09-2016

Number 9 / 2016

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№9|2016

95 лет МГСУ

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УДК

Volkov A. A.

The 95th Anniversary of the National Research Moscow State University of Civil Engineering!


 

№9|2016

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.161.2:546.72/.711

Govorova Zh. M., Govorov O. B.

Studies and experience of introducing the technology of ground water de-ironing and softening in the Moscow Area

Summary

The analysis of physical and chemical parameters of ground water quality from the wells of water intake facilities No. 4 and 5 in Zhukovskii town, Moscow Area, was carried out. Based on the results the priority pollutants – iron compounds, hardness salts, dissolved gases (carbon dioxide and hydrogen suphide) were identified. The technology of ground water conditioning with the use of bioreactors with jet vacuum ejection, subsequent filtration in moving bed filters and chemical water softening in a vortex reactor was substantiated. Under the conditions of an operating water intake field trials were carried out in a plant that comprised the models of bioreactor, degasifier, moving bed filter and vortex reactor. The process parameters of the main facilities operation that ensured the sustainable standard quality of the water after purification were specified. It was found that after bioreactor and filter charging water de-ironing alongside with the removal of dissolved gases was taking place. The efficiency of purification at the first stage is 88.9%, after filtration the concentration of iron in water does not exceed 0.3 mg/l. The required dosage (3.4 mg-eq/l) and concentration of sodium hydroxide solution (4%) that ensured the required level of preliminary de-ironed water softening were determined. The data on the implementation of the efficient technology of ground water conditioning at design stage and at the stage of reconstruction and upgrade of water pumping station No. 5 in Zhukovskii town are set.

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№9|2016

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.179

Gromov G. N., Primin O. G., Bychkov D. A.

The model for calculating water losses and unaccounted-for-water  in the distribution network of Tumen

Summary

Drinking water production always exceeds the amount of the summed water demand for a number of reasons of technical nature as well as because of the water abuse and unaccounted-for-water. Water losses result in the degradation of the quality of services and reduction of pressure parameters at the point of consumption. At the present stage of water supply development with account of municipal utilities ageing in the Russian cities the issues of water losses assessment and management gain in importance for water consumption decrease, elimination of wasteful expenditures and water losses since they influence much the cost of production of services rendered by water providers. The analysis of the methods of evaluating water losses and unaccounted-for-water in public water supply systems is presented. The evaluation of water losses in the distribution network of Tumen is set. The calculation of the water balance by the procedure developed by International Water Association is presented. The description of the infrastructure leakage index that reflects the amount of water losses in a real water supply system is given. The method of evaluating direct water losses and activities on their reduction is presented.

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№9|2016

WATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.162:62-278

Andrianov A. P., Pervov A. G., Efremov R. V., Spitsov D. V.

Selection of efficient inhibitors for process flow schemes of the Black Sea water desalination

Summary

Sea water desalination by reverse osmosis has been widely used in drinking and domestic water supply. However, one of the major problems that complicate the operation of desalination facilities is the deposition of low solubility salts in membrane apparatus. In order to control the formation of crystal sediments on membranes different methods are used. Inhibitor dosing to raw water is the most efficient method. A variety of efficient inhibiting agents has been developed. Lately one of the main directions of studies in this field has been new types of phosphorus free and easily biodegradable inhibitors. Tests of six new phosphorus free inhibitors were carried out; the comparison with traditionally used Aminat-K inhibitor is given. The experimental dependencies that allow determining the rate of calcium carbonate scale formation in membrane apparatus are presented. Basing on the obtained results the optimal operational expenditures for sea water desalination were calculated. The study was aiming mainly at comparing the efficiency of newly developed and traditional inhibitors in the process of their use in sea water desalination schemes (by the example of the Black Sea water simulant). The conclusion of the efficiency of the inhibitors used is made on the basis of the minimum operational expenditures for desalination.

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№9|2016

INVESTMENT PROJECTS

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UDC 628.35.3:336.7

Gogina Е. S., Gurinovich A.i D.

The use of LСС method in evaluating the efficiency of investment projects of wastewater treatment facilities

Summary

The assessment of expediency investments in constructing new or upgrading the existing wastewater treatment facilities should be based on the advanced methods of analysis and calculation of the investment efficiency, social, environmental and other implications of ope­rating these projects. LCC method of calculating life cycle costing provides for the comprehensive efficiency analysis within the frames of feasibility study and business plan preparation for investment projects of municipal wastewater treatment facilities upon recommendation of international standards. The purpose of LCC method is the selection of the most efficient investment project among the other suggested at the minimum integrated life cycle cost over the course of a long period. LCC analysis assists in estimating the costs and making a choice basing on the total costs instead of the purchase cost of the equipment and construction and assembling operations since the operational expenses exceed significantly the cost of the purchased equipment during procurement. An example of making calculations with LCC method is presented. The results show that for the considered example with the highest initial investments in wastewater treatment facilities the life cycle costing was minimal as well as the basic operational parameters.

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№9|2016

POWER RESOURCES CONSERVATION

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UDC 628.355

Gogina Е. S., Gul’shin I. A.

Simulation of energy efficient biological wastewater treatment process in a circulation oxidation ditch

Summary

In the National Research Moscow State University of Civil Engineering comprehensive work is carried out in the field of simulating energy efficient wastewater treatment processes in circulation oxidation ditches. Notably, process flow schemes of removing nitrogen compounds from wastewater at low dissolved oxygen concentrations are considered. The study is aiming at the determination of optimal process modes of biomass activity under different conditions in the course of implementing experimental schemes. The summarized results of the second stage of the comprehensive study of energy efficient wastewater treatment in circulation oxidation ditches are presented: the efficiency dependency of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification at variable oxygen regimen has been determined, the mechanism of biomass adaptation and specific features of biomass bringing to the operating regime has been studied. The experimental plant model is described that provides for considering not only biochemical but also more detailed hydraulic specific features of the experimental process.

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№9|2016

POWER RESOURCES CONSERVATION

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UDC 621.644

Orlov V. А., Zotkin S. P.

Energy conservation in applying protection coatings by trenchless technologies

Summary

The analysis of trenchless technologies and different types of inner protection pipe coatings for ensuring the energy conservation effect during water transportation is presented. Circular pipes and pipes with deformed shape profile, fusion-bonded linings based on inorganic and organic materials are considered as protective coatings. Possible achievement of energy conservation in applying protective coatings by trenchless technologies of renovating water pressure pipelines on the basis of running meter of the pipeline length per year was studied. On the basis of the designed computer-aided program a comprehensive evaluation of energy efficient Swagelining technology that involved pulling new preliminary thermomechanically contracted polymer pipes through the old pipeline was carried out. The computer-aided program for calculating the operation parameters of a pressure pipeline subject to rehabilitation with preliminary contracted polymer pipes allows the designers of making efficient and prompt decisions by event simulation and the use of a wide range of polymer pipes of the relative diameter and SDR value (ratio of the diameter to the pipe wall thickness).

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№9|2016

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.345.1

Zalyotova N. A.

Phosphorus compounds in municipal wastewater

Summary

The analysis of the results of determining phosphorus compounds in wastewater at the treatment facilities is presented. In order to remove phosphorus compounds different methods of municipal wastewater treatment are used. The efficiency of eliminating some or other phosphorus forms depends on the technology used. The ratio of separate phosphorus forms in raw sewage differ much from effluent; therefore their impact on the water body also differs even if the discharged effluent quality is meeting the maximum permissible concentration of phosphates. Addition of chemical into wastewater provides for the fast and reliable removal of phosphates. The efficient reduction of total phosphorus and phosphates occurs only under the combination of biological and chemical wastewater treatment, or under the use of the modified biological treatment with alternating aerobic and anaerobic conditions of activated sludge retention.

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№9|2016

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.353:661.5

Iantsen O. V.

Enhanced wastewater treatment with nitrogen compounds removal  in biofilters

Summary

Biofilters mainly built in Russia in 1960–1970-ies in most cases are a part of small-scale treatment facilities. At present most biofilters are in serviceable condition (owing to the specific design), however they provide for incomplete biological treatment. The results of the laboratory studies of the wastewater treatment technology in biofilters are presented. Several process flow schemes are considered, optimal modes of the facilities‘ operation are suggested. The properties of different filter media were studied. The advantages and drawbacks of the technologies and media studied are noted. Health-related and chemical parameters of the water treated are set. The diagrams that reflect running processes of nitrification-denitrification are presented. The use of a two-stage four-zone process flow scheme of biological wastewater treatment is substantiated. The suggested process flow scheme will provide for the wide use of biofilters both in upgrading the existing facilities and in designing new ones.

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