03-2014

Number 3 / 2014

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№3|2014

LAWS, STANDARDS, NORMATIVES

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UDC 628.16:349.6

ALEKSEEV V. S.

The current state of the water regulatory framework

Summary

The legal and regulatory framework of designing, building and operating water supply systems with surface and underground water abstraction (resource block), technical process solutions and equipment, development of sanitary requirements to the quality of water sources and of water supplied to the population, rules of operating water supply systems are considered. The development of the water legislation in the country is related to the introduction into force of the RF Water Code in 2006 and amendments to it. The use of underground waters is regulated by the Federal Law «On subsurface resources», «Classification of reserves and predicted resources of drinking, process and mineral underground waters» and by guidelines on its application. The drawbacks of the existing documents related to finding ground waters in natural conditions that meet the requirements of sanitary authorities to the drinking water are noted. The analysis of the formation of the regulatory framework of technologies shows that there are progressive trends related to the adoption of 416-ФЗ Federal Law «On water supply and wastewater disposal». At the same time it is shown that updating SNiP 2.04.02-84 in the form of 31.13330 Set of Rules has a number of drawbacks. When considering the sanitary safety of water sources the necessity of early adopting public health regulations related to water supply source selection (replacing GOST 2761-84), revising SanPiN 2.1.4.1110-02, developing legitimate recommendations on hydrogeologic methods of estimating the dimensions of sanitary protection zones, and developing the mechanism of adjustment of maximum permissible concentrations of components regulated by SanPiN 1.2.4.74-01 harmonized with WHO requirements is pointed out. It is shown that the robustness of water supply systems is ensured by the motivated selection of water supply sources and designs of water intakes, systems of water purification, supply and distribution. At the same time it is necessary to carry out process studies of remediation of water resources with account of the RF state standards of ISO 9000 and ISO 14000 series.

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№3|2014

RUSSIAN WATER AND WASTEWATER ASSOCIATION

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UDC 628.15:504.054

DANILOVICH D. A., Dovlatova E. V.

State of the system of regulating discharges of pollutants and improvement of water body protection mechanisms

Summary

The analysis of the existing Russian system that regulates pollutant discharges (in particular, draft bill No. 584587-5) and charges, study of the similar international experience allowed making a conclusion on the necessity of cardinal changing the fundamentals of the legislation in this area. Most essential problems are as follows: «zero impact» principle; disregard of the criterion of technical achievability of the established requirements; the system of «permissible discharge rates (PDR) – limits»; reference nature of the legislation and practically total lack of the directly applicable standards; entirely individual requirements to the water users in the absence of general standards; complicated and labor intensive development of PDRs; multistage and expensive system of obtaining approvals and permits; the tendency of simplifying legal acts that results in unsolvable questions and gaps in their application; «end-of-the-pipe» model of tackling environmental problems; disregarding the difference between discharges by public utilities and industrial enterprises – water users; the lack of pollutant differentiation both by origin and the rate of environmental hazard. Despite the severity and complexity of the regulating system the state has practically distanced itself from the actual liability for improving environmental conditions. The major drawbacks of the mechanism of charging for pollutant discharges are as follows: the lack of legislative control; charging for any amount and any concentration of substances including the amounts that do not impact the permissible quality parameters; complementary dependence on the availability or lack of PDR and limits; inability of paying for discharges above PDR from cost of production; unreasonably large lists of discharged substances subject to charging; non-charging for the complex pollution indices (except BOD); the lack of incentive role in relation to many pollutants; the existence of potential double charge for one and the same discharge called compensation of damage to water bodies caused by the violation of the water law. The conclusion is drawn that the existing system of regulations and charges is not only useless, but also injures greatly the actual activities on rehabilitation of water bodies; and that integrated reforming the environmental legislation is needed.

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№3|2014

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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УДК

Kartashova A. V., Chamaev A. V., Kutseva N. K., Larin V. E.

Rossa Analytical Centre – 20 years safeguarding water quality


 

№3|2014

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.166.085(439)

Csaba Haranghy, Géza Csörneyi, Pand’ianski Attila , Kostyuchenko S. V., Volkov S. V., Levchenko D. A., Baranov V. L.

Integrated disinfection process flow scheme in the public water supply system of Budapest

Summary

The biggest in European Union UV water disinfection complex has been successfully operated at Kmegier, the Budapest water treatment plant with a capacity of 600,000 m3/day in Hungary. The municipal water supply system uses surface waters as a water source (The Danube River). The water body is not protected from possible input of various pathogens that can cause serious infectious disease outbreaks among the population. In addition viruses and cysts of pathogenic protozoa are highly resistant to traditional chlorination. The experts of Budapest water supply system Fvrosi VZMVEK Zrt. in cooperation with Russian LIT Scientific-Production Association carried out a series of tests at the pilot unit as a part of serial DUV 150/21 UV-system with low pressure lamps; and then industrial tests at DUV 36А/120 UV-systems. Blending the infiltrate water fed to the UV-system with river water abstracted directly from the Danube in the amount of 3% of the total flow rate was provided. Water quality analytical studies were carried out before and after disinfection by VZM-VEK Laboratory. In the process of studies the efficient UV-irradiation dosage of 60 mlJ/cm2 was determined for underflow (infiltrate) river water in definite operation conditions. The use of advanced combined water disinfection technology (chlorination + UV-irradiation) ensures minimizing the level of chlorination, reducing the risk of byproducts formation and improving the water safety.

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№3|2014

VODOKANALS OF RUSSIA

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UDC 628.16.094.413.094.3

Vasil'eva A. I., Nasyrova M. R., Kantor L. I., Trukhanova N. V. , Melnitsky I. A.

Role of algae in the formation of water chlorination byproducts

Summary

For many years the precursors and mechanisms of water chlorination byproducts formation in the process of water purification at the surface water intake of Ufa city have been investigated. The main task of the study was evaluating the contribution of the representatives of the three phytoplankton species typical for the Ufa River to the trihalomethanes formation: diatomic (Bacillariophyta), green (Chlorophyta) and blue-green algae (Сyanophyta). Initially phytoplankton cells were isolated from the river water samples by concentrating, then in laboratory conditions algae were cultured on substrata. The chlorination experiments were carried out both with water samples with algae biomass and with the sample filtrates. The model samples were chlorinated with 1; 2; 3 mg/l chlorine dosages, exposure time – 2 hours. The concentration of trihalomethanes was measured by gas chromatographic vapor-phase analysis with electron-capture detection. The results of the studies revealed the following specific features. The samples with high concentration of blue-green algal biomass (13.6 mg/l – 96%) after chlorination with 3 mg/l dosage showed significant increase of the total trihalomethane concentration– 131.6 µg/l. In the samples with dominant green algal mass (26.19 mg/l – 99.8%) or with green (0.07 mg/l – 53%) and diatomic algae (0.059 mg/l – 47%) only the lowest total trihalomethane concentrations were detected – 3.69 and 2.62 µg/l, respectively. The similar situation was observed in the process of chlorinating filtrates of these samples. This suggests that blue-green algal metabolites or products of the algal mass decay are most probable precursors of trihalomethanes.

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№3|2014

VODOKANALS OF RUSSIA

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UDC 628.312.004.69

Petrushin I. N., Kobiakova N. V., Rouzayev V. I., Belyaeva S. D., Kuznetsov D. A., Sedykh T. N., Androsova E. I.

Upgrading the wastewater treatment facilities  of the Istra city and Istra Area

Summary

The necessity for the reconstruction of the wastewater treatment facilities of the Istra city and minor wastewater treatment facilities operated by MUE «Istrinskii Vodokanal» of the Istra Area was stipulated by stringent requirements to the effluent quality that were not possible to meet at the existing facilities, and also by the actual wastewater flow increase and equipment wear. The reconstruction provides for the introduction of modern equipment and advanced technologies of wastewater treatment and sludge handling while making maximal use of the existing buildings and facilities. The maximum amount of work was carried out during reconstructing biological treatment line of the Istra wastewater treatment facilities. The project includes allocating nitrification-denitrification zones in the aeration tank and replacing the outdated aeration system with a system with disk fine-bubble membrane aerators. To improve the operation efficiency of the biological treatment facilities and reduce power consumption advanced air blowers were installed. Tertiary treatment facilities were upgraded; drum screens were replaced with microscreen filters. To solve the problem of sludge utilization the composting technology is being developed. Booster pumping stations were upgraded with installing power-operated grinding screens. The project of upgrading wastewater treatment facilities of Dedovsk town (20,000 m3/day) and Obushkovo village was designed. In 2008 the reconstruction of the wastewater treatment facilities of Snegiri holiday home was completed. The design of the biological treatment facilities making use of the biolfilter building and two sections of percolating biofilters proved to be an interesting engineering solution. At present the step-by-step reconstruction with capacity increase of the wastewater treatment facilities in Pavlovskoe and Onufrievo settlements, and Rozhdestveno village is underway. The entire project is implemented by the specialists of the Istra Vodokanal in cooperation with BIFAR Scientific-Production Firm that has developed the basic process solutions and design documentation.

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№3|2014

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.35:661.5

Stepanov S. V.

Specific features of designing oil refinery wastewater biological treatment facilities

Summary

Oil refinery wastewater is characterized by the presence of organics resistant to oxidation and practically total absence of phosphorus. The procedure of designing oil-containing wastewater biological treatment with nitrification-denitrification is used both for aeration tanks and membrane bioreactors. Designing is carried out with the use of kinetic relationships for all the regulated pollutants. During the experiments kinetic constants and coefficients of nitrification and denitrification processes, oxidation of organic substances (as BOD and COD), oil products, phenols and synthetic surfactants for waste­water of a number of oil refineries were obtained. Calculations algorithm includes the following stages: determining initial data – pollutant concentrations and wastewater flow rates; choosing the process flow scheme of the treatment facilities; calculating specific rate of biological treatment process on the basis of kinetic constants and coefficients; calculating activated sludge growth, nitrogen and phosphorus losses in the process of assimilation; estimating the retention time for oxidation of separate ingredients of pollutants and denitrification; determining the maximum aerobic process time in respect to the limiting component and treatment level in respect to other ingredients; calculating the required air consumption; checking the necessity of dosing phosphorus compounds for nutrient makeup. To improve the denitrification efficiency the configuration of the facilities was enlarged with a mixed liquor deaerator. The process design of a membrane bioreactor differs from the design of aeration tanks with nitrification-denitrification by correction of specific oxidation rate with account of the obtained kinetic constants and coefficient of inhibition with metabolism products at higher concentrations of activated sludge in the bioreactor. The experimental results allowed supplementing the procedure of designing wastewater biological treatment facilities with nitrification-denitrification developed by NII VODGEO.

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№3|2014

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.31.504.3.054

Kaszuk Brice, LOBANOV F. I.

The main trends in the use of deodorization to control malodorous substances

Summary

Elimination of odors caused by malodorous substances at the wastewater treatment facilities is provided with the use of oxygen-containing organic substances by interaction in the air between molecules of sulfur or nitrogen compounds (with sour or fishy smell) and molecules of oxygen-containing substances. Depending upon the composition of malodorous air which contains usually up to 5–8 different compounds (hydrogen sulfide and mercapto compounds; ammonia and various amines) different combinations of aldehydes and ketones are selected. The use of various combinations of odor-blockers provides for the optimal air deodorization results. Deodorant compounds can be used only if the concentration of malodorous substances is lower than maximum permissible limits for atmospheric air. The statistic and dynamic methods of oxygen-containing organic substance molecules distribution in the air are presented. The recommendations on the use of deodorants for odor control at different public utilities (wastewater sludge mechanical dewatering facilities, pumping stations, sewers, settling tanks, ventilating systems) are given.

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№3|2014

ПИТЬЕВОЕ ВОДОСНАБЖЕНИЕ

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УДК

Voronov I. V., Gogina Е. S.

History of developing «Wastewater disposal and treatment» («Storm sewers» -> «Sewerage» -> «Wastewater disposal») educational course


 
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