm3 solution with the preset concentration. The mechanism of Fe2+ sorption was proposed that involved absorption process with redistribution of ions between equilibrium solution and pore volume at low Fe2+ concentrations; whereas at high Fe2+ concentrations - ion exchange sorption. The lowest iron concentrations were determined (25 mg/dm3) that provided for its complete removal as well as the upper limit of concentrations (35 mg/dm3) that provided for the standard values of sorption purification.

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№3|2018

WATER INTAKES

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UDC 628.112.24:622.279.5.001.42

Ivashechkin V. V., Medvedeva Iu. A.

Improving the methods of inspecting and repairing sanding water abstraction wells

Summary

The issues of improving the methods of fault detection, repair of filters and casing of sanding water abstraction wells are considered. The designed instrument is described that has been developed for detecting places of water abstraction well sanding and consists of the control block and water turbidity indicator. In the process of inspection the instrument is moving along the filter during water pumping out of the well. The instrument has successfully passed laboratory and field tests. To simplify the inspection of sanding wells a special device is described that includes a submerged pumping unit and the instrument for detecting sanding places. The design of the device for plugging a damaged section of casing or filter of the water abstraction well is proposed that includes a container for cement mortar with a force opened valve and permanent shuttering. The advantage of this method is in low cost and relatively simple repair work. Some reduction of the filter capacity and well yield can be attributed to disadvantages.

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№3|2018

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.166

Tkachev A. A., Baranov V. L., Piskareva V. M.

Comparative assessment of the operating expenditures for wastewater disinfection with the use of chlorination and UV-technology

Summary

Protection of drinking water sources has been the most important comprehensive task. The state of the surface water bodies is determined to a large extent by wastewater flow in them that should be epidemiologically safe according to the RF legislation. The use of ultraviolet irradiation has been the most environmentally and economically efficient disinfection method. To provide for the assessment of the economic efficiency of UV-disinfection technology five operating wastewater treatment facilities of different capacity were considered. The comparison of the annual operating expenditures for chlorination (exclusively of the expenditures for dechlorination and charge for chlorine and chrloorganic compounds discharge) and UV-irradiation was carried out. The studies showed that operating UV-disinfection units were more cost-effective compared to operating chlorination units at the treatment facilities of different capacity.

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№3|2018

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.316.12:628.349.087

Doskina E. P., Moskvicheva A. V., Moskvicheva E. V., Игнаткина Д. О., Войтюк А. А.

Hybrid unit for tobacco industry  multicomponent wastewater treatment

Summary

The issues of purification of «Imperial Tobacco Volga» tobacco factory (Volgograd) industrial wastewater are considered. On the basis of the obtained data on the main sources and chemical composition of wastewater of the tobacco factory the experts of the «Water supply and wastewater disposal» subdepartment of the Volgograd State Technical University carried out studies. The study objective was developing a structurally simple, reliable and serviceable unit with small footprint, that will ensure high quality effluent by removing multicomponent pollutants; another objective of the studies was determining basic process parameters of the operation of the unit that will provide for the maximum treatment efficiency. The annual volume of water consumption and wastewater collection and disposal was presented; the main sources of wastewater generation and its chemical composition were determined. Process flow scheme of the local industrial wastewater treatment (from tobacco and cigarette workshops) is proposed that includes three stages: primary mechanical treatment, electrochemical treatment, sorption tertiary treatment. A unit has been designed – electrolyzer-adsorber for the purification of multicomponent wastewater of the given factory. The use of electrochemical oxidation method in combination with sorption tertiary treatment in the electrolyzer-adsorber hybrid unit under suitable conditions of wastewater treatment provides for improving the following effluent quality parameters: BODfull, COD, anionic surfactants, nitrogen compounds, chlorid-ions, to the standard requirements set to the effluent discharge into the public sewer.

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№3|2018

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.312:54.01

Kofman V. Ya.

«Emerging contaminants» in water environment: international studies (review)

Summary

The scientific developments over a period of the late 1990-ies up to nowadays in the field of studies of the «emerging contaminants» presence in water environment are considered. Emerging contaminants include mainly pharmaceuticals, illegal drugs, ultraviolet filters, artificial sugar substitutes, biocides, their metabolites and transformation products as well as nanomaterials and micro(nano)-plastics. The progress in this field is now possible owing to the introduction of analytical methods based on liquid chromatography/mass-spectrometry into the laboratory practice. The method provides for identifying and determining polar contaminants in water environment, their metabolites and transformation products at the concentration level of ng/l. The applied mass-spectrometric detectors are characterized by the high sensitivity and selectivity. The improved techniques that provide for the higher efficiency of removing emerging contaminants from wastewater compared to the traditional processes are presented. Modern approaches to the evaluation of the toxicity of the contaminants under consideration in the situations when low concentrations of these substances in mixtures have a long-term impact on non-target organisms are discussed.

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№3|2018

PIPELINE SYSTEMS

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UDC 628.147:64.011.44

Долматов С. Ю., Galkin A. V.

Mathematical models of water supply pipeline deterioration

Summary

Over recent years the RF Government has been developing different projects focused on the upgrade of public utilities and improvement of the quality of living of the Russian population: capital renovation of residential properties, improvement of the yard areas as well as reconstruction of water and sanitation systems. However, despite all these good initiatives at the end of the next financial year the residents of the Russian cities increasingly pose the question about the expediency of the financial investments in this sector. The question is legitimate and is caused by the low quality of the renovation made that does not only improve the living conditions but brings new difficulties related to the necessity to eliminate mistakes made by dishonest contractors. The problem of the economic expediency of the existing model of water supply system reconstruction adopted in the Russian cities through the example of the Lipetsk Area is considered. Mathematical models of pipeline failure rates are described; performance characteristics of pipelines made of different materials and their effect on the drinking water quality in the region are analyzed. Based on the mathematical calculations the conclusion is drawn about possible efficient investments in the process of water distribution pipeline renovation while providing for the significant improvement of their qualitative characteristics.

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№3|2018

VENTILATION SYSTEMS

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UDC 697.92

Rymarov A. G., Agafonova V. V.

Personalized air terminal device

Summary

The issues of developing the methods of designing air exchange in civil building premises are considered. These methods are related to the introduction of innovative air terminal devices in practical design of ventilation systems. The analysis of the efficiency of air exchange arrangement in the premises of civil buildings with the use of traditional ventilation systems was carried out. The conclusion was drawn about the necessity of designing an innovative air terminal that provided for spot cooling of the workplaces with rapidly damping micro jets. The basic configuration is presented of the designed personalized air terminal device based on a textile insert with microholes (0.2–0.6 mm diameter) that will allow supplying inlet air by low-pulse micro jets into the human breathing zone. The advantage of the designed device is in the possibility of supplying the required air amount into the human breathing zone. This will provide for the regulatory and comfortable parameters of the microclimate. The introduction of the personalized air terminal device allows improving the efficiency and cost effectiveness of the ventilation system.

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Российская ассоциация водоснабжения и водоотведения

Конференция итог

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