05-2017

Number 5 / 2017

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№5|2017

WATER INDUSTRY

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UDC 502/504:626.81

Kosichenko Iu. M., Ugrovatova E. G.

The lines of approaching water industry problems in the Lower Don regions

Summary

Рассматриваются наиболее острые вопросы, связанные с дефицитом воды Цимлянского водохранилища. Нехватка воды в данном водохранилище создает ощутимые трудности в подаче необходимого объема воды почти половине жителей Ростовской области и на Новочеркасскую ГРЭС. Не менее серьезными проблемами являются развитие в водохранилище в летний период сине-зеленых водорослей, снижение рыбного поголовья. В качестве решения проб­лемы обмеления Цимлянского водохранилища предлагается строительство Багаевского гидроузла. С вводом в эксплуатацию Багаевского гидроузла улучшатся условия для рыбного хозяйства Ростовской области, наполнится река Маныч и озера, что создаст условия для нереста рыб. Возведение рыбоходного канала в пойме реки Дон позволит рыбе идти на нерест, минуя гидроузел. Рассматривается вопрос нерационального использования воды в Цимлянском водохранилище и реке Дон для целей орошения. По предложенной методике производится расчет подпертой фильтрации из каналов в земляном русле и облицовке, в частности Донского магистрального канала и распределительных и магистральных каналов второго порядка. Предлагаются пути решения проблемы нехватки водных ресурсов на Нижнем Дону. К ним можно отнести тщательное изучение и пересмотр приходной и расходной частей водохозяйственного баланса водохранилища на период маловодных лет, мероприятия по снижению потерь воды, введение в эксплуатацию Багаевского гидроузла, возможное возвращение к реализации проекта строительства канала «Волга–Дон–2».

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№5|2017

WATER INDUSTRY

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UDC 626/627

Reznikova S. N., Tsurikova E. G.

Revisiting the operation of large-scale hydroegineering facilities

Summary

Unique hydroengineering facilities built in 1960–1980-ies in the USSR for the purpose of water supply, electrification and amelioration are described. Proposals on improving the design, construction and operation of the hydroengineering schemes are presented. The problems in operating large-scale hydroengineering schemes conditioning the need to conduct scientific research works and, consequently, additional capital and operational expenses are substantiated. At present because of numerous technogenic threats and natural disasters the following tasks have to be fulfilled: ensuring the safety of water reservoirs in case of seismic events; reliable operation of the hydroengineering facilities (large-scale pumping stations, hydroelectric power stations, water reservoirs etc.) under the conditions of the widespread water level decline in the rivers; upgrade and equipment replacement at the hydroengineering facilities. Involving graduate students from technical higher educational institutions in processing the data obtained for the long-term operation of the large-scale hydroengineering schemes with the purpose of gaining professional skills is proposed.

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№5|2017

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.166.094.3

FESENKO L. N., Skryabin A. Yu., Breus S. A., Pchel'nikov I. V.

Field tests of drinking water disinfection by direct electrolysis

Summary

The results of studying direct electrolysis of natural underground water with the purpose of determining possible production of low concentration sodium hypochlorite for drinking water disinfection before supplying it to the residents of Grushevskaia village of the Aksaisk District, Rostov Area are presented. The use of natural surface or underground water as electrolyte provides for eliminating the stage of artificial chloride solution making; that will simplify the technology of disinfectant production at the point of application and reduce the operation expenses. The studies were carried out in a full-scale plant in two directions: determination of the optimal parameters of the flow-through electrolyzer; determination of the lifetime of electrodes. The results of the full-scale studies confirmed possible disinfection of chloride-containing natural water (chloride concentrations 200–233 mg/dm3) by direct electrolysis. The process parameters of the electrolyzer operation with underground fresh water were determined: current density; water flow to the elect­rolyzer (flow rate); the time of electrode operation as an anode and as a cathode. The optimal composition of electrode coating was determined: in ruthenium –iridium oxide coating the weight ratio of Ru to Ir was 20:80. The use of iridium in the coating effects the formation of active chlorine and the electrode lifetime. The presence of ruthenium in the oxide layer in 20:80 weight ratio to iridium increases the anode lifetime tenfold (up to 4000 hours) compared to the anode without iridium.

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№5|2017

RUSSIAN WATER AND WASTEWATER ASSOCIATION

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Pupyrev E. I.

Small-size treatment facilities –  upcoming trend of studies and development


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№5|2017

DISCUSSING REGULATORY DOCUMENTS

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UDC 628.21:504.054

Vereshchagina L. M., SHVETSOV V. N.

New approaches to the regulation of effluent discharge to water bodies

Summary

The list of the regulatory legal acts – federal laws, RF government decrees and executive orders is presented as well as the decrees of the RF Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment enacted for the past years. The purpose of the enactment is the reform of the environmental legislation in the field of the governmental regulation of the impact the economic activity produces on water bodies; the regulation consists in transferring from the existing principles of regulating pollutants discharge based on the water quality standards for water bodies of commercial fishing importance to the regulation based on the best available techniques. Special attention is paid to Decree of the RF Government of September 13, 2016 No. 913 and Decree of the RF Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment of November 15, 2016 No. 598 on the introduction of amendments to «Methods of developing the standards of permissible discharges of substances and microorganisms into water bodies for water users» (2007). The informative technical guidebook ITS 10-2015 «Wastewater treatment in the public wastewater disposal systems of communities, municipal districts» is considered. The need in reviewing the provisions of section 9 of the technical guide «Recommendations for designing the systems of collection, removal and treatment of the runoff from residential areas, industrial sites; and determining the conditions for effluent discharge into the water bodies» (2015) developed by the experts of «NII VODGEO» JSC is substantiated.

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№5|2017

SURFACE RUNOFF TREATMENT

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UDC 628.334

Variushina G. P., Sveshnikova N. V.

Addressing the upgrade of surface runoff treatment facilities

Summary

The results of studies and seasonal observations, estimation of the process parameters of the operation, and development of recommendations for improving the operation of the systems of collection, transportation, treatment and disposal of surface runoff from industrial sites and highways are presented; the studies were carried out by the laboratory for municipal, industrial and rainfall runoff and sludge. The studies have been carried out during 20 years at the operating treatment facilities built upon the project of «Mosvodo­kanalNIIproject» JSC at different industrial enterprises. The research methodology consisted in monitoring the quantitative para­meters of the incoming surface runoff, its composition and properties as well as the efficiency of pollution elimination at every stage of the process flow scheme. The concentrations of pollutants in the surface runoff were chemically determined with the use of laboratory analytical instruments against the following parameters: settling and suspended substances, oil products, chemical oxygen demand, synthetic surfactants, and heavy metals. Besides, during the studies the mechanical properties and chemical composition of oil slurry and sludge generated in the process of surface runoff treatment were studied. Based on the summarized experience of operating the treatment facilities the criteria characterizing the basic indicators of the process solutions and equipment efficiency have been deve­loped. The technical solutions that provide for upgrading the operated treatment schemes and meeting the required standards of the surface runoff treatment before discharge to the water bodies are proposed.

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№5|2017

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

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UDC 504.4.054

Kofman V. Ya.

Microplastics – a new threat for the aquatic environment? (review)

Summary

Plastic debris components with a size from microns to meters are found in the pelagic and benthic zones of all the seas and oceans. Fine plastic fractions get to the municipal wastewater treatment facilities and water treatment plants with water and wastewater after pretreatment. By microplastics particles with a size less than 5 mm are implied. By origin they are classified as primary and secondary. Microplastic materials that are a part of industrial products are classified as primary; the secondary microplastics are formed as a result of bigger microplastics fragmentation. In municipal wastewater secondary microplastics prevail in the form of fibers; their concentration can reach 100 particles/l. Incomplete removal of microplastics at the treatment facilities is considered an accepted fact. Effluent discharge results in the rivers becoming the main source of these pollutants entering seas and oceans. The growth trend of sea water pollution with microplastics is considered absolute. Besides, the tendency of their reduction in size is noted. Microplastics are characterized by bioaccessibility for the wide range of marine biota. In animal organisms microplastics can cause physical damages or become sources of toxic impact as a result of monomers and different additives used in the production of plastics migrating from their structure. High sorption activity of microplastics in the sea water is also noted; it results in the concentration of resistant organic substances in them sixfold exceeding the concentration in sea water. High probability of bioaccumulation and trophic transfer of a whole number of toxic substances adsorbed by microplastics exists.

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№5|2017

PIPELINE SYSTEMS

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UDC 628.144:678

Kuryndin I. S.

Manufacturing nonhazardous polyvinylchloride-based materials

Аннотация

Polyvinylchloride has been widely used in manufacturing drinking water pipes, medical devices and foodstuff packing. In these areas special requirements are imposed on the materials applied – the absence of harmful effect on the contact media. A detailed analysis of the factors effecting the production and use of nonhazardous polyvinylchloride-based materials is presented. The analysis of the international experience (USA, Europe) of the countries where polyvinylchloride is hugely more used than in Russia has been carried out. The main conclusion was the requirement of avoiding the addition of any toxic and hazardous substances into polyvinylchloride. At present most of polyvinylchloride produced in the world is used in manufacturing rigid pipes for drinking water. The basic advantages of these pipes compared to the pipes made of other polymers are higher strength, lifetime and microbiological persistence. Pipes made of polyvinylchloride are sole polymer pipes with long term operation actually proved in practice and not by calculations. In North America polyvinylchloride pipes have been in operation already for more than 40 years and have not lost their field performance. The innovative technologies of pipe modification by the biaxial orientation method provide for improving their rigidity and strength, as well as for reducing the wall thickness and saving the material consumption. Owing to the great number of polyvinylchloride trade marks in production that are nonhazardous in contact with drinking water and foodstuff the interest to these polymers has been growing in Russia too. The absence of harmful substances emission from these materials has been monitored by the sanitary and hygienic control authorities.

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№5|2017

PIPELINE SYSTEMS

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UDC 621.643.2-034.13:532.5.011.18

Prodous O. A., Terekhov L. D.

Hydraulic characteristics of ductile iron socket pipes with inner polyurethane coating

Summary

The extensive use of ductile iron socket pipes with inner polyurethane coating in Europe proves their efficiency. In Russia such pipes have been also used. Pipelines with polyurethane coating combine the properties of plastic (they do not corrode, do not have scale) and metal pipe (high strength, lifetime and ability to endure high pressure) advantages. The roughness of the inner pipe surface effects significantly the resistance coefficient value along the length, i. e. the hydraulic characteristics of the pipelines. However up to now no studies of the roughness value of foreign-made polyurethane coating have been carried out. The authors of the article have conducted these studies. Based on the measured roughness parameters of the ductile iron socket pipe inner surface (manufactured by vonRoll hydro, Switzerland) with polyurethane coating the friction coefficient along the length was calculated. To estimate the capacity of pipes with polyurethane coating the hydraulic calculation is given (compared to the domestic pressure polyethylene pipes).

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