02-2015

Number 2 / 2015

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№02|2015

PROBLEMS, PERSPECTIVES

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UDC 378.1:69

Gogina Е. S., Rouzhitskaya O. A.

Advanced approach to training of highly qualified personnel in building industry

Summary

The aspects of advanced training of water industry specialists are considered. The RF Federal Law «On the education in the Russian Federation», RF accession to the Bologna Declaration and other factors adjust the model of the modern educational system, offer new challenges for the educational institutions, encourage active involvement of the industrial enterprises in the educational process. The basic aspects of training of bachelors of Academic and Applied Sciences, Masters and PhD fellows are described. The competence approach forms the basis of an educational process of any level. The graduate who has attended a course of study shall master a definite set of competences that will provide for his getting a job at a sectoral enterprise. The competences gained must be in-demand at the job market. The sectoral enterprises above all others shall be interested in training one or another graduate. That is why the modern educational model must precisely harmonize the educational technologies with the sectoral demands. In the modern context it is no more possible to train certified bachelors, masters, and put them on the open job market. Neither enterprises, nor universities will gain from it. Solving this problem is possible only under condition of the active cooperation between educational institutions and water industry enterprises.

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№02|2015

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.161.2:614.777:546.47/.49

Larionov S. Iu., Panteleev A. A., Riabchikov B. E., Shilov M. M., Kasatochkin A. S.

Removal of natural radionuclides from underground water sources

Summary

Natural radionuclides are present in underground water sources of some Russian regions in the concentrations exceeding the maximum permissible level for drinking water. Natural water radioactivity is caused by the presence of uranium 238U and thorium 232Th isotope decay products including radium and radon. For the purification of radium containing water lime softening, sorption on special adsorbents (e. g. zeolites), ion exchange softening and active aluminium oxide or active alumina, manganese containing media are used. The given methods of treatment are described in a number of publications that state the possible use of reverse osmosis or nanofiltration, however, lack the information on their application. Membrane technologies in combination with the traditional methods allow designing the flow scheme of radionuclides removal from underground water. During the tests on producing water of the required quality for an open-cycle heat supply system no radionuclides accumulation was observed. For the operation period (1.5 month) of the ultrafiltration plant during the interval between backwash cycles the radiation background straight at the membrane increased insignificantly; whereas, after the backwash it returned to the initial level. Backwash number was more than 100 providing for the statistically valid data. The reverse osmosis plant was operating with ultrafiltration permeate. The total radionuclides in the parent solution was about 1.4 Bq/l, in reverse osmosis filtrate – 0.005 Bq/l, i. e. much lower than the maximum permissible level. In reverse osmosis concentrate this value does not exceed 1 Bq; therefore, it can be discharged into the open hydraulic networks in compliance with the established standards. No activity accumulation on the reverse osmosis membranes was observed.

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№02|2015

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.161.2.66.081.63

Askerniia A. A., Khamizov R. Kh., Migol' V. G.

Specific features of mass transfer of silicon compounds through reverse osmosis membranes

Summary

In the process of siliferous natural water treatment with different mineralization levels in two-stage reverse osmosis units the transfer of colloid (polymer) silica forms through permselective membranes at the second stage of water desiliconization takes place. Based on the results of the studies carried out in industrial-scale two-stage reverse osmosis units an attempt to analyze the results obtained in the model that took into account the efficiency of sediment formation on the active surface of a reverse osmosis membrane was made. The summary of the experimental results on siliferous natural water treatment with reverse osmosis is presented. A physico-chemical model of colloid silicon transfer through membranes is suggested that provides for precoat filtration effects and silicon depolymerization and polymerization processes during the solution passing through the corresponding filtering layers. In case of dynamic phase equilibrium availability precoat filtration results in the increase of dissolved silicon concentration fed on the effective membrane surface and subsequent (backward) recovery of the equilibrium composition in permeate. A proximate mathematical model for stable conditions of mass transfer is suggested.

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№02|2015

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.349

Adel'shin A. B., Adel'shin A. A., Grishin B. M., Bikunova M. V.

Oilfield wastewater treatment with the use of centrifugal apparatuses

Summary

The task of the studies was improving the efficiency of polydisperse oil particles removal from oilfield wastewater. The process is complicated with the presence of adsorption (inhibiting) shells of mechanical impurities on fine-dispersed oil droplets. A new technology of oilfield wastewater treatment is suggested that provides for wastewater pretreatment in hydraulic cyclones equipped with cylindrical (tubular) overflow chambers that allow stimulating the processes of oil droplets coalescence. The flow sheet of a pilot plant for studying the processes of emulsified oil droplets growth is presented. The plant comprises a hydraulic cyclone connected to the upper and lower overflow chambers. Oilfield wastewater of «Tatneft» OJSC was chosen as a test subject (oil concentration 710–800 mg/l). It was stated that the coalescence efficiency was determined by the vortex value parameter in overflow chambers and by the time of wastewater treatment in the centrifugal field. Processing the test results on the oil droplet size distribution showed that the optimal vortex parameter values for the upper overflow chamber of the hydraulic cyclone were within 20–23; whereas for the lower overflow chamber – 16–18.5. The recommended time of wastewater treatment in the upper and lower overflow chambers was relatively 24.5 and 18.5 seconds. It was experimentally determined that the residual oil concentration after oilfield wastewater treatment in the hydraulic cyclone and two hours sedimentation was less than 72 mg/l at 91% treatment efficiency. It was 6% higher compared with the wastewater sedimentation efficiency after treatment in the hydraulic cyclone only. The design of BGTO plant (hydraulic cyclone block – overflow chamber – sedimentation tank) is suggested that provides for the efficient treatment of oil effluents on industrial scale.

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№02|2015

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.315.1

Ambrosova G. T., Funk A. A., Khlebas D. B., Ksenofontova O. V., Ganzorig Shonkhor

Ethanol distillery effluent treatment

Summary

The aspects of specific industrial effluents treatment of ethanol distilleries are considered. The industrial effluents are characterized by high organic concentrations, changing active reaction (pH) during the day and high temperature. The basic parameters of industrial effluents are presented (BODultimate, suspended solids, nitrogen, phosphates and sulfates), that are taken into consideration in the process of designing treatment facilities. Possible options of the process flow scheme that provide for separate and combined treatment of high- and low-concentrated waste effluents are given. The operation principles of two process flow schemes that include two-stage biological treatment (anaerobic and aerobic) and physical and chemical treatment that also has two-stages (removal of phosphates and sulfates) is described. The results of experimental studies carried out with the purpose of choosing the method of physical and chemical treatment of industrial effluents are presented. The studies were carried out both in laboratory and production environment with the use of lime and aluminium oxychloride activated with phosphorus acid. The method of sulfate fixation with barium chloride (BaCl2) in combination with ferrous and aluminium salts was studied. The laboratory studies were carried out with natural and artificially obtained wastewater with 200–300 mg/l sulfate and 30–50 mg/l phosphate concentrations; in both cases pH was equal to 4. It was stated that the use of aluminium oxychloride activated with phosphorous acid provided for the required level of phosphate and sulfate removal.
However, this method cannot be classified as economically feasible because of the large amount of generated chemical sludge that will be too expensive to remove to hazardous waste landfill. The use of barium chloride in combination with ferrous and aluminium salts provides for the required level of sulfate and phosphate removal; with that the amount of chemical sludge decreases 40-fold.

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№02|2015

POWER RESOURCES CONSERVATION

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UDC 628.356.3:336.7

Bazhenov V. I., Berezin S. E., Ustiuzhanin A. V.

Feasibility of air blower house construction on the basis of life cycle costs evaluation

Summary

The demand of the wastewater treatment facilities for the controlled air-blowing equipment with a significant energy saving potential has been growing. Therefore the design concepts based on this type of equipment are attracting the investor’s interest. The aim of the study is economic analysis of the technologically controlled and uncontrolled air supply options for aeration systems of aeration tanks under the conditions of a newly built pumping-air blower house with and without account of the project investment attractiveness. Conditionally prescribed irregularity of air supply to the pneumatic aeration systems has been taken as a reference condition. The research method is economic analysis of the life cycle costs (LCC) including and without including the mechanism of time-variable cost adjustment, i. e. bank interest and inflation. Three options of an air-blowing house design are presented: without process control (multistage); with controlled electric drive (multistage); with the rotating-blade mechanism control (single-stage). During the construction of air-blowing houses the option with the introduction of single-stage rotating blade turbo blowers with dual control is most attractive. This option provides for the lower LLC index compared to the option of using a controlled electric drive for 23.07% – in case
the cost estimates do not include inflation and discount; and for 21% – in case the cost estimates use the mechanism of time-variable cost adjustment (with account of inflation and discount).

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№02|2015

ЭНЕРГОРЕСУРСОСБЕРЕЖЕНИЕ

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УДК

Комплексные энергоэффективные решения KSB на мировых выставках 2015 г.

Аннотация

Оборудование концерна KSB традиционно экспонируется на крупнейших международных выставках. С 3 по 6 февраля 2015 г. в Москве в МВЦ «Крокус Экспо» прошла XIX Международная выставка «Aqua-Therm Moscow 2015».

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№02|2015

WASTEWATER SYSTEM IMPROVAL

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UDC 628.218

Chupin R. V., Nguen Ngok An Tuan

Optimal upgrade of sewers

Summary

Choosing the optimal structures and parameters of new and upgraded wastewater disposal systems has been a determining factor in designing their prospective development schemes. This task is suggested to be fulfilled on the basis of preliminary designed redundant schemes that are formed by overlapping pre-engineered options of wastewater system development. On the basis of the redundant scheme a transportation network scheme is designed to determine the maximum flow at minimum costs. For this purpose the flow-through capacity limits of the existing sewers are assigned on the basis of self-cleansing velocities (lower limits) and impermissibility of gravity sewer operation under pressure (upper limits). The cost of the flow units is determined for every network section on the basis of the capital and operation cost data. From the optimization results the route and parameters of the new network sections, options of the existing sewers upgrade (open cut or trenchless relaying, parallel pipeline construction) are determined. The suggested method can be useful when designing prospective development schemes of wastewater systems, and can be used by wastewater services providers for developing investment programs.

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№02|2015

PIPELINE NETWORK REHABILITATION

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UDC 628.147.25

Mirskov A. N.

Tooling of a mobile milling robot machine for pipeline repair

Summary

The specific aspects of cutting tool operation designed for equipping a mobile milling robot machine that is used in the process of water and wastewater pipelines rehabilitation are considered. A set of tools has been designed consisting of a twistdrill, an end-milling cutter, a grinding wheel, a cutting-off abrasive wheel, a diamond head, a combined tool for fiberglass drilling and milling. The cutting tool set can be used for opening holes in metal pipes, cutting the ends of ceramic and reinforced concrete pipes, drilling and milling fiberglass covers. The cutting tool is fixed in a spindle unit of the robot machine and is electrically driven. To control the tooling process the robot operator uses a video camera with back light and telemetry data on the position of the work tools. The technical guides are given for using the tool. The developed tool has passed laboratory and field tests with the positive results.

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