06-2016

Number 6 / 2016

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№6|2016

РОССИЙСКАЯ АССОЦИАЦИЯ ВОДОСНАБЖЕНИЯ И ВОДООТВЕДЕНИЯ

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УДК

Первый технологический съезд РАВВ

Аннотация

В рамках Международного форума «ЭКВАТЭК–2016» (Москва, 26–28 апреля 2016 г.) состоялся Первый технологический съезд РАВВ «Технологическое развитие водной отрасли – будущее России». Мероприятие прошло при поддержке Минстроя России. В работе съезда приняли участие более 200 специалистов отрасли водопроводно-канализационного хозяйства из 50 регионов РФ.


 

№6|2016

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.1

Shushkevich E. V. , Bastrykin R. I., Aleshina E. V. , Babaev A. V., Shotina K. V. , Priven E. M.

Prospects of the Moscow public water supply long-term development  with account for the newly-annexed territories

Summary

The results of developing the water supply schemes of Moscow including the newly-annexed territories of the Troitsk and Novomoskovsk administrative districts for the period to 2025 and with account for the RF legislation amendments of 2015 and the data on the update of the Moscow Master Plan are presented. At that the following measures were planned: acquisition and analysis of data from about 60 institutions of Moscow, the Troitsk and Novomoskovsk administrative districts; complete communication to the schemes of water and heat supply; processing big volumes of technologic, technical and economic information; record of the results of hydraulic modeling of water supply and wastewater management. The water supply schemes for the period to 2025 included the upgrade of the water supply systems of the Troitsk and Novomoskovsk administrative districts by several areas, namely: extension of the drinking water supply area from the West Water Treatment Plant; construction of large-scale regulation waterworks; construction of 600–1000 mm diameter water mains; upgrade of water intake facilities that abstract water from artesian wells; reconstruction of the water distribution network. The perspective measures on the construction and upgrade of the water treatment facilities on the basis of the analysis of the technical and economic state of the public cold water supply systems were determined and developed with account for the urban planning documentation of Moscow.

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№6|2016

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.16

Fomina V. F., Fomin A. V.

Upgrade of horizontal sedimentation tanks with the use  of dissolved-air flotation

Summary

The analysis of the efficiency of low turbidity colored water of the Vychegda River purification at the water treatment facilities of Syktyvkar in horizontal sedimentation tanks operating in the mode of coagulation at 2–3 times lowered hydraulic loading is presented. The necessity of upgrading the sedimentation tanks by redesigning their exit sections into flotation chambers is substantiated. The enhancement of the sedimentation tank operation by equipping with a flotation chamber provides for meeting the regulatory requirements to the drinking water quality under the conditions of significant seasonal fluctuations of the raw water quality indicators and temperature. Enhanced clarification of the water being coagulated is ensured before the filtration stage; at that the flow rate of backwash water decreases 3 times, the number of filter washes per day decreases to 0.5 times and less (filter run increases to 2 days and more). Backwash water purification together with raw water provides for streamlining the process flow scheme and chemical facilities (the number of chemical injection and dosing points decreases); facilitating the operation of the facilities, 8% operational expenses saving and plant demand decreasing to 3%. The upgrade of horizontal sedimentation tanks with the use of dissolved air flotation is more economically and environmentally feasible than the reconstruction of the two-stage filtration facilities. It provides for doubling the sedimentation facilities output, decreasing the amount of wash water and combined with raw water handling.

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№6|2016

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.16

Tsukanov N. A., Budykina T. A., Spitsyn E. N., Budykina K. Iu.

On the experience of applying DynaSand filters  for drinking water deironing in Kursk

Summary

Drinking water supply of Kursk and the Kursk Area has been provided exclusively from underground water artesian sources because of the lack of affluent rivers and water bodies on the territory of the region. The given underground water is characterized by excess levels of ions of iron, manganese and hardness salts as well as by -radioactivity because of the specific geographical location and availability of the iron-ore deposit (Kursk Magnetic Anomaly). The basic method of water purification before supplying to the distribution network is disinfection with chlorine. In 2013 a drinking water deironing plant was put into operation with a capacity of 75 thousand m3/day. Water is preliminary chlorinated with sodium hypochlorite, then the generated iron hydroxide (III) sludge is removed by filtration in self-cleaning DynaSand filters manufactured by Nordic Water (Sweden). There is no analogue of deironing plant of such capacity with the use of DynaSand filters in Russia. Owing to the introduced technology the city of Kursk has been supplied with water of standard quality in relation to iron, manganese concentrations, and total hardness.

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№6|2016

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.1:614.777

Lapshin A. P., Ignat'eva L. P.

Qualitative composition of drinking water at the purification and transportation stages

Summary

Poor sanitary and technical state of water distribution networks is the main reason of water quality deterioration in public water supply systems. During transportation drinking water often takes the properties that exclude the possibility of using it. At that not only corrosion processes inside the pipelines but also microorganism life activities produce negative impact. Slowdown of water flow results in the dissolved oxygen deficiency and startup of reduction processes by iron and manganese-reducing bacteria in consequences of which
metal ions deposited on the pipe walls are released into the drinking water and cause water quality deterioration. Disrepair state of the distribution pipelines and formation of biological film on the inner surface of the pipes not only produce impact on the organoleptic water properties, iron and manganese concentrations but also enhance heavy metal releasing into the drinking water during transportation. The evaluation of the technical state of the distribution network and results of the laboratory studies of the drinking water in the process of transportation revealed the low level of sanitary reliability of the public water supply in Tumen. The results of hygienic evaluation of the water distribution network showed that the municipal water distribution system is not sufficiently reliable from sanitary point of view and cannot ensure good quality of drinking water during transportation. The main cause of this problem is the influence of the dynamic factors and, as a result, pipe biofouling.

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№6|2016

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

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UDC 556:621.039.7

Utkin S. S.

Comprehensive approach to the water quality management  of large-scale surface liquid radioactive waste storage facilities

Summary

More than half a century a huge stockage of water resources in Russia has been unavailable for economic use. These are water bo­dies that were given by the USSR Government to the enterprises involved in nuclear weapon development for recycling water supply and utilization of big amounts of liquid radioactive wastes generated daily. The problem of managing the state of the objects with the components characterized by the high level of chemical and radioactive pollution has not been completely solved until now. The main difficulties and perspectives of controlled step-by-step recovery of water resources for economic use are related to large-scale water bodies-liquid radioactive waste storage facilities. The basic principles of the comprehensive approach to the water quality management of polluted water bodies are outlined by the example of the Techa water cascade – the world biggest surface water body-liquid radioactive waste storage facility. The main element of the comprehensive approach to the quality management of the water and bottom sediments of the Techa water cascade is the calculation tooling of the period of assessing the potential hazard of this object by the criteria of specifying the water phase and bottom sediments of the water bodies as liquid and solid radioactive wastes.

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№6|2016

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

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UDC 550.41+556.114

Boldyrev K. A., KUZMIN V. V., KURANOV N. P.

The method of calculating heavy metal release from the layer of water body bottom deposits

Summary

The basics of the method of predicting heavy metal distribution between water and solid phases of bottom deposits in water bodies is outlined. Compared to other models of calculating heavy metal distribution between bottom deposits and void water the developed methodology takes into account the ongoing geochemical processes at the improved level with the use of advanced methods of geochemical modeling. An example of calculating heavy metal distribution under the conditions of the chemical composition of the solution changing with the use of advanced calculation methods in PhreeqC 2.18 program code is presented. The method can be used for the following tasks: geological mapping of the pollution of bottom deposits with heavy metals in water reservoirs and lakes; evaluation of the impact of bottom deposits on the chemical composition of water in water reservoirs and lakes; evaluation of the possible elimination of bottom deposits pollution or their immobilization and other measures of mitigating their impact on the water quality; evaluation of bottom deposits removal during dredging and also for solving the problem of their further utilization; evaluation of the possible instantaneous release of heavy metals from polluted bottom deposits and other emergency situations.

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№6|2016

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

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UDC 628.3:62-192

Karmazinov F. V., PANKOVA G. A., Mikhailov D. M., IGNATCHIK V. S., Ignatchik S. Iu., Kuznetsova N. V.

Method of evaluating the amount of emergency wastewater discharges into the environment

Summary

The method of evaluating the amounts of emergency discharges of wastewater into the environment caused by the overrun of wastewater inflow over the capacity of the sewage pumping stations resulted from the emergency shutdown of pumps or inflow of off-nominal wastewater flow is presented. The results of studying failure and restoration flows of the pumping equipment in the combined sewers are presented together with the algorithms of reliability assessment by analytical method and Monte-Carlo simulation method. The use of the developed method of evaluating the amounts of emergency discharges of wastewater into the environment provides for substantia­ting the solutions at the stage of project documentation development that meet the requirements of the legislative and regulatory documents in the field of water supply, wastewater disposal and environmental protection. The indicators of reliability and environmental safety (probability of flooding of the sewers transporting wastewater to the pumping stations when wastewater is discharged into the environment) variate not only depending on the failure-free performance and maintainability indicators but also depending on the state of the sewage pumping station during the initial period of operation. For this reason one of the ways of improving these indicators at sewage pumping stations is timely execution capital and regular repairs of pumps.

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№6|2016

ADVANCED EQUIPMENT

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UDC 628.168

Bobinkin V. V., Ershov A. G., Kasatochkin A. S., Larionov S. Iu., Panteleev A. A., Riabchikov B. E., Semin M. M., Shilov M. M.

Commercial plant for removing chloroorganic compounds  from underground water

Summary

The existing technology of removing chloroorganic compounds from underground water allowed designing a relatively simple and reliable flow scheme. Within the shortest possible time a commercial plant with a capacity of up to 250 m3/h (4000 m3/day) of water cleaned off volatile chloroorganic compounds at the «Zalineinyi» water intake in Podolsk city, Moscow Area, was designed. This allowed commissioning temporally abandoned water wells and improving the municipal water supply. At the first stage of reconstruction the process flow scheme of water treatment was upgraded with a system of enhanced aeration-air stripping of volatile chloroorganic compounds, a first lift pumping station, a mechanical filters block charged with granulated activated carbon. After purification the concentration of volatile chloroorganic compounds in water was lower then the regulatory requirements. The second reconstruction stage envisages commissioning a reverse osmosis plant to eliminate water hardness to the optimal level.

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