10-2013

Number 10 / 2013

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№10|2013

RUSSIAN WATER AND WASTEWATER ASSOCIATION

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UDC

Pobedinskaia N. V., DANILOVICH D. A.

RF Government passed a package of regulatory documents in elaboration of no. 416-FZ Federal Law «On water supply and wastewater disposal»


 

№10|2013

WATER SOURCES QUALITY MONITORING

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UDC 504.064.4:351.777

Tymchuk S. N., Larin V. E., Sokolov D. M.

Sanitary regulation and sanitary control – the basis of ensuring water body safety

Summary

Water safety is provided with two complementary processes: sanitary regulation and sanitary control of water bodies. The task of sanitary regulation is setting safety requirements to biological, chemical and physical indices. Sanitary representative microorganisms include representatives of obligatory microflora of human and homoiotherm organisms that allow estimating the degree of biogeneous pollution. These are Escherichia coli (collibacillus), fecal streptococcus (enterococcus), sulfite-reducing clostridia spores, Proteus, thermophilic microorganisms, coliphages (bacterial viruses) etc. Sanitary index is reflecting the presence and amount of one or another sanitary representative microorganism in a specified sample size taken from the water body under investigation. Qualitative sanitary index reflects and regulates the absence or presence of specified microorganisms in a specified sample size. Quantitative sanitary index is the concentration of specified (unknown) microorganisms in the specified sample size. Index figure reflects the degree of fecal contamination of the water body (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, coliphages). Indicator figure reflects the efficiency of disinfection processes and technologies and points at possible presence of pathogens with different tolerance (Clostridium perfringens, coliphages). World Health Organization recommends distinguishing between two types of microbiological monitoring: for estimating water treatment efficiency; for identifying fecal pollution and presence of pathogens.

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№10|2013

WATER SOURCES QUALITY MONITORING

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UDC 628.16:504.064

Danilov-Danil'ian V. I., Poroikov V. V., Chiganova M. A., KOZLOV M. N., Filimonov D. A., Barenboim G. M.

Estimation of biological hazard of organic xenobiotics
in water supply sources

Summary

Identification of pollutants, estimation of their concentration in water and biological hazard are important practical tasks in the assessment of water quality in the Moscow drinking water sources. In estimating the pollution rate of a water body it is required to draw out a xenobiotics profile, i. e. the complex of bioactive species of all the xenobiotics present in water. Among xenobiotics the compounds of medical origin were defined alongside with compounds with pharmacological activity, however not used in medicine («quasidrugs»). The technique of determining biological activity profile with the help of a special search and design information system has been developed. The first part of the system is based on the Russian and international regulatory documents; lists of especially hazardous substances; guides on separate toxic substances; journals or data bases compiled by international and national organizations. The second part of the system is represented by the technique of prognosticating biological activity on the basis of analyzing its relationships with the chemical structure of a substance. This method has been implemented in PASS software with teaching selection containing the information on more than 250,000 pharmaceuticals and toxicants. Xenobiotic profile can be reflected on ecotoxicological maps. The results of studies give the start to sequential practical actions from compiling a xenobiotic profile of a project to developing efficient water treatment technologies that will provide for reducing the concentration of xenobiotics inclu­ding ones with pharmacological activity to the maximum permissible level.

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№10|2013

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.161.2:546.72/.711

TESLA V. G., ALEKSEEV V. S., Koulakov V. V.

On the criteria of choosing the best available water treatment technology as applied to the Amur water intake (Komsomolsk-on-Amur city)

Summary

While choosing the technology of underground water conditioning it is advisable to be geared to the recommendations in SP 31.13330.2012 «Water supply. Public utilities», «Classifier of natural water treatment technologies» (NII VODGEO, 2000) as well as to minimizing the environmental impact. It is shown that intraformational treatment of underground waters meets to the maximal extent the requirements to the best available technologies and domestic standards developed on the basis of ISO 14000 International Standard. By the example of the Amur water intake of Komsomolsk-on-Amur city the complete conformity of the designed technology of intraformational iron and manganese compounds removal to the above-mentioned criteria with account of the specific water composition is noted. In discussing the specific features of underground water chemical treatment the attention is drawn to the inadmissibility of large-scale use of precursor – potassium permanganate for water conditioning. It is suggested to evaluate additionally the water treatment technology with account of the economical efficiency.

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№10|2013

PIPELINE SYSTEMS

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UDC 628.144.23.001.23

Novitskaia O. S.

Taking into account the actual conditions of water consumption
in hydraulic designing water distribution networks

Summary

Pipeline hydraulic estimation is a basis of the process and technical-and economic, optimization, in particular, design of water supply systems. Improving hydraulic design of the water distribution networks with due account for the actual water consumption is a topical task; whereas estimation of the water flow rate dependence from free head values is an important and essential basis for calculations. The method of hydraulic design of water distribution networks with account of water flow rate dependence from free head values in the zones of both deficient and excessive head was developed and presented. To account for water losses the correlation factors of total water losses and total consumption, between water loss values in residential buildings and between total water loss values were introduced. The exponents reflecting water flow rate variation at nodal points were introduced. GRS NEW software for the hydraulic estimation of the joint operation of the entire system of water supply and distribution was improved. The software takes into account water flow rate increase at every nodal point depending on the available water head and allows identifying the problem points.

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№10|2013

WATER AND WASTEWATER COMPANIES (VODOKANALS) IN RUSSIA

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УДК

Solutions of the problem of illegal wastewater discharges


 

№10|2013

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.35:661.5

Strelkov A. K., Stepanov S. V., Blinkova L. A., MOROZOVA K. M., Belyakov A. V.

Investigating the processes of single-stage biological treatment
of oil refinery wastewater

Summary

The results of investigating the operation of the Novokuibyshevsk oil refinery waste biological treatment facilities are presented. It was found that denitrification process was not possible in two-stage process of wastewater treatment because of
high concentration of dissolved oxygen in the denitrification tank and low concentration of organics in raw wastewater. Full-scale experiment with single-stage mode of operation of the entire biological treatment facilities was carried out. After the first-stage aeration tanks de-commissioning the total activated sludge amount in the system increased almost 1.5-fold. Sludge concentration in the aeration tanks (of the second stage) increased from 0.5–1 to 2–2.5 mg/l; COD sludge load was reduced from 143 to 77 mg/(g·day). The improved nitrification efficiency and denitrification start were recorded. Kinetic constants were determined for the processes of organics and oil products oxidation, for nitrification and denitrification required for designing wastewater treatment facilities with nitrification-denitrification technology. Inhibition by substrate was found at the concentration of oil products in effluent higher than 4 mg/l. Nitrification inhibition was observed at ammonia nitrogen concentration in effluent higher than 1 mg/l. The full-scale experiment of conversion of the Novokuibyshevsk oil refinery waste biological treatment facilities to one-stage operation provided for testing on commercial scale the advanced nitrification-denitrification technology and recommending this process flow scheme for the introduction at other RF oil refineries.

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№10|2013

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.31.504.3.054

Rublevskaya O. N.

Measures on preventing malodors release at the facilities
of SUE «Vodokanal of St. Petersburg»

Summary

SUE «Vodokanal of St. Petersburg» has been introducing and testing different equipment for gas purification with the aim of preventing malodors release at the wastewater facilities. The experience of applying gas purification technologies at these facilities is analyzed. It was determined that the specified features of STOPKR sorption-plasma-catalytic gas purification unit and OPVS biological air oxidizing unit are efficiently used at the sewage pumping stations. The economic inexpedience of using STOPKR method at input concentrations of toxic substances higher than 1 g/m3 is a disadvantage. Testing OPVS filter in sewers showed positive results. The disadvantages of OPVS filter are in clogging of filter elements during operation as well as difficulties in processing multicomponent gas mixtures and mixtures of variable composition because of the specificity of the resulting microbial strains. The results of pilot testing TSUF-2000-400-I gas purification system showed the absence of malodors around sewer wells and convenient operation of the unit. The use of different filters including GreenKomplekt carbon filter-based units did not give any meaningful results. To control odor at the wastewater sludge landfills fine spraying of deodorant solution along the periphery of the landfill was suggested. At the sludge incineration plants exhaust gases pass three-stage purification with the use of electrostatic precipitation. At the wastewater treatment facilities the construction of either entire process flow or partially closed system was suggested. The prospects if introducing various technical and technological methods at each of the wastewater facilities are determined.

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№10|2013

WASTEWATER SLUDGE TREATMENT

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UDC 628.336.098.4

Vanyushina A. Ya., DANILOVICH D. A.

Anaerobic digestion – the key technology of municipal wastewater sludge treatment (part 1)

Summary

The technologic options of municipal wastewater sludge treatment are considered with different approach to stabilization of organic matter. The technologic and environmental consequences of raw wastewater sludge landfilling are considered: emission of malodors, dewatered sludge re-thinning that entails re-dewatering are described. It is shown that traditional aerobic stabilization that was widely used last century does not meet the present day requirements both to power consumption and decomposition depth. The processes of autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion and composting that provide for the production of safe and high-quality fertilizer from sludge are considered. It is concluded that the use of these processes is economically limited to the option of land utilization of the entire sludge volume. The issues of domestic approach to digestion that consist in using thermophilic mode with extremely low retention time of sludge in a digester are considered. The largest share of small particles in sludge digested by such technology caused numerous problems with dewatering in 1960–80-ies. The ways of solving these problems at the Kur’ianovo and Liubertsy wastewater treatment facilities in Moscow including the use of advanced dewatering equipment are described. It is concluded that in the XXI century anaerobic digestion of wastewater sludge in digesters does not have any other comparable alternative for large and mid-sized wastewater treatment facilities. The main trends in using digestion process, digester design, the methods of enhancing the process (thermal hydrolysis, disintegration, ultrasonic, phasing, recycling of digested sludge) are considered. The information on biogas properties is consolidated. (To be continued).

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