11-2013

Number 11 / 2013

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№11|2013

РОССИЙСКАЯ АССОЦИАЦИЯ ВОДОСНАБЖЕНИЯ И ВОДООТВЕДЕНИЯ

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УДК

Итоги VI Межрегиональной конференции водоканалов  России «Водный комплекс регионов России:  консолидация или автономия»

Аннотация

Российская ассоциация водоснабжения и водоотведения совместно с Правительством Красноярского края, при поддержке и участии представителей Министерства регионального развития РФ, Министерства экономического развития РФ и Федеральной службы по тарифам провела с 27 по 31 августа 2013 г. VI конференцию водоканалов России.


 

№11|2013

WATER SOURCES QUALITY CONTROL

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UDC 628.1.033:543.9

Tymchuk S. N., Larin V. E., Sokolov D. M.

Most significant sanitary microbiological parameters of drinking water quality assessment

Summary

Sanitary control of water is a complex and multilevel process. It is associated with every stage of water use, starting from the water supply source selection, monitoring, and water treatment to disinfection and wastewater disposal to collection facilities. Sanitary and microbiological water assessment implies determining sanitary profile, i. e. criteria that reflect compliance or noncompliance of the object under investigation with the regulatory documents requirements. The determined parameters and the frequency of their measurement depend on the assignment of the project under investigation and are strictly regulated by the respective regulatory framework. Sanitary parameters are divided into index parameters
that reflect the level of fecal pollution and indicator parameters that reflect the quality of water treatment. Index para­meters include: Escherichia сoli, thermotolerant coliforms and coliphages. Indicator parameters are: total microbial count, total coliforms, sulfite-reducing clostridia spores etc. Determination of some pathogenic and opportunistic pathogenic bacteria like salmonella, pathogenic staphylococcus, blue pus bacillus etc. is an important aspect of water bodies monitoring. EC countries moved from determining groups of sanitary indicator microorganisms (thermotolerant coliforms, fecal staphylococcus, sulfite-reducing clostridia spores) to determining directly sanitary indicator microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Clostridium perfringens), which makes water quality assessment more standardized and reliable. Advanced methods and approaches to the assessment of the sanitary state of the water bodies are continuously emerging and introduced in the international practice of sanitary surveys.

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№11|2013

WATER SOURCES QUALITY CONTROL

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UDC 628.16:504.064

Vasilenko S. L., Kobylianskii V. I.

The system of early warning of water quality deterioration
on the basis of toxicological testing

Summary

To improve raw water quality monitoring at water intakes and determine water toxicity the methods of biotesting are used to provide for making timely protecting management decisions. The system of raw water quality monitoring in municipal water supply is based on setting maximum permissible concentrations of pollutants. In Ukraine the normative standards of surface water protection from pollution (SanPiN 4630-88), where critical chemicals of the first and second classes of hazard alone amount to hundreds. The techniques developed earlier are inconsistent because of the discrepancies between the enlarging list of pollutants and out-of-date technical and methodological capacities of the supervisory agencies. The use of the biotesting method based on recording the photosynthetic capacity and respiration of Chlorella vulgaris Beijer or Scenedesmus quadricauda green algae for strategic pollution monitoring has been suggested. The flowchart of an automatic continuous monitoring station and an algorythm of natural water quality assessment were designed. The correlation between water toxicity index and traditional integral, physical and chemical water quality indices is shown. The flowchart of an automatic continuous monitoring station and its technical capacbilities that provide for tapping into the regional environmental monitoring system are described. A pilot model of the automatic continuous monitoring station was successfully tested at the Petchenezhskoye water reservoir. It was found that the toxicity index increased when BOD increased and the oxygen concentration decreased. The oxidation characetristic at that time did not change practically. On the basis of investigating natural water composition and experimental measuring water toxicity setting 40% threshold toxicity value for drinking water supply is recommended.

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№11|2013

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.1.033:543.31

Bashketova N. S., NEFEDOVA E. D.

Current problems of delivering high quality drinking water
to the population of St. Petersburg

Summary

The results of studies carried out by the experts of SUE «Vodokanal of St. Petersburg» and Centre for hygiene and epidemiology within the frames of Work program of water quality process inspection for the purpose of public health monito­ring are presented. Monitoring the quality of drinking water delivered to the population of St. Petersburg and its surroun­dings is carried out for 86 parameters in 174 control points at every stage of water treatment with regularity from daily to monthly. Analytical drinking water quality control was carried out with the use of advanced methods and equipment. To evaluate the efficiency of the measures for delivering epidemiologically safe drinking water to the population an «infectious hepatitis» morbidity rate was introduced. The results of social-hygienic monitoring show sustainable long-term improvement of water quality parameters and the tendency for population morbidity decrease. The following measures for ensuring safe drinking water supply have been developed: introduction of UV drinking water disinfection; use of two-stage drinking water disinfection with the combination of physical and chemical methods; conversion to disinfection with sodium hypochlorite and ammonia sulphate; introduction of water source quality biomonitoring and sorbent dosing systems; construction of an advanced water treatment line. The comprehensive approach to drinking water quality monitoring allowed to develop the Concept of delivering physiologically adequate drinking water to the St. Petersburg population and give an objective estimate of the water supply services with account of the assessment of consumer’s risk and full-value of water.

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№11|2013

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.16.065.2

Belyak А. А., GERASIMOV M. M., GUSEVA O. A., SMIRNOV A. D.

Removal of ammonia nitrogen from surface water source
with the use of powdered zeolite

Summary

During flood periods increased concentrations of ammonia nitrogen in river water to 2–2.5 maximum permissible concentration are recorded at the Kirov water treatment plant. The assessment of possible use of powdered clinoptilolit containing zeolites in the existing water treatment process flow scheme to eliminate ammonium ions from natural water is given. The tests were carried out with the Viatka river water. After zeolite powder dosage of 0.1–1.3 mg/l addition into the water and 30 minutes mixing (200 rpm) slick was formed. During sedimentation a part of zeolite powder settled for 2–3 hours; however high turbidity remained for 24 hours. After adding 10 mg/l dosage of coagulant (aluminium sulfate) (as Al2O3) and Praestol 650TR flocculant complete precipitation of big flocks was achieved within 5–15 minutes. The ion-exchange capacity of powdered zeolite specimen – from 1.35 to 2.25 (as ammonia nitrogen) was determined. The highest ion-exchange capacity was recorded for Sokirnit natural zeolite (0.06–0.1 mm particle size). It was proved that ammonium ions exchange capacity depends on the concentration of clinoptilolit in the material (its concentration can change in the process of natural zeolite disintegrating and fractionating). The first pilot line of the plant with a capacity of 58 thousand m3 of water per day that provided for reducing ammonia nitrogen concentration to the level lower than MPC (2 mg/l) was assembled and tested at the Kirov water treatment plant.

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№11|2013

ПИТЬЕВОЕ ВОДОСНАБЖЕНИЕ

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Консигнационный склад – оптимальное решение для водоканалов

Аннотация

Австрийский производитель водозапорной арматуры фирма HAWLE предлагает стабильную и надежную форму сотрудничества


 

№11|2013

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.35:661.5

SHVETSOV V. N., MOROZOVA K. M.

Procedure of designing wastewater biological treatment facilities
with nutrients removal

Summary

The procedure of designing wastewater biological treatment facilities with nitrification-denitrification is presented. Biological treatment facilities shall be designed on the basis of experimentally determined kinetic constants, nitrification and denitrification process factors, and for every limiting value depending on the requirements to the quality of treatment. Kinetic constants and factors required for designing municipal wastewater treatment facilities are given. Design algorithm is set out including the following stages: substantiation of the initial data on flow rates and qualitative wastewater composition according to the required level of reliability (more than 85–90% probability); selection of the process flow scheme – number of steps and(or) stages, operation procedure and lay out; determination of kinetic constants of equations of enzyme kinetics of every basic pollution component transformation from experimental data or from the available data base; preliminary calculation of excess activated sludge volume and adjustment of nitrogen and phosphorus mass balance; determination of limiting pollution component that needs maximum time to be oxidized; calculation of the facility capacity by limiting component with determination of the treatment level for other pollution components. The results of the long-term experimental studies of nitrification-denitrification processes with different types of municipal and industrial wastewater provide for supplementing the method of aeration tank design specified in SNiP 2.04.03-85 with formulae and data for design and optimization of aeration tank operation with nitrogen and phosphorus removal.

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№11|2013

WASTEWATER SLUDGE TREATMENT

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UDC 628.336.098.4

DANILOVICH D. A., Vanyushina A. Ya.

Anaerobic digestion – the key technology of municipal wastewater sludge treatment (part 2)

Summary

The technologic options of municipal wastewater sludge treatment are reviewed with different approaches to stabilization of organic matter. The technologic and environmental consequences of raw wastewater sludge landfilling are described. Aerobic sludge stabilization processes are considered. It is concluded that their use is restricted to the options when land utilization of the entire sludge volume is possible. It is shown that traditional aerobic stabilization that was widely used last century does not meet the present day requirements both to power consumption and organics decomposition depth. The aspects of the domestic approach to digestion that consist in using thermophilic mode with extremely low retention time of sludge in a digester are considered. The ways of solving these problems at the Kouryanovo and Lyubertsy wastewater treatment facilities in Moscow are described. It is concluded that in the XXI century anaerobic digestion of wastewater sludge in digesters does not have any other comparable alternative for large and mid-sized wastewater treatment facilities. The main trends in using digestion process, digester design, methods of enhancing the process are considered. The information on biogas properties is consolidated and various options of its utilization are reviewed. Process flow schemes with the use of digesting and combining with other sludge treatment processes (drying, incineration), methods of digested sludge utilization are considered. The information on environmental aspects of digestion – reducing greenhouse gas emissions and carbon footprint – is given. The technologies of purification of return flows of digested sludge dewatering are described. The advanced sludge treatment flow scheme based on digestion and recommended for large-scale facilities is given.

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№11|2013

PIPELINE SYSTEMS

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UDC 628.214:532.595.2

Primin O. G.

Ensuring reliable and environmentally safe operation of pressure sewers

Summary

Surge in a pipeline is a significant factor that is affecting the environmental safety and reliability of the public wastewater disposal system. In case of an emerging surge noticeable pressure fluctuations occur that could cause pipeline burst and damage of the related hydraulic and mechanical equipment (pumps, valves etc.). It results in sewage spills, material and environmental losses. The main causes of an emerging surge in municipal pressure sewers can be as follows: mains fai­lure, imperfections of the control schemes of the main pumping units at the sewage pumping stations. To ensure reliable operation of the pumping stations the use of hydromechanical devices as well as of high-speed emergency switching on automatic and protection devices including controlled electric drives and softstarters is provided. It was determined that in wastewater disposal practice hydromechanical fittings that reduce the surge effect shall be used. To prevent from surge water discharge through bypasses with installing safety valves and hydraulic tanks is used. In addition to wastewater discharge from pumping stations pressure sewers of intricate shape shall be equipped with air intake and relief devices at the intermediate points. It is found that surges in operation of sewage pumping stations can be eliminated by improving the reliability of external power supply by establishing truly independent power sources, designing combined power supply schemes, high-speed automatic switchover devices in 6–10 kV switchboards of big stations.

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Российская ассоциация водоснабжения и водоотведения

Конференция итог

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