09-2014

Number 9 / 2014

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№9|2014

 

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УДК

Международной научно-практической конференции «ТЕХНОВОД» – 10 лет!

Аннотация

В октябре этого года исполняется 10 лет со дня проведения первой Международной научно-практической конференции «Технологии очистки воды» – «ТЕХНОВОД».


 

№9|2014

 

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UDC

Getmantsev S. V.

125 years of service to Russia


 

№9|2014

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.161.2:546.72/.711

Govorov O. B., Govorova Zh. M., Kvartenko A. N.

Studies and experience of introducing innovative technologies of ground water conditioning

Summary

Ground water is often characterized by the presence of dissolved gases, iron and manganese compounds, fluorine in certain cases, nutrients, organics of natural and anthropogenic origin etc. Therefore, at the initial stage of ground water purification preliminary removal of dissolved gases and saturation of water with oxygen from air is required to provide for oxidizing protoxidic forms of the ingredients subject to removal. Testing ground water conditioning technologies was carried out under the conditions of the operating water treatment plant at the pilot facilities. The technologies involve the use of bioreactors with jet vacuum ejection at the initial stage and subsequent water filtration in filters with floating media. The role and advantages of bioreactors and technologies involving their use are shown in comparison with other aeration facilities and devices. Based on the research findings the process parameters of the main facilities operation have been specified that ensure the sustainable regulatory water treatment level. It was stated that after «charging» the bioreactor and filter media alongside with aeration and dissolved gas removal the efficiency of deironing at the first stage was 78.6–88.9%; at the second stage – up to до 97% at 25 and 8 m/h filtration rate, relatively. The results of experimental studies and commercial tests at the operating water intake are presented. The experience of operating commercial plants is generalized that confirms the efficiency of the developed energy-efficient technologies of ground water conditioning.

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№9|2014

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.16.052.2

Alekseeva L. P., Alekseev S. E., Kourova L. V.

Optimization of low polluted water purification process

Summary

The ways of enhancing water coagulation processes at the operating water treatment plants with the purpose of reducing chemical costs are considered. The results of studying the conditions of different coagulants and floculants use in water purification from low polluted sources by the example of the Irtysh River are presented. It was stated that during both summer-fall and winter periods the use of aluminium oxychloride coagulant in combination with organic coagulants was most efficient for Irtysh water treatment. The effect and optimal parameters of mixing chemicals with water in the mixing chamber and flocculation tank is shown. The optimal conditions of water mixing in the mixing chamber during the summer period provided for reducing the turbidity of clarified water and filtrate by 20 and 35%, respectively; whereas enhancing slow mixing in the flocculation tank – by 35 and 63%, respectively. Du­ring the fall period the effect of mixing conditions is even higher and allows reducing the chemical dosage applied minimum twofold while maintaining the qua­lity of treated water. In winter when water treatment at the plant is actually carried out in contact coagulation mode the represen­ted data show that the optimal conditions of rapid mixing water with coagulants in the mixing chamber provide for the treated water turbidity 3–5 times lower compared to the treatment under the existing conditions even at lower dosages. It is shown that for low turbidity and low colored water reducing the chemical dosage requires more rapid and long-lasting water mixing in flocculation tanks.

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№9|2014

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.166.094.3(477.75)

Gutenev V. V., Denisov V. V., Skryabin A. Yu., FESENKO L. N.

Water supply of the Crimea: advanced water disinfection technologies based on the local resources

Summary

Supplying population with high quality drinking water and efficient industrial and domestic wastewater treatment have been global challenges aggravating against the growing scarcity of available fresh water. These problems together with the impact on the human health and economy have also been urgent for many territorial entities of the Russian Federation including the new one – Republic of Crimea. The main problems in water supply of the present-day Crimea have been caused by the deficiency of drinking water, low sanitary reliability of the water treatment systems, lack of sufficient amount of disinfecting units in the agricultural areas, unsatisfactory sanitary and engineering condition of the water distribution networks. All that is worsening the epidemiologic situation at the health resorts of the peninsula, particularly during the high season. The unsatisfactory and even critical condition of the Crimean municipal and communal water supply infrastructure makes it difficult to provide adequate quality water (and wastewater) services to the population. The options of applying water treatment technologies with the use of different concentrations of sodium hypochlorite with an account of the specific features of the South and Steppe Crimea are considered. The availability of sea water and brackish water sources on the peninsula plain, possible use of the «honeycomb» system of disinfectant distribution make introdu­cing the given technology on the large-scale environmentally safe and economically feasible.

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№9|2014

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.16

Gandurina L. V.

The use of VPK-402 coagulant for the removal of suspended solids of different origin and dispersiveness from water

Summary

The coagulation ability of VPK-402 organic coagulant in reducing water turbidity determined by fine mineral particles of different origin and dispersiveness is considered. Water coagulation was carried out under laboratory conditions following the pattern: mixing-flocculation-sedimentation. The concentration of suspended solids in water was determined from turbidity; dispersivenes – from particle hydraulic size U0. The studies were carried out with modeling water with turbidity less than 115 mg/l containing mainly fine-dispersed suspension of bentonite clays, kaolin, quartz, calcium carbonate and titanium dioxide with less than 0.2 mm/s hydraulic size. It was found that the hydraulic size of clay suspensions was determined by their swelling capacity in water; whereas for quartz, calcium carbonate and titanium dioxide suspension – by the particle size distribution of the original minerals. The optimal dosage of VPK-402 for clay mineral coagulation does not depend on their dispersive characteristics and equals to 0.5 mg/l, i. e. 5–10 times higher than the coagulant dosages for modeling waters with finely dispersed particles of quartz, titanium dioxide or calcium carbonate. The efficiency of water clarification lowers with the increase of the percentage of particles with less than 0.05 mm/s hydraulic size irrespective of their origin. The results of the Kuban River water purification validated the obtained regularities. The efficiency of using VPK-402 organic coagulant for reducing water turbidity depending on the origin and dispersiveness (hydraulic size) of suspended solids represented by bentonite clay, kaolin, quartz, calcium carbonate and titanium dioxide particles is considered. The obtained results can be used in practice for optimization of water coagulation to remove suspended solids.

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№9|2014

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.166.085

Vasiliak L. M., SMIRNOV A. D.

Potential use of ultrasound in water disinfection

Summary

Ultrasound has been used long enough in engineering and medicine for diagnostics, visualization of underwater objects, surface cleaning and other systems. Using ultrasonic disinfection as a main or additional technology is impractical because of the long exposure time, high energy consumption and lack of regulatory documents. To improve the efficiency of disinfection equipment the manufacturers suggest additional ultrasonic water treatment in combination with oxidi­zers and UV irradiation. The data on possible use of ultrasonics both as an additional disinfection method and method of improving the efficiency of traditional technology from the point of view of the concept of establishing numerous barriers during disinfection is presented. Different types of ultrasonic effect for using in water disinfection systems are considered. Ultrasound provides for the extremely low disinfection efficiency compared to other traditional technologies, therefore it is not used as an independent method. Ultrasonic water treatment improves the efficiency of oxidation technologies. Combined action of ultrasonics and UV irradiation does not have any synergistic effect. For natural water and effluent after treatment according to the operating standards the standard UV dosages are sufficient to ensure meeting the mic­robiological standards. Additional ultrasonic treatment is advisable under special conditions. Quartz sleeves can be well cleaned with mechanical systems and chemical wash which is used by all the world leading manufacturers. Due to the particular hazard of ultrasonic contact impact on humans the process of ultrasonic treatment shall completely eliminate such potential effect.

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№9|2014

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.35

Rublevskaya O. N., Kolosov D. E., Veresova M. V., PANKOVA G. A.

Studies of the toxicological effect of aluminium compounds on the activated sludge biocenosis in aeration tanks

Summary

To provide for eliminating phosphorus from wastewater in the process of tertiary treatment in order to inhibit the eutrophication of the receiving water bodies iron- and alumunium containing chemical are used. At the wastewater treatment facilities operated by SUE «Vodokanal of St. Petersburg» chemical removal of phosphorus from wastewater was carried out with imported ferrous sulfate (III); beginning from 2012 domestically-produced aluminium sulfate has been used. Transfer to aluminium sulfate was supported with a series of experimental and research studies; one of them aiming at studying the toxic effect of aluminium and ferrous (III) salts on activated sludge in aeration tanks. The review of different assessments of the toxicity of aluminium compounds in relation to plants and animals in general is presented; the results of individual studies of the aluminium sulfate and ferrous (III) sulfate effect on the activated sludge biocenosis in aeration tanks are presented. During the analysis mixed liquor samples treated with different chemical dosages were fed with acetate ions and aerated for 18 hours under similar conditions; after that the sludge samples were subject to microscopic examination. The absence of any toxic effect of aluminium sulfate on the sludge biocenosis at the metal concentrations up to and including 64 mg/l was shown which exceeded the chemical dosages used in practice dozens of times. During the introduction of higher dosages of aluminium sulfate or ferrous sulfate the inhibition of aquatic life was caused by pH decrease; whereas at pH correction with alkali liquor no symptoms of the biocenosis inhibition was noticed. Further increase of chemical and alkali dosages up to 1000 mg/l as aluminium or iron caused the inhibition of aquatic life because of the total solids increase which is fatal for the fresh water biocenosis.

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№9|2014

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.353

Chesalov S. M., Lion Iu. A., Ptitsyn V. V., Malozemov A. V.

Gabion filtration facilities for surface runoff treatment

Summary

The design and characteristics of gabion filtration treatment facilities developed and designed by the specialists of «ECOLANDSHAFT-XXI century» NPO LLC are presented. The analysis of wastewater and effluent samples collected at different seasons of the year from the inlet and outlet of the different gabion facilities showed that the efficiency of treatment both in terms of suspended solids and oil products and COD, BOD5 met the maximum permissible pollutant concentrations set for fishery waters. Gabion facilities are open gravity facilities, which do not require any chemicals, pumps, electricity or premises for their operation. They include two sections, each of them having four treatment stages: accumulating settling tank; filtration chamber with granular bed; bioplato; filtration chamber with sorbent. Gabion facilities include bioplato as a mandatory and very important element for treatment which is a shallow impoundment seeded with macrophytes and which ensures removing a number of pollutants. Due to the use of gabions, bioplato and chemical free treatment the gabion facilities can be qualified as nature like facilities which can be retrofitted into the landscape and have an attractive look becoming a part of the landscape. By now more than 120 gabion filtration treatment facilities with up to 15 years service time have been designed and built. The facilities provide for the treatment of surface runoff from highways, industrial sites of technology and industrial parks.

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Конференция итог

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