08-2014

Number 8 / 2014

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№8|2014

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.161.3.001.891.53

Strelkov A. K., Egorova Yu. A., Bykova P. G.

Selection of most efficient chemicals for water treatment

Summary

The Saratovskoe water reservoir has been the main water source of the Samara public water supply. The municipal water treatment facilities have been built after typical projects and designed for clarification and disinfection of moderately polluted water. Lately sharp suspended solids reduction and organic pollution increase (mainly of natural origin) in the water source have been observed. During flood periods technogenic pollution (surfactants) is present, the concentration of manganese increases, phenol is found. At low water temperature, high color and permanganate value higher doses of chlorine and coagulant are required. Coagulation at low temperatures is inhibited which results in the concentration of residual aluminium and permanganate value exceeding the maximum permissible levels. Higher chlorine dosages cause higher concentrations of chloroorganics in water. Therefore a chemical for using during flood periods that will provide for the required quality of water shall be selected. The results of the laboratory studies of selecting the chemical type and optimum dosage for water purification from the Saratovskoe water reservoir during flood periods are presented. Eighteen coagulant trademarks manufactured by domestic and foreign producers were investigated. The optimum dosages of coagulant and flocculant were defined. From the coagulant samples presented two were selected that could provide for the maximum drinking water clarification at minimum levels of residual aluminium and permanganate value. The final choice can be made on the basis of the technical and economic calculations taking into account the chemical price, delivery cost and required water quality.

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№8|2014

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.16.067.1:66.081.63

Strelkov A. K., Baranov A. V., Tsabilev O. V., Efanov I. A.

Evaluating the efficiency of hollow fiber membrane use in wash water treatment

Summary

Urban development dictates the necessity of increasing the output of water treatment facilities which requires the maximum operation of all the pumping filtration stations. In this respect reusing treated wash water for utility and drinking purposes will provide for eliminating water shortage and reducing environmental pressure on water bodies. The task of increasing the capacity of pumping filtration station No. 2 in Samara is very urgent. River water purification is carried out following the single-stage scheme in contact clarifiers. In view of the specific features of the clarification process such scheme does not allow increasing the station capacity by optimization of filtering media selection. The use of baromembrane processes – microfiltration and ultrafiltration – can be an alternative that will provide for the sustainable parame­ters of the treatment quality. These methods find fairly wide use in river water treatment at small-scale facilities either as independent processes or as part of comprehensive process solutions. The process of wash water of pumping filtration station No. 2 purification that operated according to the single-stage flow scheme with the use of hollow fiber membrane was studied. The main trends and possibilities of retrofitting the new process flow scheme were considered. The results of preliminary testing a pilot unit on the basis of the hollow fiber membrane element are given. The evaluation of the received filtrate quality proves its possible use for utility and drinking purposes. The membrane unit concentrate in significantly less amount can be discharged to the wastewater treatment facilities or processed to separate and dewater the sludge.

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№8|2014

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 696.115

Strelkov A. K., Zotov Yu. N., Mikhailova I. I.

Calculation of hydraulic operation mode of in-door plumbing systems in tenement houses

Summary

The results of analytical investigation of selecting the characteristics and equipment for the in-door plumbing systems with the purpose of providing for the safe living conditions in tenement houses are presented. The algorithm of hydraulic calculations with account of the regulatory requirements to the advanced energy efficient domestic water supply and characteristics of the modern equipment is described. The necessity of making hydraulic calculations at the maximum and minimum water flow is shown. The mechanism of selecting optimal solutions for determining hydraulic characte­ristics of plumbing systems is considered. The recommendations for developing methodical procedures the fulfillment of which will ensure the legitimacy of the methods of making hydraulic calculations of the in-door plumbing systems in tenement houses are given. The main requirement to determining the pipe diameter in automated water supply systems is ensuring the compliance of the controlled medium parameters to the technical characteristics of the control valve to provide for the proper operation. The traditional method of selecting a pressure reducing valve provides for an approximate result because some basic data used in calculations is undefined until the hydraulic design is completed. Therefore, the implementation of this method involves design and check hydraulic calculations. Selecting a pressure reducing valve is significantly simplified when using the method developed in the Samara State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering. In contrast to the traditional in the method developed in Samara State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering all the basic data can be uniquely determined before making hydraulic calculations.

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№8|2014

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

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UDC 504.05:628.4

Strelkov A. K., Teplykh S. Yu., Gorshkalev P. A.

The impact of economic activity on the qualitative composition
of surface water courses

Summary

Pollution of water bodies as a result of the economic activity is a serious environmental problem. On the basis of state reports on the environmental condition of the Samara Area in 2006–2012 an analysis of the qualitative composition of the water courses flowing in close proximity of potential pollution sources – cities, industrial enterprises, highways and railways – was carried out. Three rivers were chosen for studies: the Surgut, the Bol’shoi Kinel’ and the Bezenchuk. For the evaluation of the water quality the following parameters were used: specific composite water contamination index, sulfates, copper, manganese, BODfull, COD, suspended solids and dissolved oxygen. The concentrations of pollutants in the Samara Area rivers exceed the maximum permissible levels: sulfates – sixfold, copper – ninefold, manganese-thirty one fold, BODfull – 2.1-fold, COD – twofold. It is evidence of significant deterioration of the studied water bodies for the past decade. Since the research stations are located close to cities, industrial enterprises or highways the mentioned environmental problem results from the active economic anthropogenic activity. To detect illegal wastewater discharge sources the results of water body monitoring shall be regularly analyzed. It will help to identify the type of wastewater discharged into the water body; pollution source or industrial enterprise discharging the wastes illegally.
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№8|2014

TERMINOLOGY

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UDC 628.21:001.4:006.354

Shuvalov M. V.

On the necessity of correcting scientific terms and definitions in the field of wastewater disposal

Summary

The results of analyzing the texts of the RF Federal legislation, RF Codes, federal standards, Code of practice, Sanitary Regulations and Norms (SanPiN), scientific and technical literature, course books are presented. The specific use of standardized scientific wastewater disposal terminology is defined. Significant differences in the terminology used in Federal Law «On water supply and wastewater disposal» and some other documents (codes of practice, federal standards, sanitary regulations and norms) were revealed. By the dramatic example of the confusion in the terminology a document is set where similar by implication terms, actually synonyms, are presented as independent notions. It is noted that the terms used in some present-day textbooks on wastewater disposal do not meet the operating standards. The lack of the systematic approach to the terminology complicates the procedures of designing and constructing as well as training in this field. Therefore using the standardized terms and their definitions in all types of documentation, scientific and technical literature, course books and reference materials is vital.

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№8|2014

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.35:66.081.63

Stepanov S. V.

Calculation of membrane surface in membrane bioreactors

Summary

On the basis of the foreign publications analysis membrane bioreactors and membranes used in them are considered. In pressure units with a remote membrane assembly the specific flow through the membrane (at 20°C) is 80–200 l/(h∙m2) at 20–500 kPa transmembrane pressure; whereas in the units with submerged membranes – 8–30 l/(h∙m2) at 10–60 kPa vacuum. The specific power consumption in bioreactors with pressure membranes is within the limits of 1.5–4 kW·h/m3; with submerged membranes – 0.5–0.7 kW·h/m3. The results of analyzing the equipment market showed that submerged membrane elements and modules have been used in 97–99% biomembrane units. The comparison of submerged membranes shows that modules made of hollow fiber membranes have higher specific surface (300–600 m2/m3) compared to flat ones (50–150 m2/m3). Hollow fiber membranes are characterized by lower cost, higher resistance to fouling and backwashing. Flat membranes have higher mechanical toughness and can be more easily replaced. The operation of membrane batch bioreactors, the use of osmotic membrane bioreactor and nanofiltration processes in biomembrane technology are described. The technique of calculating submerged hollow fiber membrane surface with account of various allowed specific flows depending upon the durability of the design flows, time lost for backwashing and «relaxation», reflux from membrane backwashing is presented. At determining the number of the operating in parallel process lines one should take into account possible shutdown of one membrane tank for chemical washing or repair.

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№8|2014

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.35:004.69

Strelkov A. K., Stepanov S. V., Strelkov D. A., Doubman I. S.

The experience of upgrading wastewater treatment facilities of Zhigulevsk

Summary

The experience of designing, constructing and upgrading wastewater treatment facilities (16,200 m3/day) in Zhigulevsk, Samara Area is described. Prior to the reconstruction the technical condition of the facilities was satisfactory. However, the effluent quality parameters exceeded the maximum permissible levels for BOD, suspended solids, nitrogen compounds, phosphates and oil pro­ducts. The efficiency of primary settling related to BOD5 and suspended solids was about 50% resulting in BODfull: total mineral nitrogen: phosphorus of phosphates ratio changing from 100:12.5:1.7 to 100:21.8:3.16. Despite the deterioration of this primary effluent parameter in the process of nutrients removal it was decided to retain primary settling in the design layout because of the insufficient capacities of the existing aeration tanks. The techno­logy of nitrification-denitrification with anoxic and aerobic zones and chemical phosphorus removal is suggested. The bioreactor capacity was increased 1.5 times by establishing the third process line in addition to the existing ones; besides the construction started from the nitrification-denitrification aeration tank to provide for the sustai­nable effluent quality for the entire reconstruction period.
For tertiary treatment a filter-bioreactor with a brush head was used. Disinfection is carried out by UV-irradiation in a trough-type unit without changing the gra­vity effluent flow. The design documentation was approved by the state expertise of the construction pro­jects. By now a considerable part of the facilities has been constructed and put into operation. The successful experience of Zhigulevsk wastewater treatment facilities reconstruction carried out without interruption of wastewater inflow can be overspread among the similar projects in medium-scale cities of the central part of Russia.

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№8|2014

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 504.064.47:628.31.4

Chistiakov N. E., Strelkov A. K., Lobanov V. I., Zanina Zh. V.

Processing leachate from municipal solid waste landfills for further utilization

Summary

The operation of municipal solid waste landfills produces a negative impact on the environment. The landfill leachate contains high concentrations of mineral and organic substances and, according to many researchers, is highly toxic. The qualitative characteristics of leachate depend on the age of the landfill, climate conditions and season of the year, amount of atmospheric precipitation, fallout pattern and other factors. Undoubtedly, the leachate quality is determined also by the chemical composition of wastes disposed to the landfill. Leachate handling is an urgent problem. Most often leachate treatment to the effluent quality meeting the maximum permissible concentrations for fishery waters is suggested. All the technologies and methods of this direction are fairly complicated and expensive. As a result additional wastes reluctant to utilization are generated. The possibility of using leachate for the landfill irrigation is suggested for consideration. This is the best practice since the effluent is retuned back to the landfill solid which is a natural biological reactor. Pretreatment, leachate saturation with oxygen and its further use for landfill irrigation will provide for reducing the time needed for complete destruction of organic compounds to the formation of humic acids, humate and organic soil; and also reducing significantly the negative impact of landfills on the environment including aquifers. In this case most of leachate evaporates and goes to the atmosphere eliminating any serious impact on it.

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№8|2014

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.311.001.24

Shuvalov M. V., Strelkov A. K., Tarakanov D. I., Shuvalov I. S.

On calculating the capacity of surface runoff treatment facilities
(to be discussed)

Summary

It was demonstrated that for the most part of the territory of our country in the process of designing treatment facilities for surface runoff from the territories allotted for settlement and first group industrial areas the daily amount of snowmelt runoff is determinative. To calculate the capacity of the accumulating tanks and treatment facilities using the data on the amount of water in snow cover by the beginning of spring snowmelt is suggested. When using the suggested additions to the method of designing surface runoff treatment facilities the capacity of accumulating tanks increases approximately twice; whereas the capacity of treatment facilities is reduced approximately eightfold. The information on the implementation of the suggested approach in designing and constructing treatment facilities receiving surface runoff from the territory of Tarkett factory manufacturing flooring (Otradnyi, Samara Area) is presented.

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