04-2016

Number 4 / 2016

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№4|2016

LAWS, STANDARDS, NORMATIVES

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UDC 628.1.033:351.777

Babaev A. V., Stolyarova E. A.

Hygienic regulation of drinking water quality as a mainspring of the water treatment technology upgrade

Summary

The aspects of developing the domestic regulatory environment on drinking water quality are considered together with the effect of the tendency of introducing additional requirements on the water treatment technology by the example of the Moscow public water supply. The drinking water quality requirements both in our country and abroad are based on the criteria established by the World Health Organization in the middle of the last century. In different countries the requirements may differ depending on the national drinking water policy represented by the legislation, standards and other statutory regulations. In the Russian Federation the drinking water quality standards are determined by the sanitary-epidemiologic legislation that specifies the maximum permissible concentrations of all the regulated pollutants. The current requirements to the drinking water quality determine the process solutions implemented at the water treatment plants. Introduction of the new regulatory requirements has become a powerful impulse to upgrading the existing facilities and retrofitting new advanced methods into the treatment technology. Thus, tightening the regulations on the concentration of chlorination byproducts and the requirements to the epidemic safety (regulating viral and parasitary contamination) resulted in the methodical work on upgrading the Moscow water treatment plants with the introduction of ozonation and activated carbon filtration and membrane filtration. Even today the water treatment plants with advanced treatment facilities that guarantee water purification to the regulatory requirements supply more than 40% of the Moscow drinking water. At the same time the current regulatory documents contain inconsistencies that necessitate taking expensive measures to improve the drinking water quality. Considering the activities on revising the current requirements it is necessary to pay special attention to the harmonization of separate statutory regulations.

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№4|2016

LAWS, STANDARDS, NORMATIVES

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UDC 349.6:628.2

Alekseeva I. V., Lysova T. I.

Amendments to the regulations on effluent discharge into the public wastewater disposal systems

Summary

The aspects of regulating the effluents discharged by wastewater services providers and their customers have been topical for many years. Within the frames of the current legislation on water supply and wastewater disposal and the Environmental Law subject to revision improving the system of effluent quality regulation established in 1970-ies and based on the requirement to meet the standard of the water quality in water bodies is required. Herewith the provision on sharing the responsibility for the discharged effluent quality between the wastewater services providers and their customers shall be specified. Environmental Law review since 2014 refers the issues of regulating the quality of effluents discharged by vodokanals and their customers to the competence of the legislation on water supply and wastewater disposal. This regulation provides for settling the mentioned problems by introducing changes and amendments (draft law No. 386179-6) to «Water Supply and Wastewater Disposal» Law.

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№4|2016

LAWS, STANDARDS, NORMATIVES

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UDC 349:628.336.3

Moskvicheva A. V., Doskina E. P., Moskvicheva E. V.

Wastewater sludge or wastes? Regulatory environment issues

Summary

The current version of the Federal waste classification catalogue specifies the sludge generated in the process of municipal wastewater treatment as wastes. This causes the necessity of charging for negative impact on the environment produced during sludge disposal and storage. Nevertheless, the problem of classifying wastewater sludge subject to processing and deactivation at the sludge beds as wastes remains unclear. It is related to the fact that the Federal waste classification catalogue does not specify any characteristics of wastewater sludge classified as wastes related to the water content, aggregative state and physical form. An attempt of logical substantiation of the qualitative characteristics of wastewater sludge that shall be considered as production and consumer wastes is presented. The substantiation is based on the regulatory documents, literature references and operational data.

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№4|2016

ПИТЬЕВОЕ ВОДОСНАБЖЕНИЕ

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УДК 628.166

Kofman V. Ya.

Новые подходы к обеззараживанию воды
(обзор)

Summary

In the process of using traditional methods of water disinfection with chlorine containing disinfectants or ozone byproducts of different toxic effect are formed. As alternative water chemical oxidants-free water disinfection methods and methods characterized by lower disinfection byproducts formation are developed. In this regard photocatalytic water disinfection process with ultraviolet irradiation or visible light impact; microorganism inactivation with the use of nanomaterials in the form of titanium dioxide, silver nanoparticles, fullerenes, graphene, carbon nanotubes, peptides and chitosan, as well as ferrate process are most intensively investigated. The given process flow schemes have certain advantages also in microcystine destruction. The mechanism of microorganism inactivation is considered. Technical problems that have to be solved to expand the practical use of alternative water disinfection methods are presented.

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№4|2016

НОВОЕ ОБОРУДОВАНИЕ

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УДК

Новейшие разработки KSB для организации эффективного водоотведения

Аннотация

В 2016 г. на мировых специализированных выставках технологий очистки воды и сточных вод, включая IFAT в Мюнхене и «ЭКВАТЭК–2016» в Москве, концерн KSB (Германия) представит самые современные разработки для эффективного перекачивания сточных вод.

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№4|2016

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.33/.35:622

Maksimov E. A., Vasil'ev V. I.

Treatment of mining waters generated during gold ore extraction

Summary

The technologies used for treatment of mining waters generated during extraction of nonferrous and precious metals are considered. An industrial plant was designed that combined a multiple-tray clarifier and chemical treatment of mining water; the optimal operation mode with the aim of reaching the calculated parameters for designing treatment facilities was adjusted. An experimental plant for treatment of mining water at the Kochkar mine in Chelyabinsk Area was designed and tested. Aluminium sulfate, ferrous sulfate, ferric sulphide are recommended for the use as chemical agents. The recommended horizontal water flow velocity in the multiple-tray clarifier is 5–6 mm/s. The duration of water clarification with these velocities is 8-9 minutes, i.e. several times less than the sedimentation period in horizontal sedimentation tanks use in the traditional treatment technology. The suggested plant with the use of multiple-tray clarifiers provides for reducing the capital expenses for the mine treatment facilities compared to the traditional process flow scheme. At that the operation expenditures are reduced by 50–60%.

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№4|2016

ОЧИСТКА СТОЧНЫХ ВОД

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УДК 628.35:66.081.63

Ivanova O. V.

Опыт внедрения современных технологий на основе ультрафильтрационных мембран

Аннотация

Рассказано об опыте внедрения технологий биологической очистки хозяйственно-бытовых и промышленных сточных вод с использованием мембранного биореактора. Технология на основе погружных ультрафильтрационных мембранных модулей обеспечивает достижение жестких нормативных требований к приему очищенной воды в водоемы питьевого и культурно-бытового водопользования и рыбохозяйственного назначения. Применение ультрафильтрационных мембран способствует увеличению концентрации активного ила в аэротенке для глубокой очистки обрабатываемых сточных вод. Промышленный сток проходит механическую очистку на шнековой решетке, далее очищается физико-химическим способом в реагентном флотаторе, затем смешивается с хозяйственно-бытовым стоком и поступает в мембранный биореактор. Применение мембранного биореактора позволяет сократить площади, занимаемые очистными сооружениями. Сброс очищенного стока осуществляется в водоем рыбохозяйственного назначения.

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№4|2016

PIPELINE SYSTEMS

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UDC 628(14+21):66.011

Primin O. G., Gromov G. N.

Designing an electronic model of water supply and wastewater disposal systems and model implementation by the example of a Russian city

Summary

Basing on the requirements set by the Russian legislation the development of the water industry and municipal utilities infrastructure shall be implemented in accordance with water supply and wastewater disposal plans. In case the city population exceeds 150 thousand inhabitants these plans shall include electronic models of water supply and wastewater disposal systems. The practical experience of «MosvodokanalNIIproject» JSC in the field of designing water supply and wastewater disposal plans for Russian cities shows that designing a proper electronic model requires significant scope of information including topological data for all the existing pipelines, geodesic marks of the pipelines, water consumer and pump characteristics, etc. Full data acquisition and displaying in electronic format can take a lot of time. In case the operator of the water and wastewater systems does not have a detailed electronic model at the first stage usually a decision is made within the frames of water supply and wastewater disposal systems engineering to design an enlarged version that will provide for estimating and analyzing the operation of water mains, main pumping stations and regulation facilities. Further on, based on the model analysis and approbation and on the city Masterplan and urban infrastructure the prospective models are developed. The experts of «MosvodokanalNIIproject» JSC successfully designed electronic models of water supply and wastewater disposal systems of Ufa, Irkutsk, Penza, and Orenburg. The experience of designing an electronic model of water supply and wastewater disposal systems by the example of a Russian city is presented.

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№4|2016

SURFACE RUNOFF TREATMENT

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UDC 628.33

Barinov A. M., Barinov M. I.

Optimization of operation modes and improvement of operation conditions of surface runoff treatment facilities

Summary

Common drawbacks of packaged units for urban runoff treatment are considered. The task of the study was regulating and optimizing the operation modes of the existing facilities in order to improve the effluent quality to meet the standards. By the example of the unit that was most suitable for the generally accepted treatment process flow scheme the analysis of the operation of a laminar sedimentation tank module under design conditions was carried out. To determine the operation efficiency in the hydrodynamic mode physical experiments (by adding a chemically inactive tracer to wastewater being treated) and computer simulation were carried out. To upgrade the laminar sedimentation tank the chemical treatment stage was introduced into the process flow scheme. Adding coagulant provided for improving the treatment efficiency; however, the required concentrations of suspended solids in effluent downstream the sedimentation tank (10 mg/dm3) were not met. The efficiency of the sedimentation tank in hydrodynamic mode was improved by using stepped feed and distributed collection of wastewater in a modular unit as well as by using an air distribution system located in the lower central part of the laminar sedimentation tank module. This type of the design provided for coarse bubble aeration over the entire surface area of the chamber at the required mixing rate. The implemented design changes in the laminar sedimentation tank module resulted in the efficiency of urban runoff treatment before the further tertiary treatment meeting the regulatory requirements.

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Российская ассоциация водоснабжения и водоотведения

Конференция итог

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