03-2016

Number 3 / 2016

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№3|2016

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

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UDC 504.06:711.4

Il'ichev V. A., Kolchunov V. I., TIMOFEEVA E. A., Bakaeva N. V.

Reconstruction of urban areas and utilities on the principle of biospheric compatibility

Summary

Insufficient accountancy of laws of interaction between the society and nature can result in urban development being accompanied by significant negative (anthropogenic and technogenic) impact on the natural environment which tends to result in catastrophic consequences for the biosphere and man. The present-day urban development innovative practice based on the principles of biospheric compatibility is considered. The design solution of reconstructing the river embankments in Orel is analyzed from the standpoint of the feasibility of the functions of a biospherically compatible city and introduction of innovative constructional and architectural and planning concepts. With regard to the project of embankment reconstruction the numerical implementation of the method of calculating the indicators of the biotechnosphere of cities and communities is presented; the quantitative indices of the urban functions feasibi­lity are determined. The obtained results of the numerical analysis of the urban functions feasibility provide for predicting the urban development, evaluating the comfort and safety of the urban environment from the standpoint of its biospheric compatibility. In view of the analysis results the conclusion of the principal need in adopting a new town-planning policy and introducing the biospherically compatible technologies of construction and upgrade of the urban utilities is drawn.

Key words

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№3|2016

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

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УДК

TIMOFEEVA E. A., Il'ichev V. A., Kolchunov V. I., Bakaeva N. V.

25th Anniversary of «Penetron-Russia» Group!


 

 

№3|2016

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.168.4

Gandurina L. V., Getmantsev S. V., Raff P. A., Никифорова А. Ю.

Chemical aspects of decoloration of low turbidity natural water with aluminium salts

Summary

The mechanism of decoloration of natural water with aluminium sulfate aluminium polyoxychloride is considered. The complexing reactions of humus acids with aluminium salts mainly contribute to the decoloration of natural water. The parallel proceeding reaction of aluminium sulfate and polyoxychloride hydrolysis facilitates the reduction of aluminium ion concentration in treated water but does not reduce color. Empirical dependences of coagulant dosages on color and alkalinity of raw water have been determined. Higher efficiency and lower dosages of aluminium polyoxychloride compared to aluminium sulfate used for decoloration are stipulated by the polymer origin of aluminium polyoxychloride. The use of coagulants in combination with cationic Praestol 650 flocculant provides for improving the efficiency of decoloration by 10–20% at the optimal coagulant: flocculant ratio of 50:1 for aluminium polyoxychloride and 20:1 for aluminium sulfate.

Key words

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№3|2016

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.113.8:504.064.4

Nitsak G. B., Nesterova A. R.

The causes of odor in drinking water during the summer period in Ekaterinburg

Summary

The results of studies carried out to determine the causes of odor of biological origin in public water supply of Ekaterinburg during the summer period are presented. The analysis was performed with water samples taken in accordance with the operating programs of in-process water quality monitoring in the public water supply systems during the 2001–2013 vegetative periods. The algae species directly inducing the odor in water were determined. The markers that provide for well-timed responding to the water quality changes were determined. Based on the results of the studies the order of actions during the summer period was introduced at the enterprise that provided for measuring the amount of Planktothrix agardhii with the standard procedure of raw water monitoring and reducing the sampling intervals in case of spotting the trends of the algae amount growing. In case the set marker value is reached the process flow pattern at the treatment facilities is changed to ensure guaranteed elimination of water odor.

Key words

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№3|2016

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 627.84

Sal'va A. M.

Prospects for the development of public water supply in the regions  on the other side of the river in the Central Yakutia

Summary

A brief description of the natural environment in the regions on the other side of the river in the Central Yakutia is presented. Based on the analysis of the ecological situation in these regions and on the results of the long-term medical monitoring of the public health a special program of ensuring water supply of the region was developed. The construction of public water supply systems was launched. The process flow schemes of three water mains are presented. The water supply systems include head floating pumping stations, water reservoirs, water basins, transfer pumping stations, pipelines and canals.

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№3|2016

WATER RECYCLING SYSTEMS

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UDC 628.166:628.179.2

Khasanova D. I., Shilin S. O., Garifutdinov M. K., Kovrizhnykh E. A.

Biocidal properties of OPTS-600 – a new nonoxidizing agent inhibiting microbial flora in water recycling systems

Summary

Corrosion processes in water recycling systems are often caused by different microorganisms, i. e. bacteria, algae, micromycetes. To eliminate them special substances – biocides are used. Biocidal agents have been continuously improved and at present they are complex multicomponent chemical systems. These complexes must be both broad spectrum, i. e. be equally efficient in inhibiting all the microorganism groups, and long acting (up to several weeks). Thus, developing and testing new biocidal agents for water recycling systems has been a relevant objective. The results of studying the biocidal properties of OPTS-600 new complex nonoxidizing polyhexamethyleneguianidine hydrochloride-based biocide with synergistic additives are presented. The results of the laboratory and pilot studies showed that OPTS-600 biocide almost completely inhibited the growth of microbial flora by affecting equally efficiently not only different bacterial groups but also algae and micromycetes. OPTS-600 biocidal agent is long acting and provides for inhibiting the growth of microbial flora during two weeks after it has been added into the water recycling systems. It was determined that the optimal concentration of OPTS-600 biocide in circulating water was 30 mg/l, recommended treatment interval – 1–2 months.

Key words

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№3|2016

WATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.1/.2 (211-17)

Murashev S. V.

Systems of water and wastewater treatment for offshore  and coastal facilities under the conditions of Arctic climate

Summary

The aspects of designing water supply and wastewater treatment systems for offshore Arctic facilities – floating drilling units, platforms and terminals are considered. Owing to the special conditions of operating floating drilling units in Arctic marine during long ice seasons a number of additional requirements to the water treatment systems shall be taken into consideration. Among them is reduction on the use of tankers-water carriers and of the fresh water reserve at the offshore facilities inter alia by abandoning the discharge of grey wastewater after proper treatment into the sea. Designing floating facilities of special purpose with the use of advanced small-scale and efficient systems of water purification and wastewater treatment – life-support vessels that is a separate trend in shipbuilding has been suggested and justified. Life-support vessels can be used for water transportation and waste disposal or as seasonal water and wastewater treatment systems for different purposes including emergency conditions.

Key words

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№3|2016

WATER TREATMENT

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UDC 66.023

Golovanchikov A. B., Zalipaeva O. A., Merentsov N. A., Kobernik A. A.

Influence of the diffusion pattern of the liquid phase flow on ion exchange in a continuously operated countercurrent apparatus

Summary

Physical and mathematical models of a continuously operated ion-exchange apparatus with plug flow of ionite granules and diffusion flow pattern of processed liquid are compiled. It is shown that in this case the operating line becomes curved and inverted to the direction of the equilibrium line. The algorithm of ion-exchange apparatus calculations is presented. Linear approximation of the equilibrium line was carried out that provided for obtaining a differential equation of second order which had an analytical solution. The comparative results of designing an ion-exchange apparatus with plug flow of both phases with different flow patterns are presented.

Key words

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№3|2016

WATER TREATMENT

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УДК

Hiller GmbH high-efficiency centrifuges
at Sch nau wastewater treatment
facilities

Summary

Ассоциация по защите водоемов Цугерзее-Кюсснахтерзее-Эгеризее (GVRZ), Швейцария, располагает самым крупным и современным водоочистным оборудованием на станции очистки сточных вод в г. Шёнау.


 
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