10-2014

Number 10 / 2014

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№10|2014

210 years of the MOSCOW PUBLIC WATER SUPPLY

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УДК

Ponomarenko A. M.

The history of clear water


 

№10|2014

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

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UDC 628.11:504.054

Karpushenko A. V., Polyanin V. O.

The impact of economic activities on the sanitary-ecological state
of the Moscow drinking water sources

Summary

Human economic activities and water use conditions in the basins of the Moskva, Vazuza and Upper Volga rivers are the key factors that determine the natural water quality. The water resources used for the Moscow water supply are formed from surface water vulnerable to the anthropogenic impact. The sanitary-ecological state of the water sources, the hydrologic river regime and water quality determine to a large extent the specific features of the public water supply at present and will have an impact on its development in future. Establishing an efficient monitoring system and coordinating the activities of supervising, regulating and operating organizations in the field of maintaining proper sanitary and ecological state of the rivers, water reservoirs and their catchment areas are the prerequisites of the reliable water supply of the metropolitan area and sustainable water use in the Moskva-Oka river basin. Among the problems that demand focused attention are: the storm and wastewater disposal regulations, large-scale villa development at the riverfront, violations of agricultural technologies of manure storage and utilization, low public environmental consciousness, the lack of a reliable mechanism of observing the sanitary and environmental regulations, the lack of appropriate practice of exploitation of rivers and water reservoirs. All that causes gradual degradation of small rivers, water reservoir eutrophication, decrease of self-purification capacities of water bodies, and creates additional difficulties in water treatment. Such scope of work requires the development of schemes of comprehensive use and protection of water and land resources that prescribe measures, schedules, implementation priorities, and sources of financing specifically for a given water utilization system or a river basin. Sustainable use of water resources as well as catchment areas is particularly important for the drinking water sources. Precisely this approach will provide for implementing the legislated in Russia priority of using water bodies for drinking and public water supply to the full extent.

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№10|2014

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.1

Shushkevich E. V. , Stolyarova E. A. , Bastrykin R. I., Babaev A. V., Koubenko V. V., Mishin D. S.

Modern approaches to the upgrade of the water supply facilities
and water quality improvement on the territory of New Moscow

Summary

Following the accession of the territories of Naro-Fominskii, Podol’skii and Leninskii districts to Moscow and establishing the Troitskii and Novomoskovskii administrative districts a number of water facilities were signed off to «Mosvodokanal» JSC. Based on the inspection results it was found that most of the facilities were in a critical condition, the equipment was out-of-date, no automation or centralized control existed. Besides, only some water intakes had water softening and de-ironing systems given the fact that almost all underground water contains elevated concentrations of metals flushed out from water-bearing materials; consequently, only some water facilities supplied drinking water meeting the established standards to the customers. The technical and technologic solutions, the results of series of technical and preventive measures taken in order to ensure sanitary security and improve the quality of water supplied to the customers on the territories of the Troitskii and Novomoskovskii administrative districts are presented. These solutions include portable modular systems comprising: advanced water purification systems, disinfection, automation and centralized control. Depending on the underground water quality the purification systems comprise de-ironing with the use of sodium hypochlorite solution as an oxidant with subsequent filtration in pressure filters with inert or activated media, softening or filtration through reverse osmosis membranes. Where appropriate water flows through filters with activated carbon to eliminate hydrosulphuric odor. Before supply to the municipal distribution network water is subjected to final disinfection with sodium hypochlorite.

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№10|2014

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.112.23

Kamenetsky A. B., Kurianov V. A., Tushina V. F., Semenova I. V., Mal’tseva E. I.

The evaluation of exploitable potential and quality of the underground
water used by «Zelenogradvodokanal» Operations Department

Summary

The results of studying the regimes of underground water levels and water abstraction from the service carbonaceous aquifers are presented. Beginning from 2003 the Kasimovskii and Podol’sko-Miachkovskii complexes have been exploited under pressure-gravity conditions; whereas the Aleksinsko-Protvinskii complex – under pressure conditions. Reappraisal of the exploitable underground water potential on the territory under consideration was carried out with mathematical model approach using software package. The analysis of the long-term studies showed that at present the water table is not changing along with the marked decline of the underground water level in the service aquifers. In the wells completed in different aquifer systems the change of the underground water level of the next to the surface aquifer system in the sections with jurassic aquitard clays in their geologic profile does not depend on carbonaceous system level behavior (therefore, on water abstraction). In case the next to the surface aquifer lies directly on a carbon aquifer system the exploitation of the latter can affect the underground water level. However, under the circumstances the natural depth of occurrence of the next to the surface aquifer system is usually more than 3–5 meters; therefore, any further level decrease does not have any negative consequences for vegetation. The analysis of artesian water quality for the period from 1981 to 2012 for 18 organoleptic and composite indices, and three microbiological parameters is presented. The comparative analysis of artesian water quality of three aquifers is given alongside with the composition consistency of aquifer systems. The concentration of the elements typical for aquifers is presented.

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№10|2014

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.179.34

Babaev A. V., Stolyarova E. A. , Koubenko V. V., Shashkova O. S., Salgalov A. A.

Identification of different water types in case of the municipal distribution network failures

Summary

Prompt localization of latent and apparent water losses has been an important task of the «Mosvodokanal» JSC activities. The time needed for eliminating failures in the municipal distribution network depends significantly on the efficient identification of the leakage source and owner of the service lines. The issues of sample identification under different emergency conditions are considered. It is shown that alongside with instrumental methods of water leak detection laboratory analytical methods can also be used. Underground water inflow is a most elementary case of water losses. Taking into account that surface water from the Moskva and Volga rivers serves as a water source of the public water supply the presence of fluorides, low mineral content and the absence of organic pollutants are reliable evidences of the underground origin of the water inflow. At the same time high mineral content, presence of phosphates, ammonia salts, high permanganate values evidence the inflow of polluted wastewater. A reliable proof of leakage water originating from the public water supply is the presence of water purification by-products, chloroorganic compounds in particular. The experimental results showed that the minimum significant chloroform value in real samples of leakage water in the Moscow public water supply was 3 µg/l. This chloroform concentration remains unchanged with time with the disinfection practice adopted at the Moscow water treatment plants: chlorammoniation during both primary and final chlorination. The statistically processed data arrays of special experiments and real samples for a few years indicate that the given concentration of chloroform detected in the sample is a proof of water originating from public water supply systems.

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№10|2014

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 543.95

Borodulina T. I., Shergina V. V., Komissarova V. V.

Methodic aspects of microbiological water analysis

Summary

Ensuring the epidemic safety of the water use in relation to intestinal waterborne infections has been the main and high-priority task of the microbiological water quality control. The regulations in force have methodological differences in determining and identifying epidemiologically significant parameters the validity of which is of primary importance. Ta­king into account the urgency of the issue the methodological discrepancies of oxidase test procedure in determining total coliforms on Endo agar are considered. On the ground of experimental data a new procedure of differentiating coliforms from oxidase positive microorganisms like Pseudomonas, Aeromonas and other aquatic saprophytic bacteria is suggested. Chromogenic media are of great practical interest since they contain substances that inhibit the growth of gram-positive microbial flora that is abundant in natural water sources and produces a negative effect in identification of target microorganisms. In this respect possible use of Chromocult Coliform Agar ES chromogenic medium in sanitary-microbiological water analysis for total and thermotolerant coliforms and Escherichia coli is evaluated. An original color differentiation of the colonies growing on Chromocult Coliform Agar ES medium is suggested that requires additional tests only for separate colony types. The comparative analysis of Endo and Chromocult Coliform Agar ES media is given.

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№10|2014

РОССИЙСКАЯ АССОЦИАЦИЯ ВОДОСНАБЖЕНИЯ И ВОДООТВЕДЕНИЯ

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УДК

Резолюция VII межрегиональной конференции водоканалов России

Аннотация

25–30 августа 2014 г. в городе Чебоксары проходила VII межрегиональная конференция водоканалов России «Системные проблемы отрасли ВКХ и пути их решения». Участниками конференции стали более 300 человек, в числе которых представители органов власти, крупнейших организаций ВКХ и специалисты профильных компаний. Деловая программа конференции включала пленарное заседание, на котором обсуждались ключевые вопросы развития ВКХ в условиях нового отраслевого и природоохранного законодательства, и проведение круглых столов для обсуждения законодательных, организационных и финансовых аспектов развития отрасли. Представляем вашему вниманию проект резолюции конференции.

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№10|2014

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.334.13

KOZLOV M. N., Bogomolov M. V., Kevbrina M. V., Nikolaev Yu. A., Kolbasov G. A.

The efficiency of removing suspended solids from biologically treated effluent by microscreening in disc filters

Summary

The article covers the results of studying the separation of suspended solids from biologically treated effluent and separation of mixed liquor from aeration tanks by microscreening method. The specialists of R&D Centre of «Mosvodokanal» JSC performed pilot testing of microscreening technology. The tests were carried out in a pilot plant designed on the basis of DynaDisc filter (Nordic Water Products AB, Sweden). The surface of filtration area was 2.8 m2. The tests were carried out at the Kur’ianovskie Wastewater Treatment Facilities in Moscow. In the course of studies it was shown that disc mic­roscreening provided for effluent polishing with reducing suspended solids to 4 mg/l when using 18 µm sieve mesh and to 3 mg/l when using 10 µm sieve mesh. The concentration of suspended solids in backwash water is 0.5–1.4 g/l; backwash water flow rate does not exceed 1.2% of the installation capacity. Addition of Praestol 650 flocculant allows improving filtrate quality to 1 and 0.5 mg/l, respectively. The quality of filtrate during separation of mixed liquor from aeration tanks in DynaDisc filter with 50, 30 and 18 µm sieve mesh is, respectively, 140, 60 and 45 mg/l; suspended solids in backwash water – 30–70 g/l, backwash water flow rate – 6–8%. In the course of tests the optimal filter operational performance in effluent polishing and separating mixed liquor from aeration tanks by microscreening was determined.

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№10|2014

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.31.085

KOZLOV M. N., Isakov V. G., Kevbrina M. V., Gavrilin A. M., Shashkina P. S.

The effect of ultraviolet disinfection of the Kur’ianovskie Wastewater Treatment Facilities’ effluent on the Moskva River biocenosis

Summary

Ultraviolet irradiation of urban wastewater is nowadays one of the safest and cost effective disinfection technologies. Ult­raviolet disinfection is a most efficient from the environmental point of view: no toxic by-products are formed in contrast to the traditional chlorination. Currently the biggest UV disinfection facilities have been operated in «Mosvodokanal» JSC: in September 2006 UV disinfection facilities with a capacity of 1 million m3/day were put into operation at the Liuberetskie Wastewater Treatment Facilities, and in December 2012 UV disinfection facilities with a capacity of 3 millions m3/day were put into operation at the Kur’ianovskie Wastewater Treatment Facilities. The results of analyzing phytoplankton, zooplankton and bacteriological communities in the receiving waters of the Kur’ianovskie Wastewater Treatment Facilities – the Moskva River before and after putting into operation the facilities for secondary effluent disinfection are presented in the paper. The comparison of biological characteristics of the water body with the river headwaters was carried out. Putting into operation the UV irradiation facilities provided for reducing bacteriological and virological water contamination. No changes in the plankton community structure were found. The river biocenosis keeps functioning inalterably. The use of UV disinfection technology ensures the epidemiological safety of the urban and rural population downstream the Moskva River.

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Российская ассоциация водоснабжения и водоотведения

Конференция итог

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