07 2017

Number 7 / 2017

To download all number in format PDF (in Russian)The further text is accessible on a paid subscription.
For authorisation enter the login/password.
Or subscribe

Number maintenance (pdf) (doc)

Number abstract (doc)

Literature lists to articles (doc)


 

№7|2017

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

bbk 000000

UDC 504.064:551.577.21

Stepanov M. A., Primin O. G., Vereshchagina L. M., SHVETSOV V. N.

Development of the Regional program  of protecting Moscow water bodies from pollution with surface runoff

Summary

The description of the Moscow system of surface runoff disposal and treatment characterized by the extensive use of the urban hyd­rographical system as elements of the drainage network is presented. Nowadays the system is positioned as «urban collector-river drainage system» that encompasses up to 90% of the Moscow territory within its old boundaries. It is noted that surface runoff from the developed areas, properly collected and diffused, is a main source of technogenic pollution and degradation of the water bodies in Moscow in the city area. Under current conditions improving their ecological state is possible only by the implementation of measures on reducing the anthropogenic impact on the water bodies and their catchment basins; eliminating the accumulated environmental damage; restoring the self-purification capacity and protecting underground water from pollution. To perform these tasks the Regional program of protecting the Moscow water bodies from surface runoff pollution basing on the principles of regulating the discharge of pollutants on the basis of the best available techniques of wastewater treatment is proposed. In the process of developing the Regional program together with the information-technical reference book ITS 10-2015 «Wastewater treatment with the use of public wastewater disposal systems of settlements, urban districts» a number of governmental bylaws developed and adopted in furtherance of the provisions of Federal  Laws No. 219-FZ and No. 416-FZ should be also taken into account.
и № 416-ФЗ.

Key words

, , , , ,

 

№7|2017

WATER QUALITY CONTROL

bbk 000000

UDC 542.08

Rakcheev P. Iu., Volosnikova E. A.

Instrumental methodological solutions by «Lumex» Group  for environmental control and monitoring

Summary

For more than 25 years «Lumex» Group has been a leading diversified enterprise in Russia manufacturing a wide spectrum of analytical instruments and providing for methodological supporting solutions for environmental control and monitoring. «Fluorat®-02-4M/5M» fluid analyzers are presented that ensure complete consistency of operations of the previous models in the field of the methodological support. «Fluorat®-02-4M/5M» can be used as a fluorimetric instrument, whereas «Fluorat®-02-Panorama» can be used as a spectrofluorimetric detector as a component of «Lumachrom» liquid chromatograph. The modifications of «Kapel’®» capillary electrophoresis system with liquid cooling of the capillary with a preset carrier temperature, autosamplers for mounting test tubes with samples and work solutions, replaceable cassettes with capillaries of various diameters are described. «MGA» Series atomic absorption spectrome­ters with electrothermal atomization are presented that provide for determining the level of heavy metal pollution of natural, drinking, waste water, soil and other objects; also presented is «RA-915M» mercury analyzer that in combination with different add-on units provides for measuring mercury in water, soil, solid and liquid samples with complex matrix (foodstuff, oil, biomaterials).

Key words

, , , , ,

 

№7|2017

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

bbk 000000

UDC 628.16

Pokhil Yu. N., Bagaev Yu. G., Novoshintsev V. N.

Preparation of high quality water in the city of Novosibirsk

Summary

The current concept of water treatment is based on the simultaneous sustainable use of several methods, technologies and technical solutions that provide for the high water quality and multibarrier protection. Such approach is implemented at the filtration pumping stations operated by «Gorvodokanal» of Novosibirsk, MUE. Water treatment is carried out following the traditional flow scheme: horizontal settling tanks and rapid filters with chlorine disinfection. Lately the water treatment technology has been improved according to the new regulatory requirements and on the basis of the conducted research. The stages of improving water treatment technologies at the filtration pumping stations operated by «Gorvodokanal» of Novosibirsk, MUE are described. The availability of several technologies and technical solutions focused on ensuring the epidemiological safety and high water quality in the process flow scheme not only makes this scheme exclusively sustainable and versatile but also minimizes the drawbacks typical for each of the methods. The introduction of the described technologies and technical solutions provided for achieving the maximum efficiency of water treatment, optimizing the operation expenses, reducing the negative by-effects and ensuring high drinking water quality. In case of emergency (in case of water source pollution) the availability of several technologies will help to reduce the risks of water quality deterioration at the treatment facilities.

Key words

, , , , ,

 

№7|2017

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

bbk 000000

UDC 628.162

Gandurina L. V., Gavrilova N. N., Kuzin E. N., Raff P. A.

The use of the dynamic light scattering method for characterizing humic acids in natural water

Summary

The results of studying the impact of sodium, calcium and aluminium salts on the dispersive characteristics of humic acids in natural water with the use of Photocor Compact-Z analyzer are presented. The dispersiveness of humic acids by molecular mass determines to wide extent the efficiency of natural water decoloration with aluminium salts. It is shown that the method of dynamic light scattering can be an efficient and rapid method of studying the conformational changes of macromolecules in alkaline and acid solutions, and chemical interactions between humic acids and metal ions. The studies were carried out with natural and simulated water prepared by extracting humic acids from peat with distilled water and blending the obtained solutions to the required color. The ion composition of simulated water was changed by adding calcium chloride, aluminium sulfate, «Aqua-Aurat™30» polyaluminum oxychloride, sodium hydrogen carbonate and hydrochloric acid.

Key words

, , , , , ,

 

№7|2017

WATER TREATMENT

bbk 000000

UDC 628.16.085:544.478.12

Petranovskii A. B., Nosenko V. A., Pugin A. I., Butorova I. A., Bol'shakova I. A.

Pilot testing of aqua®Lik technology

Summary

The description of the operation principle and results of using aqua®Lik new chemical free photocatalytic technology for preventing biological growth of cartridge filters, reverse osmosis membranes and inside surface of equipment is presented. The principle of the method consists in the activation of catalyzer that consists of an array of parallel catalytic plates by a visible light source. As a result of activation positive charge appears on the catalyzer plates. Negatively charged microorganisms present in treated water gravitate towards catalytic plates. On the plate surface the microorganism covers degrade and further oxidation of the degradation products takes place. In the process of photocatalytic rea ction the formation of biotenzides – surfactants of biological origin happens. Biotenzides break hydrogen bridging bonds that provide for the fixation of biological growth on wet surfaces; at that previously formed biofilms are washed out with water flow. Such treatment results in the formation of a thin film of biotenzides that prevent further biological growth on the equipment inside surfaces. The introduction of the given technology in reverse osmosis units provides for abandoning traditional biocidal chemicals, improving the permeate conversion of the unit, reducing the operational pressure on membranes, improving the operational life of cartridge filters before their replacement, increasing the period between regular chemical washings. When using this method the acclimatization of microorganisms to the biotenzide effect is absent compared to the cases of using biocidal chemicals.

Key words

, , , , , ,

 

№7|2017

WATER DISINFECTION

bbk 000000

UDC 628.166

Kofman V. Ya.

Toxic byproducts of water disinfection in swimming pools:
ways of formation and health risks
(review)

Summary

Up to date around 100 byproducts of water disinfection in swimming pools have been identified. Their basic precursors are biological fluids of the human organism and various organic pollutants also introduced by the visitors. Numerous studies have revealed the potential toxicity of water disinfection byproducts. At present in some countries the concentrations of trihalomethanes and halogen acetic acids in water in swimming pools are subject to regulation. Meeting the currently adopted water quality standards can be ensured by traditional disinfection methods (chlorination, ozonation, ultraviolet irradiation, the use of mixed oxidants) only providing the attendance policy and swimming pool maintenance rules have been observed, during their intensive use, in particular. Lately much attention has been paid to highly toxic nitrogen-containing and brominated byproducts of water disinfection that are present in high concentrations in swimming pools with sea water. For water disinfection in swimming pools different methods are used; herewith for each of them alongside with advantages the probability of byproduct formation exists. The list of detected disinfection byproducts is continuously expanded owing to the improvement of the analytical instruments as well as to the increase of the variety of pollutants introduced by the visitors, sun-protections creams in particular.

Key words

, , ,

 

№7|2017

WATER DISTRIBUTION NETWORK

bbk 000000

UDC 628.166.094.3

Grabovskii P. A., Gorobchenko A. I.

Adaptive control method in water disinfection

Summary

Pathogenic microorganisms present in natural water sources can be partially removed in the process of physical and chemical treatment (coagulation, contact clarification, filtration with presedimentation or flotation and other methods). Their final inactivation can be provided by oxidation with chlorine, chlorine dioxide, sodium hypochlorite and chloramines, ozone, as well as by UV-irradiation. The problems arising during chemical water disinfection are considered. The actuality of the problems is related to the decrease in water consumption, in big cities in particular. Owing to this the time of water retention in the distribution network increases, and in the far points the concentration of disinfectants in water is unacceptably low. The complexity of determining the chemical dosages conditioned by continuous fluctuations in the water consumption and water quality is shown. The operation of a network with the use of EPANET 2.0 software was simulated. The disinfectant concentration changes in water along the network length for «short» and «long» sections were studied. The dosing patterns for a network with two disinfectant injection points were developed. The practicability of adaptive control of the disinfection process is shown and its algorithm has been developed. The introduction of the proposed control scheme will provide for not only economic benefit by reducing chemical consumption but also for improving the reliability of water disinfection, improving the quality of the disinfected water, developing the data base for optimization and predictions, improving the customer service level.

Key words

, , , , ,

 

№7|2017

POWER RESOURCES CONSERVATION

bbk 000000

UDC 628.112.24:69.003.13

Fisenko V. N.

Life cycle of submerged centrifugal pumps in groundwater wells

Summary

The duration of a life cycle (energy efficient and operation) of a submerged pump in a groundwater well is determined by the characteristics of a tapped underground reservoir and the quality parameters obtained during underground reservoir tapping as well as by the technical characteristics and production quality of the submerged pump used related to the energy efficiency – SP(0,75) margin head in the energy efficient range and SP(0,7) in the operation range of the pump head-capacity curve. Making better use of the life cycle (energy efficient and operational) of a submerged pump in a well is possible with the help of additional technical control means in the well and on the surface; whereas the elongation of the life cycle is possible by using more advanced energy efficient pumping equipment, developments in the field weakly enhanced by the state, or by carrying out maintenance and repair in the well, or by artificial making up the underground water resources. The indicators of engineering level and product quality established by the manufacturer at the pump design stage that determine the margin head on the pump head-capacity curve, in the energy efficient and operational ranges effect the duration of the life cycle of a submerged pump in a well, and hence determine the structure and value of the possible expenditures of a pumping equipment user and the unit cost of the abstracted water.

Key words

, , , ,

 

vstmag engfree 200x100 2

mvkniipr ru

Российская ассоциация водоснабжения и водоотведения

Конференция итог

ecw20 200 300

VAK2